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Understanding Learning Challenges

Write about the Learning for Psychological Theories to Motivate Oneself.

Learning is the gaining of knowledge and skills by training, experience or practice. Learning results in the change of behavior. However, learning faces challenges that originate from the learner or as a consequence of an unaccommodating environment. Though the study of factors contributing to learning has eliminated external obstacles, for people, internal motivation plays a major factor. Besides, people have different abilities regarding memory thus requiring some to take longer time and effort than others. For effective learning, an individual has to understand his/her internal obstacles and work around them to achieve the desired results from a learning process (Swets, 2014). Today, education has been diversified to accommodate the differences in individuals by incorporating audio-visual devices, rewards or punishment and other motivating factors. This paper seeks to explore the psychology theories of learning, thought and language, and motivation and emotion. It also examines how these approaches may be used in improving education and the use of memory techniques.

Achieving the benefits of learning depends on the memory capacity of the learner. Nonetheless, people have different aptitudes in remembering things or knowledge learned. Due to these variations, different memory techniques were introduced to enable trainees to improve their abilities to remember what was taught. Each of the techniques has different efficiency and works differently for individuals. In schools, the most effective memory used by teachers and trainers in practice testing and distributed practices. The two approaches are believed to have the highest levels of efficiency compared to other methods. Practice testing involves challenging oneself with questions and answering them. It is not necessary that the person is in a testing environment (Jerome, 2013). Practice testing, however, works efficiently if a time lapse is allowed between the time of training and the time of testing. Otherwise, immediate retesting is less efficient. Practice testing enables a trainee to retain information and retrieve it from their long-term memory. Secondly, it allows the learners to organize their information and knowledge thus facilitating fast retrieval. They do so by encoding mediators through targets and cues (Barkley, & Major 2014).

Secondly, distributed practice is a process where the learner divides their training time by incorporating time intervals. This technique eliminates chunky learning sessions and splits them to shorter time periods. This approach increases both retention and absorption of information. It reduces the options of cramming and unproductive studying. The mind of the learner absorbs the information through interchanging periods of focused learning and diffused method of thinking. It allows the student to remember what was taught by processing small portions of information rather than large ones. Apart from this two, other procedures exist but have less efficiency (Neisser, 2014). Elaborative Interrogation includes creating a clarification for why an unequivocally expressed truth or idea is valid. A sizeable collection of confirmation backings the energy of illustrative addressing for advancing adapting, particularly "Why?" questions. The impacts are biggest when elaborations are exact as opposed to general; when earlier information is higher prior learning centers memory on particular preparing; and when elaborations are self-created instead of gave. Most reviews have concentrated on signaled coordinated, and certainty acknowledgment, with blended outcomes for studies concentrating on free review tests. Be that as it may, a current review including elaborative strategies in an undergrad initial Biology course demonstrated a 7% expansion in understudy execution (Barkley, & Major 2014). 

Memory Techniques for Effective Learning

Self-clarification includes understudies conveying in their particular words how new data is identified with known data or clarifying strides taken amid critical thinking. It upgrades learning by incorporating new information with prior information. It works best when no clarifications are given before or amid the understudy era of self-clarification. Likewise, self-clarification shown improvement over intelligent self-clarification after the issue has been explained. Examine shows self-clarification works for a wide age scope of learners and subjects. Across the board utilization of this system is tedious. Interleaved Practice will be the practice that blends various types of issues or studies material inside a solitary review session (Dunlosky, et al. 2013). The regular approach is to take in all parts of one idea, then refine issues or exercises applying that idea, then proceed onward to the following one in a direct manner. A case of this is to take in the ideas and equation on finding the volume of a particular sort of healthy, then taking care of a few issues where you discover the amount of that strong. From that point onward, understudies proceed onward to the ideas and recipe for finding the volume of an alternate healthy and do a few practice issues for that sort. 

Following the learning techniques, operant conditioning theory by B.F. Skinner depends on the rate of chance under which knowledge forms a great component for progress in a plain conduct. The consequences of personal reaction to different occasions that occur in nature depend on one's ability to amend his or her conduct. Individual reaction delivers different results under different environments (Slavin & Davis, 2006). For instance, the ability to characterize a word, solving a mathematical challenge, or even hitting a ball. Under conditions whereby specific stimulus-response gets compensated, the person concerned is mold to react on the same. The particular behavior of an individual to get molded operant operates in respect to the past experiences that a person has undergone in his life. Further, the reactions different people have on particular activities originate from their indented reactions and thus evoking a different reaction due to external jolts.

The key element of Skinner's S-R hypothesis is supported. A coveted reaction is fortified by a support trainer. This support may be acclaimed in verbal terms, based on a descent evaluation and sentiments diversified to realize the set fulfillment goals. Further, the S-R hypothesis explains about the negative rewards that tend to boost the outcomes in an expanded reaction recurrence if this is drawn back into a distinguishable relationship so as to aversive the decreased results and reactions (Byrne, 2014). The calendars of fortification were given a significant consideration and these established positive impacts on strengthening people's conduct. The most negative aspect of the Skinner's hypothesis is that the hypothesis endeavors to offer behavioral clarifications of individuals based on an expensive scope of intellectual capabilities (Melton, 2014).  

Operant Conditioning Theory by B.F. Skinner

The theories of language and thought, on the other hand, show that understanding the meaning and the different forms of a word would help in learning. The visualization of information and attaching it to a certain meaning by encoding targets and cues helps in learning. Relativity is anything but difficult to illustrate. To talk any dialect, you need to focus on the implications that are linguistically set apart in that dialect. Advocates of semantic determinism contend that such contrasts between dialects impact the ways individuals think—maybe the routes in which entire societies are sorted out Lastly is the theory of motivation and emotion. Motivation is a key element in learning. It is the driving force towards achieving behavioral changes. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs has regularly been spoken to in a various leveled pyramid with five levels (Cherry, 2015). The first four pyramid levels form humans physiological needs while the highest level of self actualization gets viewed as a development need for an individual. The lowest needs must get met or satisfied first before one aspires to address the higher range needs as long as far as the pyramid is concerned. The levels are as per the following. First, Self-actualization entails one's ability to invent new ideas, think critically, show great charisma, and ability to conduct intense research among others. Self-esteem needs involve confidence, accomplishment, the certainty of progress, and regard for other people (Jerome, 2013). Belongingness incorporates love, fellowship, closeness, family, and so forth. Security integrates security of condition, work, assets, well-being, property, and so forth. Physiological incorporates air, sustenance, water, sex, rest, different elements towards homeostasis, and so forth. In learning, however, only the highest dual levels act as significant motivators (Lester, 2013). They are the growth needs. The most elevated amount is self-completion or the self-satisfaction. Conduct for this situation is not driven or inspired by lacks but instead one's yearning for self-awareness and the need to wind up noticeably every one of the things that a man is equipped for getting to be.

Learning is challenging where obstacles faced are recurrent. However, psychology has developed theories that relate to learning, motivation and improving retention of information. Practice testing and distributed methods use employ the operant conditioning theory of learning. They allow a learner to retain information and retrieve the relevant knowledge in a testing environment. Additionally, including visualization and encoding of knowledge according to linguistic relativism enables learners to absorb information at a faster rate. Finally, motivation is a key driving force, and the desire to achieve the benefits of a learning process is the intrinsic motivator.

References

Barkley, E. F., Cross, K. P., & Major, C. H. (2014). Collaborative learning techniques: A   handbook for college faculty. John Wiley & Sons.

Byrne, J. H., LaBar, K. S., LeDoux, J. E., Schafe, G. E., & Thompson, R. F. (2014). Learning and memory. In From Molecules to Networks. Elsevier Inc..

Cherry, K. (2015). Hierarchy of needs. The Five Levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. About.com Guide. Link.

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2013). Improving students’ learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions  from cognitive and educational psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(1), 4-58.

Jerome, N. (2013). Application of the Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory; impacts and implications on organizational culture, human resource and employee’s performance.  International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2(3), 39-45.

Lester, D. (2013). Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Psychological Reports, 113(1), 15- 17.

Melton, A. W. (Ed.). (2014). Categories of human learning. Academic Press.

Neisser, U. (2014). Cognitive psychology: Classic edition. Psychology Press.

Slavin, R. E., & Davis, N. (2006). Educational psychology: Theory and practice.

Swets, J. A. (2014). Signal detection theory and ROC analysis in psychology and diagnostics: Collected papers. Psychology Press.

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