Discuss about the Organizational Behaviour and Organizational Practices.
The organizational behaviour is the process of studying the ways people react and behave with each others in the organization. It is helpful in creating an efficient working in the organization. The idea of the organizational behaviour is managing the workers using the scientific approach. The theories of organizational behaviour are used for maximizing the output.
The Myers Briggs Profile, describes the systematic ways in which people differ from each other, it describes everyday lives of the people. It has four dimensions. The Big Five personality trait describes the personality traits and the relationship between the behaviour and personality, it has five domain traits dimensions that distinguishes the personality of one from the other. The McClelland needs analysis is an acquired theory of need that avoids the situation of low and high both the risks. The TKI is used to resolve the conflict situations that may arise within the organization (Bauer & Erdogan, 2012).
The Myers Briggs theory, has four simple preferences to deal with, the preference of the individual and the situations that the individual prefers to deal with are: those preferences of the people and things, the facts and the reality, the logics and the truth and the lifestyle that i structured well. The theory discovers the ways in which the people are different from one another, the everyday lives of the people and the various situations of working. In the Myers Briggs theory, one style is preferred over other for each pair (Bauer & Erdogan, 2012).
The five factor theory or the personality trait theory is hierarchical, the five dimensions of the theory explains the various important ways in which the individuals differ in their motivational, emotional, interpersonal, attitudinal and experimental styles. The basis of the dimension truly discovers the turning point of the individual’s personality, these dimension are the basis of the individual’s understandings for themselves and the others. The theory also explains the phenomena that are used in the everyday lives of the people.
The McClelland needs analysis theory reflects the specific needs that are acquired by the individuals over time and experiences of life. The needs are useful in motivation and effectiveness of the workers. These motivational needs are described in three types, the need for achievements, the need for affiliation and the need for power. These needs help to analyze the job functions and situations of the organization, the higher need for achievement of an individual focus on attainment of the goals that are challenging to the organization and the individual. The higher need for affiliation seeks to develop a harmonious relationship and prefers interpersonal relations. The need for power can be ascertained in two ways: the power that is personal and the power that is institutional. This need is authority motivated and is effective to make an impact on the others (NetMBA, 2010).
Myers Briggs Profile
The TKI has five modes of dimensions for the behaviour in which an individual may respond, these five modes explains the ways of behaviour of different individuals and the conflicts between one other. The model has two dimensions according to which the five modes can be explained. These two dimensions are the assertiveness and the cooperativeness. (Thomas & Kilmann, 2017).
The Myers Briggs profile also known as the MBTI model describes the systematic ways in which people differ from one another. The model was so developed to analyzepeople’s everyday lives. The model measures have four dimensions:
- Energizing: it explains, from where and how people get energy.
- Attending: attention paid by the people when the information is gathered.
- Deciding: it explains, the different systems used when the decisions are made.
- Living: the type of life adopted.
Every dimension has two poles, the very first one, the energizing reflects the orientation of the people towards the world,introversion and extroversion are the two poles of energizing dimension. The two poles of the second dimension, attending are; intuitive and sensing. The third dimensions two poles are feeling and thinking. The last dimension of the model, living has judging and perceptive as the two poles.
The “Big Five” traits of personality is taken from the psychology, it includes the five domains that describes the personality. The five personality traits are used to understand the relationship between the behaviours and personality. The five traits of the Costa & McCrae Big Five Personality Traits are:
- Openness: this trait describes the degree of curiosity, novelty preferences, creativity and the preferences of variety.
- Conscientiousness: this trait is a tendency for showing the self discipline, act dutifully and have aim towards achievement. It also refers to the planning, dependability and organizing in a better way.
- Extraversion: the trait describes the energy, sociability, showing positive emotions, assertiveness, talkativeness and the seeking stimulation from others.
- Agreeableness: this trait shows a compassionate and a cooperative relation towards others, not the suspicious and antagonistic nature.
- Neuroticism: it describes the unpleasant emotions such as, anxiety, depression, anger and vulnerability. It refers to the level of emotional stability and control of an individual (NetMBA, 2010).
The McClelland theory of acquired needs, also known as the three need theory or the learned theory of needs, avoids the situations of both low and high risks. The theory suggests that the needs are acquired over time and these needs are shaped by the experiences of the individual’s life. The needs are classified as the achievements, affiliations and power. The following three classifications of needs influences the motivation and effectiveness in the individuals certain job functions. The achievers prefer working alone or with other high achievers.
Affiliation: the high need for affiliation, need a harmonious relationship with others and feel accepted. They prefer work with significant personal interaction.
Power: it can be of two types, personal and institutional, one with personal power has a directing attitude, which is undesirable. The one with the institutional power organizes the efforts of others for organizational goals.
Thematic apperceptions test: this test was used as a tool for measuring the needs of different people. The test analyzes the scores for the each needs of achievement, affiliation and power.
The theory implies that people with the different needs are motivated differently, the achievers with high need for achievement take very challenging projects to reach the desired goals. The feedback should be provided to them so that they gain effective motivation. The achievers for high need for affiliation shows the best performance in the cooperative environment and the high need for power seeks the opportunity to manage others (NetMBA, 2010).
The conflict is the natural part of interaction, this is because no two individuals have exactly the same expectations and desires. The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument is a self scoring that is done in fifteen minutes, it has been very useful in conflict resolution assessment for more than thirty years.It measures the behaviour of the person in the conflict situation. It can be described along two dimensions, assertiveness and cooperativeness.
There are five modes of responding to the conflict situation of the two dimension of behaviour, these five modes are:
- Competing: it is assertive and uncooperative, it is a power oriented mode, in this mode the person uses whatever power is appropriate for winning the position, the arguing ability of the person, the rank a person holds and the economic sanctions. Competing is, standing for rights, defending for a position and trying to win.
- Accommodating: it is unassertive and cooperative, it is completely different from competing, in this mode an individual neglects to satisfy his concerns and keeps a concern about others.
- Avoiding: the mode avoiding is unassertive and uncooperative, in this mode the individual is concerned about himself or herself and not of others, thus the individual does not deal with the conflict.
- Collaborating: this mode is both assertive and cooperative, it is totally different from avoiding, it involves the attempt of working with others to extract some solutions that would satisfy the concern. Collaborating is a form of exploring the disagreement, finding a solution to an interpersonal problem.
- Compromising: this mode is moderate to both assertiveness and cooperativeness, in this mode a mutual solution is acknowledged so that it satisfies the concern of both the parties.
The leaders and the managers are not born but they are made, a good leader and a manager is one that has a good knowledge, experiences, patience, skills, commitment and the increases others for the achievement of the goals. The managers and the leaders are very much responsible for making the organization, a better place for the workers, a healthy environment, coordinating team that would help build a strong workforce (Mills, 2007).
The critical analysis of the report for the future, as a manager and the leader can be put forward in a way for the better understanding the overall working of the organization. As a leader and manager of an organization, the leader must be technically updated, the leader much know the job and the theories that should be applied to analyze the working of the organization. There should be sense of responsibility that the managers and the leaders must have for the workers. The good character traits should be developed, so that the professional responsibility is carried out. They should keep a check on the workers behaviour and attitude, and must encourage and motivate them time to time.
The managers should time to time inform the workers about the work and also consider the appropriate information regarding the ways in which the work should be done. A proper analysis of the personality test should be conducted, the personality trait that the worker may have would influence the working pattern of that worker. The leader and manager should know his or her staff very well, they should also ensure the well being of the leaders and look forward in enhancing their qualities (Mills, 2007).
The very first model, the Myers Briggs profile, would help the leader and the manger to analyze the different ways by which the workers can be differentiated. It will help to analyze the various situations of everyday lives of the workers. The model is more efficient and helpful to the organizational leaders and mangers and can bring about a vast change in the working of the organization. The second model, the Big Five model of the personality trait, with its different five domains describes the various personalities of the workers, it would help the
McClelland Needs Analysis
leaders and managers to acknowledge the different traits that the workers posses and the working would then make an easy way for achieving the success and organizational goals. The employees are tested on the five personality traits so that their strong trait could be acknowledged and would help in the group dynamics. The understanding of the components of personality is useful in extracting the information that would drive to understand the behaviour of the employees. These five factors are assumed to represent a basic structure and this in turn would increase the multiple periods of the research (MSG management guide, 2017).
The mangers and leaders imply the three needs theory for motivating the employees, the different employees are motivated differently.
- The higher needs of the achievement of the employees are given a challenging task and projects, the goals can be reached easily. The employees should be given frequent feedback, so that the proper motivation is done.
- The higher need for affiliation employees usually perform well and are best in the cooperative environment. They have high will power and affiliate to make a better working environment for the organization too.
- The high need for power: the managers and the leaders should provide the power seekers the value and the opportunities to manage the organization with a better institutional power.
The theory allows the needs to shape the individuals and train them by providing the essential training programs that is useful in modifying the need for one’s profile (NetMBA, 2010).
The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument is used for dealing with the conflict situations, the conflicts rely on the modes and use them for the organizational practices, the conflict in the workplace is the a result of both the personal and situational agendas. The TKI measures the mix of conflicts handling. It is tool that is used by the measures and assess the typical behaviour of the employees in the conflict situations and provides a detailed information of using the five modes dimension in different situations of the conflict handling (Thomas & Kilmann, 2017).
The letter of SMART process has different meanings:
S- Specific: it specifies or targets a particular area for the improvement.
M- measurable: it works as an indicator of progress.
A- assignable: it specifies, the one who is most responsible for the task.
R- realistic: the realistic results that can be achieved through the available resources.
T- time related: the time in which the result is achieved.
By using the SMART action plan the various types of goals can be achieved. The different types of goals that are required by the firm can be gained by the action plan. For example, the long-term goals, intermediate- term goals and the short- term goals. As per the analysis, the SMART process is useful in the following ways:
It would make more specific implications of the theories.
The action plan will ensure the certain criteria that will be beneficial in the measuring of the goals.
Also the action plan makes sure that the theories used are attainable to the goals.
The SMART plan ensures that the theories are relevant and appropriate.
The plan is used to make the work complete on time, it ensures the deadline for the work in the firm
The organizational behaviour deals with the efficient working of the organization, it is a process of keeping the workers in an organized manner within the organization by analysing the behaviour of the individuals. The report deals with critically analysing the different theories and models to understand the behaviour, personality and different ways of working of the individuals in an organization. Using the different approaches, the concept of the four organizational theories emphasise on the different aspects and personality that the workers acquire.
The analysis clearly indicates the different aspects of the workers in the organization with their working behaviour and their different personality. The various dimensions of the theories accordingly suggest the behaviour of every individual and the ways in which they differ from one another.
Bauer, T, Erdogan, B, 2012, An Introduction to Organizational Behavior, n.d., n.d.
Mills, J, A, 2007, Organizational Behaviour In A Global Context, Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication, Canada
MSG management guide, 2017, Trait Theory of Leadership, viewed on 29th of Jnauary 2017, https://www.managementstudyguide.com/trait-theory-of-leadership.htm
NetMBA, 2010, McClelland’s theory of needs, viewed on 29th of January 2017, <https://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/mcclelland/>
NetMBA, 2010, The Big Five Personality Traits, viewed on 29th of January 2017, <https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-behavior-5/personality-42/the-big-five-personality-traits-220-3935/>
Thomas, W, K, Kilmann, H,R, 2017, An Overview of the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), viewed on 29th of January 2017, https://www.kilmanndiagnostics.com/overview-thomas-kilmann-conflict-mode-instrument-tki
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