Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

1.Presents the precipitation and evaporation data for a fictitious location called Azzoca Town.  From this data do the following:

Calculate the difference between precipitation (PRECIP) and potential evapotranspiration (PE) for the city listed below.  Record the plus or minus value for each moth.  January, February and June are already calculated.  Complete the remainder of the water-balance table.

When does this city experience a net supply of water? List the months

When does this city experience a net demand for water? List the months

What occurs during the warm months from June through September

What is the total AE for the year?

What is the total Deficit for the year?

What is the total Surplus for the year?

Table 3.1: Water-balance table for Azzoca town.  Values are in mm.

 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Precip 97 99 97 84 104 97 132 112 66 66 66 99 PE 7 8 24 57 97 132 150 133 99 55 12 7 Precip – PE +90 +91 -35 Storage 100 100 65 Change in Storage 0 0 -35 AE 7 8 132 Deficit 0 0 0 Surplus 90 91 0

2.Given the following depths of locations in the world’s oceans, calculate the water pressure in kg/cm2. More information on the calculations can be found in “Crunch the Numbers” found on page 332 of the textbook.

Puerto Rico Trench (located between the Caribean Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) – depth of 8648 m

Litke Deep (located in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean) – depth of 5450 m

Halocline of the tropical ocean – depth of 1000 m

Mesopelagic zone – depth of 250 m

Depth of penetration of red wavelengths – depth of 20 m

3.Table 3.2 lists the annual altitude of the equilibrium line for the Devon Island glacier in Canada.  For this data, answer the following:

calculate the annual retreat or advancement of the equilibrium line.  Positive values indicate advancement and negative retreat of the glacier.  Present the data in a table.

describe the overall pattern(s) of the change in the glacier.  Make sure to relate the change in the equilibrium line to potential changes in the zone of ablation and accumulation

what are some local or global factors that might have produced the observed changes in the glacier

## Water-balance table for Azzoca town

1.Presents the precipitation and evaporation data for a fictitious location called Azzoca Town.  From this data do the following:

Calculate the difference between precipitation (PRECIP) and potential Evapotranspiration (PE) for the city listed below.  Record the plus or minus value for each moth.

January, February and June are already calculated.  Complete the remainder of the water-balance table.  (4 marks)Table 3.1: Water-balance table for Azzoca town.  Values are in mm.

 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Precip 97 99 97 84 104 97 132 112 66 66 66 99 PE 7 8 24 57 97 132 150 133 99 55 12 7 Precip – PE +90 +91 +73 +27 +7 -35 -18 -121 -33 + 11 +54 +92 Storage 100 100 100 100 100 65 65 65 65 100 100 100 Change in Storage 0 0 0 0 0 -35 0 0 0 +35 0 0 AE 7 8 24 57 97 132 150 133 99 55 12 7 Deficit 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Surplus 90 91 73 27 7 0 0 0 0 11 54 92

When does this city experience a net supply of water? List the months

January, February, March, April, May, October, November and December. These are the months when precipitation is higher than potential evapotranspiration. The supply of water during this period is high.

When does this city experience a net demand for water? List the months

June, July, August and September. Net demand of water is experienced when demand for water is higher than supply. They are the months when net precipitation is negative net precipitation that occurs when evapotranspiration is higher than precipitation.

What occurs during the warm months from June through September

Warm temperatures lead to higher rates of evaporation which increases the amount of water present in the air. The higher rates of moisture in the atmosphere increases the rainfall intensity (Veblen, Young, & Orme, 2015). From the data above, there precipitation recorded between June and September were higher. However, rates of potential evapotranspiration is also higher when temperatures are high. The net effect of warm temperature is a negative

What is the total AE for the year?

Total AE=

= 7+8+24+57+97+132+150+133+99+55+12+7

= 781

What is the total Deficit for the year?

Total Deficit for the year= sum of monthly deficits

= 12(0)

= 0

What is the total Surplus for the year?

Total surplus of the year= Sum of monthly surplus

= 90+91+73+27+7+11+54+92

=445

2.Given the following depths of locations in the world’s oceans, calculate the water pressure in kg/cm2. More information on the calculations can be found in “Crunch the Numbers” found on page 332 of the textbook.

Puerto Rico Trench (located between the Caribbean Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) – depth of 8648 m

To find the pressure of water given the depth of the ocean, two procedures are necessary.  First, the number of bars is calculated by dividing depth of ocean by 10m. Secondly, Pressure in Kg/cm3 is obtained by multiplying number of bars by 1.

Hence at 8648 m,

Bars= 8648/10=864.8

Pressure= 864.8*1=864.8Kg/cm3

Litke Deep (located in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean) – depth of 5450 m

Bars= 5450/10=545 Bars

Pressure of water= 545* 1= 545Kg/cm3

Halocline of the tropical ocean – depth of 1000 m

Bars= 1000/10=100

Pressure of water= 100*1= 100Kg/cm3

Mesopelagic zone – depth of 250 m

Bars= 250m/10= 25 Bars

Pressure= 25*1=25Kg/cm3

Depth of penetration of red wavelengths – depth of 20 m

Bars= 20m/10= 2 Bars

Pressure= 2*1= 2Kg/cm3

3.Table lists the annual altitude of the equilibrium line for the Devon Island glacier in Canada.  For this data, answer the following:

Calculate the annual retreat or advancement of the equilibrium line.  Positive values indicate advancement and negative retreat of the glacier.  Present the data in a table.

 Year ELA Change in ELA 1961 1323 NA 1962 1510 1510-1323 = 187 1963 744 744-1510 = -766 1964 610 610-744 =- 866 1965 700 700-610= 90 1966 1230 1230-700=530 1967 1100 1100-1230=-130 1968 1253 1253-1100=153 1969 1368 =1368-1253=115 1970 910 =910-1368=-458 1971 1167 1167-910=257 1972 920 920-1167=-247 1973 1200 1200-920= 280 1974 1199 1199-1200=-1 1975 1092 1092-1199= -107 1976 579 579-1092=-513 1977 1360 1360-579=781 1978 1000 1000-1360=-360 1979 920 920-1000=-80 1980 1130 1130-920= 210 1981 1300 1300-1130=170 1982 1240 1240-1300=-60 1983 840 840-1240=-400 1984 1140 1140-840=300 1985 1220 1220-1140=80 1986 670 670-1220=-550 1987 900 900-670=230 1988 1265 1265-900=365 1989 1140 1140-1265=-125 1990 1220 1220-1140=80 1991 1270 1270-1120=50 1992 825 825-1270=-445 1993 1150 1150-825=325 1994 1025 1025-1150=-125 1995 1143 1143-1025=118 1996 1280 1280-1143=137 1997 1093 1093-1280=-187 1998 1300 1300-1093=207

Describe the overall pattern(s) of the change in the glacier.  Make sure to relate the change in the equilibrium line to potential changes in the zone of ablation and accumulation

A glacier is a mass accumulation of snow that has been transformed in to ice. It is a solid crystalline material that changes and moves by advancing and retreating (Paterson, 2016). In scenarios where more ice and snow are accumulated than it is lost, glacier advancement occurs. However, if the rate of ice loss is higher than the rate of addition, then glaciers will retreat. Glazier zone of accumulation is the point where slow is added to glacier causing it to be converted in to ice.

The pattern of change in glacier as illustrated in the diagram above indicates seasonality. Seasonal factors such as changes in temperature caused advancement and retreat of glaciers. Generally, higher temperature lead to melting of ice and snow which leads to retreat of glacier through a process known as ablation (Benn & Evans, 2014) . Other agents of ablation include surface meltwater runoff, sublimation, windblown snow and avalanching. In contrast, low temperatures cause freezing of vapor which result to formation and scattering of more glaziers, a phenomenon known as advancement. Negative change in equilibrium line occurs when equilibrium line moves upwards as a result of addition of more mass to the glazier than mass lost due to upward movement of zone of ablation. Positive mass balance happens when glazier gains more weight than that which is lost leading to accumulation.

What are some local or global factors that might have produced the observed changes in the glacier

The movement of glaciers through advancement and retreat is caused by both local and global factors. Advancement and recession of glaciers lead to change in volume and length (Hutter, 2017). The movements are caused by variation in solar radiation, volcanic activities, and earth quakes. Rise in air temperatures influence rate of melting and contracting which lead to decline in mass of glaciers. Rising temperatures modify precipitation volumes and snow fall which increase ablation rates.

References

Benn, D., & Evans, D. J. (2014). Glaciers and glaciation. Routledge.

Hutter, K. (2017). Theoretical glaciology: material science of ice and the mechanics of glaciers and ice sheets (Vol. 1). Springer.

Paterson, W. S. B. (2016). The physics of glaciers. Elsevier.

Veblen, T. T., Young, K. R., & Orme, A. R. (Eds.). (2015). The physical geography of South America. Oxford University Press.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2021). Calculations For Water-balance, Water Pressure, And Glacier Retreat. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/geog446-geography/net-supply-of-water.html.

"Calculations For Water-balance, Water Pressure, And Glacier Retreat." My Assignment Help, 2021, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/geog446-geography/net-supply-of-water.html.

My Assignment Help (2021) Calculations For Water-balance, Water Pressure, And Glacier Retreat [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/geog446-geography/net-supply-of-water.html
[Accessed 13 August 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Calculations For Water-balance, Water Pressure, And Glacier Retreat' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/geog446-geography/net-supply-of-water.html> accessed 13 August 2024.

My Assignment Help. Calculations For Water-balance, Water Pressure, And Glacier Retreat [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 13 August 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/geog446-geography/net-supply-of-water.html.

Get instant help from 5000+ experts for

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing: Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

250 words