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I have to redo a psychology research report for my statistics class; Research Methods and Ethics.

The assignment is to write a quantitative research report.

The main analysis used and reported is : Two way IG factorial ANOVA with tests of simple effects we need write the following:

1. A Good title for our report
2. Intro 
3. Methods is done by class
4. Results 

Title: Research methodology and practices to arrive at results for a tests needs to be tested repeatedly to be established

Research methodology and practices to arrive at results for a tests needs to be tested repeatedly to be established (Passmore, 2009). The scope of the following report uses independent group factorial ANOVA for investigating effects of type of session and type of coaching on self-reported goal attainment. Coaching is a process of tutoring or guiding an individual to make goals and attain them, which can take place in a multiple number of ways. Professional coaches conducts their training sessions of people from different walks of life, while peer coaches train from gaining some kind of coaching training (Peltier, 2011). The study compares professional as well as peer coaching training against control standard tutorial. Hence, the study is focused on examining the success of individual and group coaching sessions being effective in student’s goal attainment. The second area which is analyzed in the study are to examine professional or peer coaching being effective compared to standard set tutorial practices or not (Short, 2010). Dependent variable in the study is Successful Goal attainment, participants and coaches. Post conducting of successful Two way IG factorial ANOVA the findings are summarized and results are attained.  

In psychology related to teaching and coaching of students, it becomes integral that one realizes the impact and effect (Grant A. M., 2011). The scope of this study analyses individual as well as group coaching sessions effectiveness in goal attainment of students. Secondly, effectiveness of professional or peer coach as against that of standard tutorials is considered. For conducting this study there are two types of variables independent or dependent variables are taken into consideration (Grant A. M., 2011). Independent variables assumed in this study are two, one being Type of Coaching as Professional Coaching and Peer Coaching. Second type of variable being Type of Session as group and individual. Dependent Variables are Successful Goal Attainment, Participants, Coaches. Following specific procedures series of tests were conducted by following methods to arrive at findings of the study (Van Nieuwerburgh, 2012). Coaching is the capability to teach and train an individual towards certain designated goals of an individual. Effectiveness of coaching might be entailed through individual or group wise training procedure. Trainings can be conducted by Professional Coaches, Peer Coaches as against Standard Tutorials. Though theoretically effectiveness can merely be stated but effectiveness and efficiency of the study is in establishing quantitatively the same (Schönrock?Adema, 2007).      

Data has been collected from group of individuals and groups by exposing them to Coaching by means of Professionals, Peers and Standard Coaches. Professional Coaches are known to conduct training sessions more effectively. Professional coaches have experience and proficiency to deliver results aptly compared to other types of coaches. Peer Coaches often belong to the same group and are known to be the best guide towards goal attainment (Cilliers, 2011). Standard Tutorials are adopted by a lot of organisations as well as individual students for their goal attainment. Though they contain all basic and necessary elements but often are not sufficient to meet goals designated.   


A volunteer sample of 60 third year Psychology students (30 males and 30 females) were recruited and randomly allocated to one of six conditions (Spaten, 2009). Participants allocated to Group-based sessions were assigned to either professional coaching (N=10), peer coaching (N=10), or standard tutorials (N=10). Participants in the Individual session condition were also assigned to either professional coaching (N=10), peer coaching (N=10), or standard tutorials (N=10). The numbers of males of females were kept equal (Grant A. M., 2010).



Two male and two female qualified coaches each with a postgraduate diploma in Coaching Psychology with experience in using the GROW model and more than three years coaching experience were the Professional coaches. The Peer coaches were two male and two female third year Psychology students taking a Coaching module as part of their degree programme. They also received extra tuition in Goals coaching with the GROW model to take part in the study. Two male and two female experienced faculty staff delivered the standard tutorials (Green, 2007).


A 3X2 factorial design with Type of coaching which had three levels – professional and peer coaching and standard tutorials, and Type of session which had two levels - group or individual sessions as the independent variables and level of Goal Attainment, measured two weeks after the last session, as the dependent variable (Webberman, 2011).  


Goal attainment was measured using a 5-point Likert scale where 1 indicated a goal attainment rating of 0-20% and 5 indicated a rating of 81-100% success (Côté, 2009).


Participants in Group sessions had 90 minute weekly sessions consisting of four participants with two coaches in the coaching conditions or two tutors in the tutorial condition (Law, 2013). Participants in the Individual sessions had 60 minute weekly sessions with one Coach or one Tutor.

The sessions lasted for 10 weeks during which the participants worked on setting and working towards goals related to their study using the GROW model. Both coaching sessions and tutorials were concerned with study and assessment goals. Two weeks after the final session participants were asked to rate how successful they were in attaining the goals they had set (Schönrock?Adema, 2007).

Descriptive statistics showing the mean and standard deviation for type of session and coaching in relation to goal attainment.

T Type of coaching


StStd. Deviation





P Peer


















In order to arrive at appropriate results of the study various combinations of Coaching were conducted. For conducting the analysis, four professional coaches, 2 Male and 2 Female with qualification of post graduate diploma in Coaching Psychology has been selected (Linley, 2010). These Coaches have worked with GROW model and has 3 years of experience in order to minimize variability in coaching approach. Participants were exposed to 90 minute of weekly group sessions. Analyzing form the results depicted it can be seen that effectiveness of group sessions are more as compared to those of individual physiological sessions. Results also depicts that effectiveness of Professional as well as peer Coaching were highly similar as against those of Standard Tutorials (Grant A. M., 2011). It can be said and drawn from the successful attainment is higher in cases of Professional as well As Peer Coaches as against Standard set tutorials. 

Levene’s test, a method for inferential statistics is used for assessing equality of variances for two or more groups as in this case. As results for Group Psychology Coaching results for Profession as well as Peer Coach is similar and also their Standard Deviations, Levene’s tests can be used for this purpose (Costello, 2012). As common statistical procedures assumes variances of populations different from samples drawn, Levene’s tests is used in assessing such assumptions. It tests null hypothesis, where population of variances might be equal. In case p-value or significance level is less than 0.05, then it is assumed that it has occurred unlikely due to random sampling procedures. Rejecting null hypothesis it can be concluded that there remains a variance in the population (Byrne, 2010).     


Bonferroni correction is used in solving issue related to multiple comparison as in this case. As in this case as multiple problems related to various statistical procedures is conducted, chance of rare event increases. Hence, it can easily be inferred that null hypothesis can easily be rejected erroneously. Thus, it can be inferred from the above analysis that though results of standard deviations and means might appear similar they cannot be considered so and treated uniquely for further calculations (Novick, 2010).      

Statistical or quantitative analysis of data can depicts results by conducting their ANOVA tests. The study had assumed two types of variables with dependent and independent in nature (Wisker, 2013). The research was conducted with a group of volunteer participants consisting of 30 females and 30 males. They were randomly allotted to each group such that results from the study cannot be influenced. Coaches had significant level of training and experience working on GROW model. The aim of the study was to analyse procedure using each group’s goal attainment. A 5-point Likert scale with goal attainment was designed with highest score indicating highest levels of attainment (Palmer, 2014). The research question was attained appropriately by conducting the study using.

Coaching in recent years has been powerful tool for transforming lives of people. Coaching’s can be conducted by various professionals and is a growing area of study recently. Coaching is engaged to analyse inner potential of individuals such that they are able to attain goals. Coaching not only provides guidance but also increases emotional potential with self-imposed limits (Oades, 2011). Thus, there is a positive relation of Coaching with that of one’s life transformation. Professional coaches can adopt a multiple type of model for coaching groups or individual, one refereed to here is GROW model. GROW model is one of the simplest mentoring process of coaching. This model stresses on the importance of a professional guidance in coaching with proven tools, techniques and practices. While some people develop skills by themselves for others it becomes critical to make use of several techniques for coaching. GROW model is an abbreviated form for Goal, Current Reality, Options and Will, it was developed in the 1980s by Graham Alexander, Sir John Whitmore and Alan Fine. In GROW model, goal or focus is fixed first and then compared to reality. In traditional GROW model coach act as a facilitator helping client attain their goal (Ten Cate, 2007).     

Analysis from the results of the study indicates that effectiveness of Professional Coach is maximum in case of Individual Coaching. Results from individual coaching done by Peers has also substantially yielded effective results as against Standard Tutorial practices. Thus, as variance of success attainment of Individual coaching by means of Professional and Peer Coaching is higher in nature, it is considered to be more effective compared to other techniques. Thus, it can be inferred from the above analysis of results that most effective procedure amongst all is individual Professional Coaching. Then the effective coaching technique is by Peer coaching of Individual but compared to them more effective form of Coaching is Group coaching of Professional and Peer Coaching. Effectiveness of Professional and Peer Coaching of groups has been proven to have success rate more compared to other established techniques of coaching. Effectiveness and success attainment of these techniques of coaching are at similar level compared to Standard Tutorial Practices. Success rating of individual of Professional Coaching is near to 5.0 hence is considered highly effective in nature. Then comes rating of Professional and Peer level Coaching of Groups which is about 4.5 in rating. Apart from success rating of these two all other techniques of Coaching have low score levels. then comes success rating of Peer Coaching for individuals, which is at level 4.0. Then the effectiveness which is success rating for individual as well as group coaching rating drops tremendously. For standard tutorials in groups it is 3.5 whereas for individuals it is as low as 3.0. thus, it can be inferred that when coached by professional coaches an individual can be maximum towards their goal attainment. Effectiveness of individuals when they are coached individually does not yield any levels of success rates. Whereas in cases of groups it has been noted that when they are coached by Professional as well as by Peers they can have high success attainments. Thus, it can be analyzed that success and goal attainment is maximum in cases of practices other than Standard Tutorials. Standard Tutorials are less effective especially when done with individual, there can be various reasons assigned to the same. Lack of motivation, competition and other factors can contribute towards the ineffectiveness of such practices. In Professional and Peer level coaching effectiveness is derived as a result of competition or procedure in which they conduct such courses. Psychological effectiveness of such procedures is done using Professional as well as Peer level of Coaching techniques.                   


Byrne, J. B. (2010). Peer development as an alternative to peer observation: A tool to enhance professional development. International Journal for Academic Development, 215-228.

Cilliers, F. (2011). Positive psychology leadership coaching experiences in a financial organisation. . SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 1-14.

Costello, C. A. (2012). Positive Psychology and Self-Efficacy: Potential Benefits for College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 119-129.

Côté, J. &. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 307-323.

Grant, A. M. (2010). Developmental coaching for high school teachers: Executive coaching goes to school. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 151.

Grant, A. M. (2011). Coaching and positive psychology. . Designing positive psychology: Taking stock and moving forward, 293-309.

Grant, A. M. (2011). Developing an agenda for teaching coaching psychology. International Coaching Psychology Review, 84-99.

Green, S. G. (2007). Evidence-based life coaching for senior high school students: Building hardiness and hope. International Coaching Psychology Review, 24-32.

Law, H. (2013). The psychology of coaching, mentoring and learning. John Wiley & Sons.

Linley, P. A.-D. (2010). Using signature strengths in pursuit of goals: Effects on goal progress, need satisfaction, and well-being, and implications for coaching psychologists. . International Coaching Psychology Review, 6-15.

Novick, R. M. (2010). Telling is compelling: The impact of student reports of bullying on teacher intervention. . Educational Psychology, 283-296.

Oades, L. G. (2011). Positive education: Creating flourishing students, staff and schools. InPsych: The Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society Ltd, 16.

Palmer, S. &. (2014). Handbook of coaching psychology: A guide for practitioners. Routledge.

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Peltier, B. (2011). Peltier, B. Taylor & Francis.

Schönrock?Adema, J. H.?P.?S. (2007). Assessment of professional behaviour in undergraduate medical education: peer assessment enhances performance. . Medical Education, 836-842.

Short, E. K. (2010). Evaluating the impact of a peer coaching intervention on well-being amongst psychology undergraduate students. International Coaching Psychology Review, 27-35.

Spaten, O. &. (2009). Should learning to coach be integrated in a graduate psychology programme? Denmark's first try. Coaching Psychologist, 104-109.

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Van Nieuwerburgh, C. (. (2012). Coaching in education: Getting better results for students, educators, and parents. Karnac Books.

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Wisker, G. E. (2013). Working one-to-one with students: supervising, coaching, mentoring, and personal tutoring. Routledge.

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