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Identify human factors that impact on work performance and then critically analyse the relationship between these and quality and safety in health care provision.

Human Factors and Its Relationship to Workplace Performance Enforcement

Human factors are disciplines that deal with interpreting human interaction with objects of a given system to achieve the well-being of the humans thus resulting in better performance of the system in whole(Phillips, Stalter, Dolansky, Lopez, 2016).  It comprises of human weakness and strengths to aid in system development, the firm activities and environment, and tools, equipment and technology required. Human factors also influence the firm’s training processes and the firm’s materials that aid the performance of the firm in its day-to-day activities(Sherwood, Barnsteiner, 2017). On the other, work performance is the measure of employee’s effectiveness in their daily operations whereby it measures the quantity and quality of work as per the terms and conditions of the employer

Human factors comprise of work factors, environmental, organizational, and human and individual characteristics which has an impact on the performance of employees which can impact safety on people’s health(Mcfadden,stock, Gowen, 2015).  Putting into consideration work performance, human factors without forgetting the well-being of patients regarding safety and quality will boost a better service to patients and have a better working condition.

In this report will help to understand the impact of human factors on work performance where critical analysis between them whereby safety and quality are achieved in healthcare provision. Healthcare provision is the act of allowing processing of health action and processes whereby contributions such as staff, equipment, money, and drugs are combined to aid in the process. To achieve health care provision, human factors have to analyzed thoroughly to achieve workplace performance in healthcare provision in any given organization such as clinic or hospitals(Patel et al,2015).  The report aims to clearly define and explain the aspects of human factors and their connection to workplace performance in healthcare provision together with its impact on work performance that can lead to better systems effectiveness and efficiency that will result to safe health practices and a better life. The report covers the human factors and its relationship to workplace enforcement where the categories of human factors and their relationship to work performance and their effect on quality and safety in healthcare provision.

As stated earlier, human factor comprises of work factors, environmental, organizational, and human and individual characteristics that have a direct impact on behavior or the morale of the employee in the aid in his/her duties meaning that human factors have a significant effect on overall performance of the business in general. The human factors can be categorized as either hard factors or soft factors(Vaughn et al, 2014). The hard elements (technical) deals with process control and its improvement while soft factors deal with customer needs, the supplier needs education and training, workforce, group work, and executive support. The following categories of Human element show the impact they have on workplace performance in leadership for quality and safety in healthcare provision.

The job factor covers the areas where the kind of the task understudy, the capacity of the task, working areas, the work control and the position of the procedures or instruction involved in the job(Hignett et al,2015). The kind task differs from one organization to the other, but in this case, we are dealing with healthcare provision. The capacity of this work or workload in healthcare provision is enormous having health issues affect many in the world. The work control is the mechanism the health care provision uses to meet its goal as expected. The procedure or the institutions are rules and regulations that oversee the process of healthcare provision.  The job factor has a vast impact on workplace enforcement is concerned. The job to be done by an individual in any given firm, in this scenario health care, should be defined to point out what is required of the employee(Taylor et al, 2014). The work should be shared according to depending on the kind of work available in the healthcare center. The capacity of work that an employee can handle in a given time should not be extended making the worker do more job than what he/she is capable of doing(Ogric et al, 2015 ). Having the doctors or nurses in the healthcare the work for many others rather than the appropriate time can result in a lot risk. The doctor may administer the wrong medications to the patient while the nurse may not fully follow the instruction of the doctor. The working area in the job factor defines the nature of the workplace. How is the workplace is positioned to favor the working abilities of the employee and how the firm is making sure that the employee is working on a conducive environment. In the case of healthcare provision, the clinic or the hospital should provide the employees, for example, those who do the cleaning the ties should be equipped with the gloves, masks, and better equipment to protect them from infections and make their work easier. The work control and process flow are where that activity in the firm is organized in the manner that they follow a given procedure(Appelbaum et al ,2016). The process should flow in stages having a particular method followed from the first to the last. In the healthcare scenario, the patient cannot be given the medicine where he/she has not been to the doctor for checking of his/her disease. Finally, procedures and instructions are the terms and conditions that drive the flow of a process in a given institution. In the case of health care, there should be a mechanism whereby everybody is aware of what is expected of them. The nurses should differentiate their work from the work of the cleaners.

The Job Factor

The individual factor mostly concentrates on personal characteristics such as attitude, personality, skills, and competence. One opinion is the act of feeling toward something that is primarily created in one mind and can change as time goes by. Having an employee with a right attitude toward the organization will lead to better performance of the employee thus the riving to better services and product provision. In health provision sector, having employees with a right attitude and image of their organization they will have a sense of belonging to this sector. It will lead to these employee doing their work to their best. For instance, the nursing will handle the patients with care and love whereas the support staff will carry out their duties to their best possible manner thus leading to an improved workplace performance enforcement, safety, and quality healthcare provision. The employee's personality is a crucial thing to consider when hiring an employee. The personality is different from the attitude the in a way that attitude can be changed, but you can not change personality.  Having workers with positive character toward work in the health sector will enable workplace performance, safety, and quality services in the sector. Having nurses with the personality of loving, they will extend this activity to the patients thus serving them in the best way possible thus increasing quality and safety in the sector(Pronorost et al, 2015). The act having competence workers in the firm leads the to improved good and services provided as they have the qualified for the occupations. Competency enables workplace performance enforcement as competence workers s will make little the stakes in their work thus leading to better performance. In healthcare, qualified and experienced workers such as doctors will treat the patients as supposed and in the right time. It will result in quality and better safe services to patients. The skill is the ability earned through training in a given time. Having employee with added skill makes the firm to have better worker thus leading to better service and goods provision. Training acts as a motivating factor where the employee gets a chance to improve their skill through practice(Martin, Mckee, Dixon-word ,2015). Training in health ca are sectors enables nurses and doctors to acquire new skills are to acquire new ideas in the health sector. The training session may arise when the is a new concept in the health sector such a when there is a rise of a new medicine or disease where there is need of training to expose them to the original ideas involved. It will enable the patients to receive proper medication from the doctors and nurses thus quality, and safe medications are given to them.

This concern the general view of the firm such as leadership, communication, resources available, the culture of the workplace and work pattern. Its leadership directly drives the performance of every firm. The management in the organization should be the role model of another employee in the strive to achieve the business goal. Workplace performance enforcement should be the goal of every manager in the firm. The administration should make sure that they hire the right employee and they are working as per expectation. They should also make sure that the employee is working in better conducive areas and encourage the workers to undertake training to gain more skills(Merril, 2015). The management will also ensure that resources of the organizations are not misused or embezzled. Better leadership in health care center ensures that services of high quality are provided and in a safe manner. The management, for example, should fire that employee in the health sector who does not work per terms and conditions in the industry. Communication is also a factor in this area. It enables the firm to get feedback from the employee or the outside world such as customers, suppliers and even the government. Having a forum where the employee and the outside world can reach to the organization in the fastest way possible helps the management to access feedback from them in the right time for action to be implemented before its too late. It will enable the firm to provide better services and goods at the right time and manner. In the health sector, communication is a critical factor to consider. Having poor contact in the health sector can be accompanied with a lot of risks such as death and serious health complication. The doctors and nurses should provide communication in the languages that the patient will understand. If there is a language barrier among them, the workplace would be a problem to implement as the parties cannot communicate as supposed. It can lead to poor quality services, and the safety of patients would be in question. The health sector should have a help desk where the patients can be assisted in the language that they understand best. It will enable and support quality and safe service provision. Also, communication between workers is vital things so as the process of the healthcare center can run smoothly reducing the error from happening. Resources available in every firm can predict the nature and productiveness of the firm. Having enough resources to run firm activities has many advantages. The firm can pay its employee on time, have better working areas, better equipment, a necessary product for the process are readily available thus resulting to improved attitude on employees, better services by having competence employee. In healthcare provision, resources are vital features to have. Having resources will enable the health center to have better equipment, medicines and they will be able to hire better employees such as doctors and nurses. It will allow the health center to offer quality and safer services to patients(Sexton et al, 2014). The resources will also allow health care centers to enforce performance by hiring highly qualified employees. Finally, we have a work pattern and culture of the business. Work pattern is the way the company carries its activities while the culture of the company is the practices of the industry that has been in a given company for a given period. Having positive work patterns and better business culture such involving the employee and members of the public in decision making will lead to better decision making thus leading to quality and safe service provision and will aid in the workplace performance.

The Individual Factor

Human factors have a significant impact on the workplace performance enforcement and the quality and safety provision in any given firm. Human factors are categorized as job factor, individual, and organization factor. All these factors have an impact on work performance enforcement in health care and aid in the provision of safe and quality services(Tsai et al, 2014). All these categories of human factors can be broken down, and analysis their implication on work enforce giving relevant examples. Health care provision includes the act ensuring services are available in these sectors through proper identification of human factors and coming up with them to make sure these factors assist in workplace performance that will result in quality and safe service provision in the health sector.

References:

Phillips, J. M., Stalter, A. M., Dolansky, M. A., & Lopez, G. M. (2016). Fostering future leadership in quality and safety in health care through systems thinking. Journal of Professional Nursing, 32(1), 15-24.

Sherwood, G., & Barnsteiner, J. (Eds.). (2017). Quality and safety in nursing: A competency approach to improving outcomes. John Wiley & Sons.

McFadden, K. L., Stock, G. N., & Gowen III, C. R. (2015). Leadership, safety climate, and continuous quality improvement: impact on process quality and patient safety. Health care management review, 40(1), 24-34.

Patel, N., Brennan, P. J., Metlay, J., Bellini, L., Shannon, R. P., & Myers, J. S. (2015). Building the pipeline: the creation of a residency training pathway for future physician leaders in health care quality. Academic Medicine, 90(2), 185-190.

Vaughn, T., Koepke, M., Levey, S., Kroch, E., Hatcher, C., Tompkins, C., & Baloh, J. (2014). Governing board, C-suite, and clinical management perceptions of quality and safety structures, processes, and priorities in US hospitals. Journal of Healthcare Management, 59(2), 111-128.

Hignett, S., Jones, E. L., Miller, D., Wolf, L., Modi, C., Shahzad, M. W., ... & Catchpole, K. (2015). Human factors and ergonomics and quality improvement science: integrating approaches for safety in healthcare. BMJ Qual Saf, 24(4), 250-254.

Taylor, M. J., McNicholas, C., Nicolay, C., Darzi, A., Bell, D., & Reed, J. E. (2014). Systematic review of the application of the plan–do–study–act method to improve quality in healthcare. BMJ Qual Saf, 23(4), 290-298.

Ogrinc, G., Davies, L., Goodman, D., Batalden, P., Davidoff, F., & Stevens, D. (2015). SQUIRE 2.0 (Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence): revised publication guidelines from a detailed consensus process. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 46(11), 501-507.

Ogrinc, G., Davies, L., Goodman, D., Batalden, P., Davidoff, F., & Stevens, D. (2015). SQUIRE 2.0 (Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence): revised publication guidelines from a detailed consensus process. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 46(11), 501-507.

Appelbaum, N. P., Dow, A., Mazmanian, P. E., Jundt, D. K., & Appelbaum, E. N. (2016). The effects of power, leadership and psychological safety on resident event reporting. Medical education, 50(3), 343-350.

Martin, G. P., McKee, L., & Dixon-Woods, M. (2015). Beyond metrics? Utilizing ‘soft intelligence’for healthcare quality and safety. Social science & medicine, 142, 19-26.

Sexton, J. B., Sharek, P. J., Thomas, E. J., Gould, J. B., Nisbet, C. C., Amspoker, A. B., ... & Profit, J. (2014). Exposure to Leadership WalkRounds in neonatal intensive care units is associated with a better patient safety culture and less caregiver burnout. BMJ Qual Saf, 23(10), 814-822.

Merrill, K. C. (2015). Leadership style and patient safety: implications for nurse managers. Journal of Nursing Administration, 45(6), 319-324.

Dixon-Woods, M., Baker, R., Charles, K., Dawson, J., Jerzembek, G., Martin, G., ... & Willars, J. (2014). Culture and behaviour in the English National Health Service: overview of lessons from a large multimethod study. BMJ Qual Saf, 23(2), 106-115.

Tsai, T. C., Jha, A. K., Gawande, A. A., Huckman, R. S., Bloom, N., & Sadun, R. (2015). Hospital board and management practices are strongly related to hospital performance on clinical quality metrics. Health Affairs, 34(8), 1304-1311.

Pronovost, P. J., Holzmueller, C. G., Molello, N. E., Paine, L., Winner, L., Marsteller, J. A., ... & Armstrong, C. M. (2015). The Armstrong Institute: an academic institute for patient safety and quality improvement, research, training, and practice. Academic Medicine, 90(10), 1331-1339.

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