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Finding the problems in closed loop supply chain

Discuss about the Logistics & Supply Chain Management.

The main problems that are found with closed loop supply chain are high competition in the market between various organizations, ecological effects and restrictions, short life cycles and perpetually indulgent business reclaim strategies at affiliates for clients who will promote product returns at various levels of the supply chain. With respect to the closed loop supply chain and reverse logistics, it has been found that diminishing net revenues in worldwide markets with overcapacity, together with expanded returns will be costly to deal with for the organizations if the business type and the products do not suit their organizational strategy and structure. The weight on organizations to discover better approaches to deal with returns in the closed loop supply chain should lead them to investigate a new area in overseeing supply chains[1]. Organizations will understand that they require a lifecycle way to deal with items, that is, an approach that incorporates all item returns (business returns, guarantee returns, repairs, end-of-utilization returns, and end-of-life returns) into the plan of action for the item. Organizations must outline the forward supply chain and the invert supply chain to exploit a wide range of item returns and to incorporate last naturally benevolent transfer. They may swing to giving administrations instead of items. Furthermore, researchers into customary supply chains would need to explore the issues with closed loop supply chain further in order to determine some solutions that will make it more viable in the present market. The world is changing quickly, and organizations, in participation with scholastics, should rapidly create supply chains that can deal with composed forward and switch streams of materials. To start with and maybe research, they should create strategies for demonstrating supervisors the advantages to be gotten by creating reverse supply chains. The researchers should embrace new operational models to help them to deal with the everyday strategic components so they can understand their business targets. To start with and maybe research, they should create strategies for demonstrating supervisors the advantages to be gotten by creating reverse supply chains. On the off chance that researchers cannot evaluate the potential monetary (and nonfinancial) benefits, they are probably not going to consider return streams as something besides a disturbance, for which they should limit misfortunes. There are a lot of areas and details of the supply chain that have still not been sufficiently explored by the researchers. Future research will enable the researchers to gain more knowledge and insight in to the closed loop supply chain system.

In order to find the solutions for the problems, analyzing the whole aspect of supply chain is necessary. Supply Chain Management goes for the reconciliation of customary "forward" supply chain forms. As we would like to think, reverse supply chains ought to be a piece of supply chain joining, along these lines adding to bring down general expenses and ecological effects of the whole supply chain. Generally, supply chain forms envelop material supply, generation, appropriation and utilization. Accumulation alludes to all exercises rendering utilized items accessible and physically moving them to some point for facilitate treatment. Review and division may include dismantling, destroying, testing, arranging and capacity steps. Re-handling implies the genuine change of a utilized item into a usable item/part/material. This change may take distinctive structures including reusing, repair and remanufacturing. Likewise, exercises, for example, cleaning, substitution and re-get together might be included. Accumulation may incorporate obtaining, transportation, and capacity exercises. Investigation/detachment signifies all operations deciding if a given item is in certainty re-usable and in which way. Subsequently, examination and detachment brings about part the stream of utilized items as indicated by particular re-utilize (and transfer) choices. Transfer is required for items that cannot be re-utilized for specialized or cost reasons. This applies, for instance, to items rejected at the division level because of extreme repair necessities yet in addition to items without agreeable market potential. Transfer may incorporate transportation, arrive filling and cremation steps. Re-dispersion alludes to guiding re-usable items to a potential market and physically to moving them to future clients. This may incorporate deals, transportation and capacity exercises.

Classifying the Solutions according to problems

The consideration of ecological criteria obviously adds unpredictability to the goal work. For instance, incorporating creation offices may bring down general supply chain costs (on the off chance that economies of scale are more grounded than the expansion in transportation expenses), and prompt a more awful supply chain ecological effect (more CO2 outflows because of expanded transportation). Then again, setting up reverse logistics frameworks may bring down transfer costs and decrease squander. Researchers incorporate the two sorts in our model to include exchange offs between prudent expenses and natural effect. In this way, the plan of closed-loop supply chains requires choices on (1) location–allocation, where distribution incorporates the task of recuperation choices and (2) item outline. Improvement is performed concerning natural effect (to be determined later) and practical expenses for all forward and reverse supply chain forms[2].

Currently, in order to conduct research on the closed loop supply chain, many researchers prefer different methodologies for the research project. However, there is a limitation in this that is mainly due to the lack of appropriate objective function analysis techniques for the researchers. As a result, many important aspects of the closed loop supply chain are yet to be explored. Researchers have not able to implement multi objective decision making in the detailed analysis of the different aspects of the closed loop supply chain[3]. Most of the research works on the closed loop supply chain have been conducted based on hypothetical single objective problems. However, it is evident that the closed loop supply chain is much more than detailed and complex than the single objective problems.

There are several limitations in the current known aspects of the closed loop supply chain. These limitations are discussed as follows.

This limitation is mainly due to the lack of appropriate objective function analysis techniques for the researchers. As a result, many important aspects of the closed loop supply chain are yet to be explored. Researchers have not able to implement multi objective decision making in the detailed analysis of the different aspects of the closed loop supply chain. Most of the research works on the closed loop supply chain have been conducted based on hypothetical single objective problems. However, it is evident that the closed loop supply chain is much more than detailed and complex than the single objective problems. In the future research, this problem must be addressed and more robust techniques should be applied for conducting research on the closed loop supply chains. In these techniques, instead of single objective problems, the researchers should emphasize mainly on real world multi objective problems in order to explore the closed loop supply chain with more detailing.

In the current research outcomes conducted on the closed loop supply chain and logistics, it is clear that the impacts of green and sustainable environment on the supply chain have been ignored. Most of the researchers have emphasized their research on the basics of the supply chain and the effects of primary factors like business, finance and others. However, there are significant impacts of sustainable environment on the supply chain that have not been analyzed sufficiently[4]. Research in consumer conduct and the market for remanufactured items is incipient, so a more extensive comprehension of the market for remanufactured items is required crosswise over various enterprises. Hence, the known information on closed loop supply chain is limited. Despite a number of research exploration attempts, it is for the most part trusted that the interface between new item plan and recuperation exercises (remanufacturing and reusing) is an open region of research. Reusing has been consolidated in research managing reclaim enactment, yet the exhaustive plan of items and individual CLSCs for reusing is a required research zone.

Understanding different Methodologies or trends

Another main limitation of the research is that during the literature survey for gathering data, papers from only 2015 to 2017 were used. As a result, the information used for the research was from this period only. There are many other reliable sources that were published before this period. These sources have been left out from the research.

Limitation 4: Limitations of the Field of Research

One of the main limitations of this research is the limitation of the field of the research. The main emphasis was given on the pricing problems related to the closed loop supply chain and hence, explanation of the broader parts of the same topic was not explained or researched.

Limitation 5: Time

The time allocated for the research was extremely limited. As a result, extensive research was not possible. Moreover, cross checking of the research outcomes with other credible sources was also not possible.

There are a lot of opportunities for future research on the closed loop supply chain and reverse logistics. As discussed previously, there are significant limitations of the current research methods that are being conducted on the closed loop supply chain logistics. As a result, there are a lot of areas and details of the supply chain that have still not been sufficiently explored by the researchers. Future research will enable the researchers to gain more knowledge and insight in to the closed loop supply chain system. Future research on closed loop supply chain system is welcome, especially on recording securing and accumulation costs, remanufacturing costs, and the general market for remanufactured items (counting costs, guarantees, and channels). The cost structure, specifically, drives a ton of the outcomes, so it is basic that research joins practical cost structures (e.g., economies or diseconomies of scale, settled versus variable expenses and others)[5]. Despite a number of research exploration attempts, it is for the most part trusted that the interface between new item plan and recuperation exercises (remanufacturing and reusing) is an open region of research[6]. Research in consumer conduct and the market for remanufactured items is incipient, so a more extensive comprehension of the market for remanufactured items is required crosswise over various enterprises. The CLSC writing has concentrated vigorously on remanufacturing, and there is moderately little research on reusing. Reusing has been consolidated in research managing reclaim enactment, yet the exhaustive plan of items and individual CLSCs for reusing is a required research zone. From an ecological point of view, LCA thinks about have demonstrated that remanufacturing is not generally the earth favored alternative, regardless of investment funds in material and vitality amid creation. For instance, old refrigerators ought not be remanufactured but rather reused, in light of the fact that the majority of their ecological effect (in abundance of 80%) is in the utilization phase of the life cycle, and consequently, more current and more vitality proficient coolers are favored. When measuring ecological effect, it is in this manner important to end an existence cycle evaluation (LCA) point of view and write about the natural effects of makers' decisions, not just as far as virgin material utilization (a standard metric detailed in the writing), additionally in assembling, circulation, use with consumers, and end-of-life[7]. In the future research, this problem must be addressed and more robust techniques should be applied for conducting research on the closed loop supply chains. In these techniques, instead of single objective problems, the researchers should emphasize mainly on real world multi objective problems in order to explore the closed loop supply chain with more detailing.

Abbey, James D., Margaret G. Meloy, V. Daniel R. Guide, and Selin Atalay. "Remanufactured Products in Closed?Loop Supply Chains for Consumer Goods." Production and Operations Management 24, no. 3 (2015): 488-503.

Amin, Saman Hassanzadeh, and Guoqing Zhang. "A multi-objective facility location model for closed-loop supply chain network under uncertain demand and return." Applied Mathematical Modelling 37, no. 6 (2015): 4165-4176.

Fallah, Hamed, Hamidreza Eskandari, and Mir Saman Pishvaee. "Competitive closed-loop supply chain network design under uncertainty." Journal of Manufacturing Systems 37, no. 3 (2015): 649-661.

Ferguson, Mark E., and Gilvan C. Souza, eds. Closed-loop supply chains: new developments to improve the sustainability of business practices. CRC Press, 2016.

Govindan, Kannan, Hamed Soleimani, and Devika Kannan. "Reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain: A comprehensive review to explore the future." European Journal of Operational Research 240, no. 3 (2015): 603-626.

Qiang, Qiang, Ke Ke, Trisha Anderson, and June Dong. "The closed-loop supply chain network with competition, distribution channel investment, and uncertainties." Omega 41, no. 2 (2015): 186-194.

Saeedi, Sarow, Mohammad Mohammadi, and S. Torabi. "A De Novo programming approach for a robust closed-loop supply chain network design under uncertainty: An M/M/1 queueing model." International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations 6, no. 2 (2015): 211-228.

Schenkel, Maren, Marjolein CJ Caniëls, Harold Krikke, and Erwin van der Laan. "Understanding value creation in closed loop supply chains–Past findings and future directions." Journal of manufacturing systems 37 (2015): 729-745.

Souza, Gilvan C. "Closed?loop supply chains: a critical review, and future research." Decision Sciences 44, no. 1 (2016): 7-38.

Talaei, Mohammad, Babak Farhang Moghaddam, Mir Saman Pishvaee, Ali Bozorgi-Amiri, and Sepideh Gholamnejad. "A robust fuzzy optimization model for carbon-efficient closed-loop supply chain network design problem: a numerical illustration in electronics industry." Journal of Cleaner Production 113 (2016): 662-673.

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