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1.Presents the precipitation and evaporation data for a fictitious location called Azzoca Town.  From this data do the following:

Calculate the difference between precipitation (PRECIP) and potential evapotranspiration (PE) for the city listed below.  Record the plus or minus value for each moth.  January, February and June are already calculated.  Complete the remainder of the water-balance table. 

When does this city experience a net supply of water? List the months

When does this city experience a net demand for water? List the months 

What occurs during the warm months from June through September 

What is the total AE for the year? 

What is the total Deficit for the year?

What is the total Surplus for the year?

Table 3.1: Water-balance table for Azzoca town.  Values are in mm.

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Precip

97

99

97

84

104

97

132

112

66

66

66

99

PE

7

8

24

57

97

132

150

133

99

55

12

7

Precip – PE

+90

+91

-35

Storage

100

100

65

Change in Storage

0

0

-35

AE

7

8

132

Deficit

0

0

0

Surplus

90

91

0


2.Given the following depths of locations in the world’s oceans, calculate the water pressure in kg/cm2. More information on the calculations can be found in “Crunch the Numbers” found on page 332 of the textbook. 

Puerto Rico Trench (located between the Caribean Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) – depth of 8648 m

Litke Deep (located in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean) – depth of 5450 m

Halocline of the tropical ocean – depth of 1000 m

Mesopelagic zone – depth of 250 m

Depth of penetration of red wavelengths – depth of 20 m

3.Table 3.2 lists the annual altitude of the equilibrium line for the Devon Island glacier in Canada.  For this data, answer the following:

calculate the annual retreat or advancement of the equilibrium line.  Positive values indicate advancement and negative retreat of the glacier.  Present the data in a table. 

describe the overall pattern(s) of the change in the glacier.  Make sure to relate the change in the equilibrium line to potential changes in the zone of ablation and accumulation

what are some local or global factors that might have produced the observed changes in the glacier

Water-balance table for Azzoca town

1.Presents the precipitation and evaporation data for a fictitious location called Azzoca Town.  From this data do the following:

Calculate the difference between precipitation (PRECIP) and potential Evapotranspiration (PE) for the city listed below.  Record the plus or minus value for each moth.

January, February and June are already calculated.  Complete the remainder of the water-balance table.  (4 marks)Table 3.1: Water-balance table for Azzoca town.  Values are in mm.

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Precip

97

99

97

84

104

97

132

112

66

66

66

99

PE

7

8

24

57

97

132

150

133

99

55

12

7

Precip – PE

+90

+91

 +73

+27 

+7 

-35

 -18

 -121

 -33

+ 11

+54 

+92 

Storage

100

100

100 

100 

 100

65

65 

65 

 65

100 

100 

 100

Change in Storage

0

0

 0

 0

-35

 0

+35 

 0

 0

AE

7

8

24 

57 

97 

132

150 

133 

99 

55 

12 

 7

Deficit

0

0

 0

 0

0

 0

 0

 0

Surplus

90

91

73 

27 

0

 0

 0

 11

54 

92 


When does this city experience a net supply of water? List the months

January, February, March, April, May, October, November and December. These are the months when precipitation is higher than potential evapotranspiration. The supply of water during this period is high.

When does this city experience a net demand for water? List the months

June, July, August and September. Net demand of water is experienced when demand for water is higher than supply. They are the months when net precipitation is negative net precipitation that occurs when evapotranspiration is higher than precipitation.

What occurs during the warm months from June through September

Warm temperatures lead to higher rates of evaporation which increases the amount of water present in the air. The higher rates of moisture in the atmosphere increases the rainfall intensity (Veblen, Young, & Orme, 2015). From the data above, there precipitation recorded between June and September were higher. However, rates of potential evapotranspiration is also higher when temperatures are high. The net effect of warm temperature is a negative

What is the total AE for the year?

Total AE=

              = 7+8+24+57+97+132+150+133+99+55+12+7

              = 781

What is the total Deficit for the year?

Total Deficit for the year= sum of monthly deficits

                                       = 12(0)

                                       = 0

What is the total Surplus for the year? 

Total surplus of the year= Sum of monthly surplus

               = 90+91+73+27+7+11+54+92

                                      =445

2.Given the following depths of locations in the world’s oceans, calculate the water pressure in kg/cm2. More information on the calculations can be found in “Crunch the Numbers” found on page 332 of the textbook. 

Puerto Rico Trench (located between the Caribbean Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) – depth of 8648 m

To find the pressure of water given the depth of the ocean, two procedures are necessary.  First, the number of bars is calculated by dividing depth of ocean by 10m. Secondly, Pressure in Kg/cm3 is obtained by multiplying number of bars by 1.

Hence at 8648 m,

Bars= 8648/10=864.8

Pressure= 864.8*1=864.8Kg/cm3

Litke Deep (located in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean) – depth of 5450 m

Bars= 5450/10=545 Bars

Pressure of water= 545* 1= 545Kg/cm3

Halocline of the tropical ocean – depth of 1000 m

Bars= 1000/10=100

Pressure of water= 100*1= 100Kg/cm3

Mesopelagic zone – depth of 250 m

Bars= 250m/10= 25 Bars

Pressure= 25*1=25Kg/cm3

Depth of penetration of red wavelengths – depth of 20 m

Bars= 20m/10= 2 Bars

Pressure= 2*1= 2Kg/cm3

3.Table lists the annual altitude of the equilibrium line for the Devon Island glacier in Canada.  For this data, answer the following:

Calculate the annual retreat or advancement of the equilibrium line.  Positive values indicate advancement and negative retreat of the glacier.  Present the data in a table.

Year

ELA

Change in ELA

1961

1323

NA

1962

1510

1510-1323 = 187

1963

744

744-1510 = -766

1964

610

610-744 =- 866

1965

700

700-610= 90

1966

1230

1230-700=530

1967

1100

1100-1230=-130

1968

1253

1253-1100=153

1969

1368

=1368-1253=115

1970

910

=910-1368=-458

1971

1167

1167-910=257

1972

920

920-1167=-247

1973

1200

1200-920= 280

1974

1199

1199-1200=-1

1975

1092

1092-1199= -107

1976

579

579-1092=-513

1977

1360

1360-579=781

1978

1000

1000-1360=-360

1979

920

920-1000=-80

1980

1130

1130-920= 210

1981

1300

1300-1130=170

1982

1240

1240-1300=-60

1983

840

840-1240=-400

1984

1140

1140-840=300

1985

1220

1220-1140=80

1986

670

670-1220=-550

1987

900

900-670=230

1988

1265

1265-900=365

1989

1140

1140-1265=-125

1990

1220

1220-1140=80

1991

1270

1270-1120=50

1992

825

825-1270=-445

1993

1150

1150-825=325

1994

1025

1025-1150=-125

1995

1143

1143-1025=118

1996

1280

1280-1143=137

1997

1093

1093-1280=-187

1998

1300

1300-1093=207


Describe the overall pattern(s) of the change in the glacier.  Make sure to relate the change in the equilibrium line to potential changes in the zone of ablation and accumulation

A glacier is a mass accumulation of snow that has been transformed in to ice. It is a solid crystalline material that changes and moves by advancing and retreating (Paterson, 2016). In scenarios where more ice and snow are accumulated than it is lost, glacier advancement occurs. However, if the rate of ice loss is higher than the rate of addition, then glaciers will retreat. Glazier zone of accumulation is the point where slow is added to glacier causing it to be converted in to ice.

The pattern of change in glacier as illustrated in the diagram above indicates seasonality. Seasonal factors such as changes in temperature caused advancement and retreat of glaciers. Generally, higher temperature lead to melting of ice and snow which leads to retreat of glacier through a process known as ablation (Benn & Evans, 2014) . Other agents of ablation include surface meltwater runoff, sublimation, windblown snow and avalanching. In contrast, low temperatures cause freezing of vapor which result to formation and scattering of more glaziers, a phenomenon known as advancement. Negative change in equilibrium line occurs when equilibrium line moves upwards as a result of addition of more mass to the glazier than mass lost due to upward movement of zone of ablation. Positive mass balance happens when glazier gains more weight than that which is lost leading to accumulation.

What are some local or global factors that might have produced the observed changes in the glacier

The movement of glaciers through advancement and retreat is caused by both local and global factors. Advancement and recession of glaciers lead to change in volume and length (Hutter, 2017). The movements are caused by variation in solar radiation, volcanic activities, and earth quakes. Rise in air temperatures influence rate of melting and contracting which lead to decline in mass of glaciers. Rising temperatures modify precipitation volumes and snow fall which increase ablation rates.

References

Benn, D., & Evans, D. J. (2014). Glaciers and glaciation. Routledge.

Hutter, K. (2017). Theoretical glaciology: material science of ice and the mechanics of glaciers and ice sheets (Vol. 1). Springer.

Paterson, W. S. B. (2016). The physics of glaciers. Elsevier.

Veblen, T. T., Young, K. R., & Orme, A. R. (Eds.). (2015). The physical geography of South America. Oxford University Press.

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