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Your research and report should cover the following topics:


· Demand for commuting (travel to work) towards Stoke-on-Trent, Birmingham, Crewe, London and Manchester from Brook, Endon, Kingsley and Froghall, Cheddleton and Leek;

· Demand for leisure travel from Stoke-on-Trent, Birmingham, Crewe, London and Manchester to Alton Towers Leisure Park, Leek, Moneystone Holiday Village and Water-stones for the National Park;

· Demand for freight transport from and to the quarries at Cauldon Low and at Moneystone;

· Nature and capability of the rolling stock required for the newly built and reinstated railway lines, including their limitations and environmental performance;


· Nature and environmental impact of the infrastructure required for the new and reinstated lines, including stations and depot facilities;

· Outline time-distance graphs (graphical timetables) for the different parts of the network, taking into account passenger and freight services.

Please respect the following constraints imposed by the stake-holders:

(i) you may take full advan-tage of the current infrastructure to develop the enhanced lines;

(ii) The Moorland & City railway company owns a section of the track-bed leading to the proposed station site in Leek;

(iii) provision must be made for the heritage railway to have access to the new Leek station and the new Alton Tower station(s).

The UK Rail Industry

The UK rail industry is a dominant public service because of its demand and supply factors (Watson, et al., 2012). Everyday thousands of commuters make use of the railway network to access the region. Home to popular global cities, the system connects users to Birmingham, London, Manchester Kingsley and other major cities in the region. Smaller towns such Crewe and Holiday Village also benefit from this network. With increased passengers comes freight management challenges. Whether travelling for business or leisure, passengers have specific demands, which the network has to fulfil. This steers the rail industry to adopt modern approaches in order to meet the changing needs of the contemporary market. As one of the leading rail networks in the world, the UK railway serves both local and international needs. Therefore, its engineering projects consider advantages and disadvantages of building and reinstating the railway. Environmental factors raise the question of sustainability and stakeholders identify the need for new changes in the infrastructural system. Operational performance in the rail transport supports a cost effective and sustainable service delivery process. This makes capacity and demand inseparable factors for innovation in a highly competitive environment (Bataille & Steinmetz, 2013). These determine the industry’s profitability.

Moorland & City is seeking to redevelop the railway freight in the UK. Started in 2009, the company has a 150-year contract in Leek. Among its agenda is to refurbish heritage services in the Network rail. It has a background in the management of steam and diesel engines. Through innovative approaches, the company seeks to grow its services through contemporary freight and commuter trains. Its plan is to connect Leek to suburbs and villages through the rail network (Moorland & City Railway, 2013). By doing this, the company plans to transform the Alton station into a terminus. In order to succeed in its plans, the company needs a reliable approach and support from the local government and the community.

Figure 1: Site location showing connection between Aston and Leeks (Theme Parks UK, 2017)

Privatization spearheads growth in a public service sector like railway transport. Although the government manages the plan and standardization, the company has a sole responsibility as an investor to deliver the transport service in line with customer demands. Growth in the industry has a focus on increasing the number of passengers as well as the freight. Profitability, sustainability and global competiveness also influence this plan. Moorland & City has the objective to improve:

  • Efficiency
  • Reliability
  • Customer care ( passenger/freight experience)
  • Fleet management

Taking full advantage of the current infrastructure, Moorland & City sets out to develop the enhanced lines in Leek and Alton Tower stations.

Urban transport systems characterised by an intermodal transport infrastructure has its pros and cons (Kyriakidis, et al., 2012). Route planning ensures the optimization of the rail and alternative transport for analysing demand approach (Guler, 2014). Demand elements such as cost influence the customer’s willingness to use the rail transport. These also determine the design standards adopted for improved customer experience in railway management and engineering (Profilidis, 2014). Capacity supply is also a significant factor for this growth in the railway industry.

Industrial centers such as Stroke-on Trent depend on public transport to access its distribution centers. The central location of its railway station serves passengers travelling to Fenton, Burslem, Turnstall, and Longton. These are major commercial centers with mining industries and educational centers. The town is also home to sports and cultural facilities. Situated in a valley, its geographical features represent lowlands and midlands. In order to support its economic activities, the rail network designs and maintenance considers its energy needs connection to port services and business traveller’s needs. Managing a transport system includes making geometric improvements on the rail networks, intersections, stations and operations (Guler, 2014).the rail and bus system as a solution to traffic congestion implies that the r

Ail transport system needs an effective plan with a vision to improve from the past to contemporary modes.

Major quality issues in the railway industry revolve around speed, comfort, convenience, travel time and safety issues. In order to control the traffic in urban centers, management authorities invest in innovative freight control methods. This is evident in Birmingham, London and Manchester where capacity management is a major concern. Timetable rescheduling needs an algorithm that capitalizes on mixed formulation (Sato, et al., 2013). As a risk management factor, time scheduling in line with the customer demands reduces inconveniences. The game theory algorithm provides a model for pricing and timing strategies using distribution mechanisms. The use of these helps to determine the peak hours and arrangement by demand hours. This also defines the load graph for the users

Commuters going to work are keen on the time factor. This implies that commuting towards major cities in the peak hours is a challenge to the system. The model needs effective changes for growing towns such as Cheddleton and Leek. In such a case, rescheduling traveling to Brook, Endon, and Froghall from Manchester becomes a priority in the new plan. Urban freight management using event based simulation modelling is ideal for the urban metro and technology based freight systems (Motraghi & Marinov, 2012). In order to ease crowding and congestion changes in frequency is necessary to control the travel times and passenger operations. A long-term solution includes improvements in railway capacity and the creation of new systems. Capacity enhancement provides one opportunity of improving the solution. Aston and Leeks location have capacity for expansion and improvements for multilevel structures but the design needs to be in line with the landscape expectations. The urban railway network involves the development of a high occupancy vehicle (HOV). The figure below shows a strategy that the company could use (US Department of Transportation, 2017).

Factors Influencing Railway Transport

Using the existing infrastructure to make improvements on railway transport efficiency depends on a number of factors. This is a largescale project targeting the rail transit system. An analysis of the cost implications determines the magnitude of the investment made. Another category of demand drivers in this region features the leisure traveller who is keen on transport to social amenities, airport, parks and main roads. The figure below shows an example of such strategic developments targeting the tourist traveller’s demands. In the UK, this demand is high in Stoke-on-Trent, Birmingham, Crewe, London and Manchester as central points. The introduction of new trains with reliable performance is critical for the long distance or suburban operator systems (Rao & Rao, 2012). Reliability means dealing with delays, disruption and dispatch schedules. Travellers want a system that they can trust. The railway engineering process provides solutions through parallel computing and algorithms to reorder reroute and determine proper speed.

Travellers from major cities travel to attraction centers such as Alton Towers Leisure Park, and Leek. Other hot spots with an influx of visitors is Money stone, and Holiday Village. The rail network also serves passengers from Water-stones destined for the National Park. This model applies to road-rail and terminal village development. These externalities highlight the relevance of effective management in freight transport system (Woensel, et al., 2015). The figure below summarizes the optimization model for rescheduling and linking different scenarios for the rail transport system. It accounts for reliability and cancelation of public transport systems. The integration of an old system with an advanced project for optimum operation involves stakeholders with an experience in global network. The passenger is a major contributor who needs to understand the new value presented by a new railway network.

Cherrett, et al (2012) discuss the demand for improved delivery in the out of town transport systems. Discussion on freight transport brings to light important factors in the transportation of products from the quarries at Cauldon Low as well as Moneystone. As replacement for trucks and road transport, the railway provides an effective freight transport. This is important in the satisfaction of transport services for products and services. Efficient delivery during out-of- hours finds ways to improve on the average delivery rates, and statistics in the supply chain. Engineering designs for the freight system develops reliable infrastructure for load management. Political factors may promote or hinder efficiency in railway transport. The case study of Spain shows an influence in logistics development of the urban centers (Onieva, et al., 2012). The optimization process includes monitoring for wastage and reduced operation costs.

Capacity Enhancement and Design

When faced with multiple objectives and functions making the right choice becomes difficult. Capacity enhancement The UK government policies on railway transport advocates for growth in the midst of capacity (Watson, et al., 2012). This process involves tackling the constraints to demand and refurbishing the infrastructural system. One of the government’s objectives is to approach railway development using affordable, sustainable and robust transport network. It purports to implement a cost effective and on time delivery railway. This strategy has an aim of reducing traffic and increasing passenger movement in the right places. Effective planning ensures that the freight maintenance, movement and operations are highly competent. The Capacity supply measures include:

  • Terminal
  • Station
  • Track capacity
  • Train
  • Junction

Diverting human traffic in some areas prevents crowding in main cities. This is a safety and security plan benefitting the affected areas. Rail terminus like London, Manchester and Birmingham are crucial routes, which need consideration. Reducing the stop times and changes in timetable frequencies are important. Such metrics determine the nature and capability of the new service frequency. This identifies the rolling stock required for new construction or restoration of the railway line. The limitations and environmental performance. Operational and physical capacity depends on the number of trains, stations, tunnels and bridges built to ease the movement of trains. The train operation, space and rail capacity determines the route and capacity utilization. The focus on areas of constraints such as London, Liverpool and Manchester identifies areas of reforms for efficiency and reconstruction.

Noise, sound and air pollution are issues of concern in the development of the railway transport. This is critical in the environmental issues such as reduced carbon emissions. Increasing service frequency has financial and commercial benefits. This implies running more trainings within an efficient timetable. The optimization of the station might call for the reconfiguration of the stock capacity to suit the expected level of trains for that platform. The infrastructural impact of the new and reinstated lines includes stations and depot facilities. The competitive global supply chains highlights regional structures as distinct factors (Rodrigue, 2012). Another option for the increase in station capacity is in increased passenger movement. Some terminus require the creation of flyovers or improved track sections for handling better capacity. Reducing the congestion lines through rebuilding and rationalization of routes is necessary for freight management

Energy efficiency is evident in the electrification programs, especially in the electric train networks. Statistics from the rail industry show an increase in overcrowding incidences in the rail network. The use of digital operating mechanisms such as track control signals improves safety through reduced braking distances and controlled movement. The use of technology application in communication also improves speed for better delivery. The voice and information communication system also saves time and improves the advisory system. Therefore, signalling and traffic control systems are strategies for inclusion in the new development projects in the industry.

Freight Transport and Logistics

Enhancing the length of the trains is one way to improve the freight management capacity. This is because length and weight reduce the acceleration, brake and speed ability. Different tracks have advantages and challenges. Then two track and three truck rail lines diverts trains through diversion of freight. This allows passengers from Manchester to connect to Edinburg efficiently. This explains the introduction of the high-speed rails in busy networks for better freight and passenger movement. In rail, engineering attributes such as track condition and quality influence the operational efficiency. The figure below shows an example of a simulation graph for the rail network at Acton town.

Figure 3: Western Line map layout for the underground railways speed simulation (Hazelton, 2017)

Train safety is important for the passenger train services in the UK. Past records highlight infrastructural and train failures as leading causes of accidents. The number of trains in a track or station determines the operation problems. It shapes the traffic system on how many trains a railway system needs at a time. The company needs to introduce hybrid trains with varied solutions. Rolling stock engineering deals with congestion through the improvement of assemblage, operation and maintenance of trains (RTM, 2017). The train needs to fit with the track sizes hence radius, distance and curve measures must align accordingly. 

Recommended

Permitted

Track

Type

Curves in Same Direction (m)

Curves in Opposite Directions (m)

Curves in Same Direction (m)

Curves in Opposite Directions (m)

1

150

150

100

80

2

100

75

70

65

3

100

75

70

65

4 and 5

60

55

50

50

Table 1: Recommendations for track size for train speed 250 Km/h (Israel Railways Limited, 2013)

Mechanical services and equipment tackle the challenges of service delivery in a railway network.  Contemporary networks have computerised designs for design drawing of the rolling stock production and management of technical issues. It involves electrical engineering in competent skills for the 21st Century. The planned rail system serves commodity industries in the region. Having additional freight in the overall network an increase in rail infrastructural capacity and additional tracks.

The growth demand influences the construction of structures such as tunnels, bridges, block segments and junctions. These are part of the railway-engineering project. Designed to accommodate the smooth flow of passenger and cargo freight, these are critical for controlling unidirectional and bidirectional tracks. The use of train signals prevents head on collisions at junction levels. Rescheduling also helps to separate platforms for trains on arrival and those in the departure schedule. These cater for speed and sudden stops or extra trains. Separating the connections and cancellations prevents disturbances. Risk management featuring a junction plan serves as a control point for the prevention of overlapping, disruption and delays (Shukla, et al., 2017). Dispatch planning considers all case scenarios including rescheduling challenges, crew and online management platforms.

Government Policies and Objectives

Figure 4: Overcoming passenger and freight delays on rail line networks (BBC, 2016)

A constraint Programming (CP) model is a useful tool in this process. In collaboration with the heuristic approach, this technique guides decisions on routes, management of tracks and the cancellation of schedules.  In a rail junction mode, the rail routes coverage has provisions for convergence and divergence. A station may serve as a junction for more than 2 rail routes to meet from different direction. The Y shaped design of the East Midlands and Leeds connects rail lines providing direct routes to other stations (Autopedia, 2015). This triangular junction allows trains to pass from one section to another. Proper mechanisms for locking and switching rails must be in place.

In order to take full advantage of the Leek Railway infrastructure Moorland & City needs to develop enhanced lines using improved technology. This investment costs billions because of the connectivity and transformation process. However, this next generation system must support the global standards of reliability and technology based operations. Stakeholders in the industry include the local government at Leeks and Aston, department of transport, train and freight operators, suppliers and the customers.

Private stakeholders in the industry include safety and monitoring, rail delivery groups, non-profit organizations, rail accident and investigations officers and industry researchers. Professional associations in the industry provide competent mechanical, civil and institutional engineers to work on the projects. High-speed trains operate on magnetic tracks with its forces reducing the speed incredibly. It has improved carriage capacity for passenger and freight services. The operation is on high-speed transit systems that capture networks across the region (Demetriou, 2013). This would call for the involvement of stakeholders across the UK. Consideration for other projects, policies and environmental effects is critical. The rail network between Leeks and Aston affects regional and integrated networks.

As the UK continues to embrace global strategies such as advanced technology, diversity in the planning and implementation becomes inevitable. Moorland & City’s collaboration plan is important in dealing with numerous challenges in the UK railway industry (Bataille & Steinmetz, 2013). This project targets a suburban location but it has implications for the metropolitan parts of the UK. Performance integrated systems using different technologies targets solutions for the increased mobility in the urban areas. In this case, the company has to deal with:

  • An aging railway network
  • Operational efficiency
  • Advanced technology for contemporary rail system
  • Commuter preferences
  • Improved capacity of the rail system
  • Safety and security concerns
  • Environmental issues related with the transport industry
  • An integrated network considering the original railway framework and the global demands
  • Government regulations and available support

The Royal Academy of Engineering ( 2015) addresses congestion in urban and interurban railway networks. It makes suggestions for an integrated plan  that includes investemnet in infrastructure to enhance capacity and maximize on technology. The aging rail network continues to expereince challenges of meetiing the demand and maximizing on capacity. It needs a demand oriented solution that reduces congestion while sticking to the national regulations. Long term solutions such as the extension of existing track beds (Unseen Steam, 2017). Reviving unused rails and replacing it with new networks involves a restoration plan to meet the growing interurban transport needs. improving the capacity of the freight rail transport is also a strategy to reduce city and town congestion by lorries and vans.

Changes in land use requires a sustainable plan that caters for the present and future generations. The design may have sociioeconomic constraints. Minimizing the socio economic constaints  requires reduced impact on the environment and geograohical considerations. The design considers radius, radient and vertical constraints in the infrastructural designs for a multi use facility (Eidlin, et al., 2017).

Improved communication at the station features GPS, Wi-Fi, modern radio and signalling systems. Sir Peter Handy, former Transport Commissioner for London points at the importance of the railway network in an economy (Rail News, 2016). He acknowledges that having a congested railway network is a good sign of growth because it is an indication that the old needs a fix. Research proves that the old railway is more expensive to maintain because of the cable systems and parts. The digital installations mean more trains operating within a short period. The commitment of the government is a plus for the project.

The Leeks and Aston location is at the centre of the UK and it dwells within busy neighbouring cities of Manchester and Birmingham. The project needs to consider the road networks and parking as much as it looks into advancements. Consultations with stakeholders is necessary for legal requirements and conflict of interests.

Safety is a priority in horizontal and vertical elevation. The superelevation metrics below describe measures used for the development of an elevation using horizontal curves to overcome frictional effects. Finding the rate of elevation identifies the coefficient and lateral, which cause friction and overturing in rail networks. Civil engineering tactics such as the clothoid geometry gives essential parameters to guide the transition routes. In this case, R is the initial direction or directional angle for the x and y coordinates.

Working with transportation engineering is important for track resistance, improved haling capacity and reduced wears that lead to failure of the railway networks. The project needs an analysis of the jointed verses welded rails, fastenings and the best track speeds. Gradients compliment the vertical curves used to specify the connectivity of the tracks at the junctions and stations.  The curves in horizontal geometry dictate the speed for both passenger and freight railways for balanced elevations. The external and internal measures improve the operational speed of for greater efficiency.

The process of reconstructing the new stations logistics for the urban market addresses the basic problems faced by the Leeks and Aston stations (Broek, 2012). Adding new carriage to improve movement within the station and terminus starts with the improved command of the communication systems. This aides the train control units for reduced congestion. Before increasing the capacity of a passage space of freight department, an analysis of its potential is necessary. Using the urban distribution framework as the backbone the plan optimizes on the timing and capacity deliveries. The plan by Moorland & City sets aside loading bays, stores and a modern waiting bay for the modern passenger who needs of convenience. In order to address the impact of the loading tracks, the project needs to adopt strategies that prevent collision. The use of stronger structures such as steel and concrete also includes an analysis of the depth of the structures to minimize. Operating temperature ranges as shown in the table is also important.

Table 2: varied temperature conditions for the train (Moxa, 2016)

Budget constraints include improvements around the station areas. Leeks station and terminus require a new architectural design. The project needs improved tracks with safety and economically viable upgrades (Pulido, et al., 2012). The shared commitment between the government and the private developer Moorland & City seeks to transform an old station into a modern one using high quality designs. This is a mega project, which is bound to encounter challenges on time limitation, uncertainties, multiple stakeholders and gaps in private partnerships. It is not always easy to attract investors in the maintenance of such large projects. Developing an economical timetable for schedule management is also, a challenge because of the numerous routes and algorithms involved (Zhu, et al., 2014).  Coordinating diverse stakeholders in the region takes time. Integrating the old network with the new one also poses technical challenges on the project. In particular is the choice of an effective alignment mechanism

The construction of the railway network at Leeks today needs a clear plan of sustainability (Profillidis, 2014). Although meeting structural challenges is a hindrance to the project, environmental management is a critical part of the transport industry today. The company needs a strategic plan for its logistics, operation and logistics.  Research in railway operations highlights the need for energy conservation and waste management. The overall practice of sustainability in the railway industry contributes to cost reduction. The infrastructural developments enhance sustainability through its electricity installations. The widespread use of LED lightings and low carbon emissions is a priority for this project. Efforts towards recycling and using alternative energy sources are also in the plan. This plan adopts the green railway-engineering theme in order to support a balance in economic and social benefits of the project. Environmental preservation is cost effective and it supports the needs of the community. This agenda also supports safety by reducing on hazards (Lees, 2012). The project implements this plan with concerns for reduced noise and air pollution from previous rail networks. However, the high speed engine also consumer more energy hence future projects will focus on the greater reduction in energy consumptions.

Conclusion

Moorland & City Railway Company plans to improve the Leeks railway system by building on its old platform. This cost effective approach allows the company to corporate with the government and other stakeholders in growing the industry. This presents opportunities as well as challenges. In an effort to upgrade an old station for improved city and suburban networks, the project needs to consider the external environment. The project seeks to ease congestion by improving the capacity of the UK railway networks and facilitating for faster convenient travelling. In accordance to the passenger demands, the company develops a plan, which works with the geographical and city plan. The technical engineering process involves a complex multifaceted approach to the development and maintenance of the railway system. Contemporary rail network include advanced technological installations, improved approach to customer service and sustainability approaches. These designs apply to both passenger and freight rail networks. The successful implementation of the plan requires competent skills from across different industry players. Consideration for environmental plans is a priority for this new strategy because of the global concerns. As a development plan inspired by the global market, this project also needs to consider advanced security measures. This is a risk management plan to tackle contemporary challenges such as terrorism, which continue to affect the transport industry.

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