Discuss about the Impression Management Theory and Social Psychological Research.
In the present complex business environment, leadership plays a significant role in achieving organizational goals and objectives. Over the years, several theories and models have been developed on the management and leadership context that organizations utilizes for fulfilling its business objectives in an appropriate manner. However, there is no unique way for the businesses for the effective utilization of management techniques for achieving sustainable growth in the market. For that reason, the significance of management style has long been a subject of contentious discussion and debates. Specifically, as the businesses are looking to expand their reach in the global market, effective utilization of management style has become crucial for the organizations for achieving competitive advantage in the market. In this essay, the focus will be on the effective evaluation of the management styles implemented by the businesses in order to have an idea regarding the identification of best way to manage business enterprises.
As highlighted by Cunningham, Salomone and Wielgus (2015) effective utilization of management styles allow organizations to utilize all the internal resources in an effective manner. As a result, it creates positive influence on the overall effectiveness of the operational process. Furthermore, effective utilization of management style allows organizations to develop a healthy work environment, which eventually will help to create positive impact on the operational process. For that reason, it has become necessary for the organizations to develop effective management style within the organizational framework. However, Shafritz, Ott and Jang (2015) have mentioned that development of leadership or management within organizational structure is not mathematics, which will had a clear solution. In fact, effectiveness of the management style depends on several internal and external factors that organizations need to consider in an appropriate way. As highlighted in the Bureaucratic theory, management style has to focus on the crucial organizational elements including organizational hierarchy development and clear rules development within the organizational structure. Thus, it actually highlights the fact that management style need to focus on the effective development of atmosphere where all the employees can act rationally (Giacalone and Rosenfeld 2013). The Bureaucratic theory also has highlighted the fact that management style also needs to include the factors like decision-making, protecting workers, controlling resources for the effective accomplishment of organizational goals. Bureaucratic theory also has highlighted the fact that managers need to focus on the systematic implementation of strategies like clear development of chain of command and proper division of the employees so that all the responsibilities can be fulfilled in an appropriate manner.
On the other hand, McCabe, Gormley and Balla (2014) have highlighted Rationalization theory focuses on the effective evaluation of actions initiated by the management and its impact on the emotion, superstition and other forces of the employees. As per the Rationalization theory, management style will have to focus on the effective management of emotions of the employees so that they can able to give their best at the workplace. Thus, managers need to identify the areas that can create adverse impact on the overall motivational level of the employees. The theory has highlighted the fact that all the activities of managers can create direct emotional impact on the employees. Therefore, management of the organizations need to be extremely careful at the time of initiating any decision regarding the changes in the operational procedure. Otherwise, employees can get de-motivated towards the responsibilities provided by the organizations. On the other hand, Organizational theory highlights that managers need to focus on overall functions of the organizations for achieving sustainable growth in the global market. Thus, Organizational theory also highlighted the fact that managers need to focus on the effective utilization of systematic approach for fulfilling all the responsibilities in an efficient manner. For that reason, Bell and Martin (2012) have mentioned that development of systematic procedure is the best possible way to handle the employees in an effective manner. However, Grachev and Rakitsky (2013) have mentioned that systematic implementation of management procedure does not work in the emergencies. As a result, managers would have to focus on the development of strategies based on the situation organization is facing at the marketplace.
As per the article by deWinter, Kocurek and Nichols (2014) organizations can focus on the Scientific Management procedures for fulfilling all the responsibilities in an appropriate manner. As per the Scientific Management concept, the prime objective of organizations will have to be enhancing the economic efficiency level of the organizations. For that reason, the theory highlights the fact that organizations need to develop such management style that are capable of enhancing the productivity level of the employees. Thus, managers will have to focus more on the effective process management perspective for fulfilling all the responsibilities in an appropriate way. For that reason, Tedeschi (2013) have highlighted the fact that managers will have to focus on encouraging the employees so that they feel motivated towards their work. Now, employee motivation depends on several factors that organizations will have to provide in an appropriate manner. For instance, organizations will have to focus on the effective utilization of human resource management perspectives so that employees remain associated with the organizations for a long period of time. As per the article by Hill, Jones and Schilling (2014) prime responsibility of human resource managers will have to focus on providing effective career growth opportunity to the employees so that employee motivation remains at the highest level. Furthermore, managers also will have to focus on the effective development of strategies regarding the provided benefit level of the employees.
In fact, effective utilization of HRM strategies needs to focus on providing additional benefits to the employees so that they give their best effort for the fulfilment of the organizational responsibilities. Furthermore, as the competition level in the world market is growing continuously, organizations are looking to initiate lean approach for achieving competitive advantage in the market. As per the article by Bratton and Gold (2012), lean approach reflects to the strategy where organizations focus on maximizing the productivity with limited resources. As a result, it actually creates additional pressure to the employees for fulfilling all the responsibilities in an appropriate manner. For that reason, it has become necessary for the managers to provide proper support and guidance to the employees so that they can feel motivated towards their responsibilities. Thus, it is actually highlighting democratic approach that managers will have to follow for fulfilling all the responsibilities in an appropriate manner (Geisler and Wickramasinghe 2015). However, many studies have highlighted the fact that managers must have to have the skill of assessing several suggestions provided by the employees for enhancing the productivity of the organizations. Otherwise, the entire decision-making process can be hampered, which will also create adverse impact on the overall business perspectives as well.
Over the years, several theories and concepts has been developed on the management styles that highlighted the fact that different organizations utilizes different management styles for fulfilling all the organizational responsibilities in an appropriate manner. As per the article by Alexander (2013), Theory X of management style suggests that all the employees working in the organizational framework dislike their responsibilities. As a result, it is necessary for the managers to initiate directive management style so that employees can be controlled in an appropriate manner. Thus, Theory X actually advocates paternalistic and autocratic management style for fulfilling the organizational responsibilities in an effective manner. Entrepreneurs like Rupert Murdoch have successfully conducted directive or autocratic style for fulfilling all the responsibilities of the organizations in an effective manner. On the other hand, Theory Y of management style has suggested the fact that work is a natural part of daily life. In fact, Theory Y has highlighted the fact that work can actually bring sense of satisfaction to the employees. Therefore, organizations need to develop participative management style for enhancing the motivational level of the employees towards the organizational roles and responsibilities (Shafritz, Ott and Jang 2015). It has been assessed that effective utilization of consultative or participative management style can actually increase the belongingness of the employees towards the organizational roles and responsibilities. Several entrepreneurs like Mark Zuckerberg and Steve Jobs have always focuses on the effective utilization of participative leadership style for encouraging the employees to give their best at the workplace. Thus, it highlights the fact that there is no unique management style for all the organizations for fulfilling all the responsibilities in an effective manner.
From the above analysis, it can be assessed that there is no unique way for the organizations regarding the effective utilization of the management style. The study has included several theories and models to provide an in-depth overview regarding the management concepts that organizations will have to consider for fulfilling all the responsibilities in an appropriate manner. The study also has tried to cover each possible aspect that can have impact on the effectiveness of the management style. Thus, to conclude, it can be mentioned that organizations need to initiate such management style that can easily go with the organizational culture and values.
Alexander, K., 2013. Facilities management: theory and practice. Routledge.
Bell, R.L. and Martin, J.S., 2012. The relevance of scientific management and equity theory in everyday managerial communication situations. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 13(3).
Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2012. Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.
Cunningham, J., Salomone, J. and Wielgus, N., 2015. Project Management Leadership Style: A Team Member Perspective. International Journal of Global Business, 8(2), p.27.
deWinter, J., Kocurek, C.A. and Nichols, R., 2014. Taylorism 2.0: Gamification, scientific management and the capitalist appropriation of play. Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, 6(2), pp.109-127.
Geisler, E. and Wickramasinghe, N., 2015. Principles of knowledge management: Theory, practice, and cases. Routledge.
Giacalone, R.A. and Rosenfeld, P., 2013. Impression management in the organization. Psychology Press.
Grachev, M. and Rakitsky, B., 2013. Historic horizons of Frederick Taylor's scientific management. Journal of Management History, 19(4), pp.512-527.
Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. and Schilling, M.A., 2014. Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning.
McCabe, B.C., Gormley, W.T. and Balla, S.J., 2014. Bureaucracy and Democracy: Accountability and Performance.
Shafritz, J.M., Ott, J.S. and Jang, Y.S., 2015. Classics of organization theory. Cengage Learning.
Tedeschi, J.T. ed., 2013. Impression management theory and social psychological research. Academic Press.