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Research seeks to examine if priming 'fast' and 'slow' has any influence on the speed of creating descriptions for abstract shapes. The introduction of the assignment is therefore expected to be focused upon justifying why the research is being conducted, and also justifying the precise hypotheses regarding how you think the ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ priming might impact typing speed for the abstract shape descriptions. As per standard lab report writing it is expected that the introduction will flow from a broad start that narrows down to the specific hypotheses at the end of the section.

The results section should provide statistics that can be used to answer all the hypotheses. Descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations) for all variables of interest should be reported. A paired-samples t-test should be used to compare speed of making descriptions when primed with ‘fast’ versus when primed with ‘slow’. The results should be described in a way that makes the findings clear to the reader.

The discussion section should re-state what was expected and explain to the reader if the findings support or do not support what was predicted. As much as possible, the findings should be explained in the context of the research literature.

Results

Action and perception are considered classical as different functional and neurological mechanisms. However, recent studies that use an action planning paradigm have defied this perception and demonstrated that narratives can facilitate the recognition of objects (Chilisa, 2011). The objective of the research was to resolve whether representations of the action affect object detection at the beginning of the visual process. The moment of activation of the underlying brain for this purpose was studied at the time of the description of the object. The subjects were presented with objects manipulated sequentially to describe in slow priming mode. In fast simulating mode, the participants performed similar actions, while in the intransigent mode different actions were performed. The objects were shown as an abstract image or a word to test the effects of the main mode on the main operations. A priming effect was found recognizing shapes or patterns after selecting image primers. The results suggest that the primer affects the detection of objects by fast and slow signal curves, but, there was no significance in the time difference for the fast process and slow process, when it was activated with visual stimuli.

It is generally accepted that the detection of a object visually, depends largely on the analysis of information perceived visually, and on the active realization of representations of stored visual objects (Barsalou, 2008). However, recent studies show that the detection of manipulated objects includes visual representations, and also initializes actions in the functional system of the brain (Binder, Desai, Graves, & Conant, 2009). Behavioral studies using a start-of-action paradigm, as described below, have shown that action implementation makes the recognition of objects possible, and thus play a pivotal role in recognizing objects visually (Gupta, Kembhavi, & Davis, 2009). The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of diagrams on the perception of objects taking advantage of the high temporal dissolution of temporary recordings. In particular, the scholar wanted to determine whether the action representations had already influenced the recognition of objects in a first editing window, that is, a few seconds after the start of the stimulus, which is temporarily extended to the levels.

The main effect of action on object recognition is the question of conventional cognitive models for recognition of objects and control of actions, which offers two different functional and neurological forms for targeted actions stimulate (Milner, & Goodale, 2008). Extension of the primary visual cortex of the brain stimulates visual recognition of objects. However, dorsal visual flow, which also comes from the primary visual cortex, continues to show superior computation of visual cognition information (Silver, & Kastner, 2009). In this context, object-oriented recognition and object-oriented action are considered fundamentally different processes according to the different computational principles. The relative detection of objects is slow and depends on the construction of a deliberate visual perception (Haggard, 2008). On the other hand, the preparation of the action sent through the object is fast and unconscious.

Discussion

Given the evidence in the current study, the scholar scrutinized the effects of fast and slow priming stimuli on description time for abstract subjects. It was hypothesized that speed of abstract description for fast priming was greater than that of the slow priming stimuli. The null hypothesis was constructed assuming that there was no difference in speed of abstract narration due to the two stimuli. The scholar also hypothesized that there strong correlation between these two effects, signifying the consistency of the human brain. These claims were tested at 5% level of significance to inculcate previous results of various literatures.

One hundred twenty four healthy volunteers (MED = 26 years, Range = 18 – 29 years) with normal vision or corrected normal eyesight were involved in the experiment. The participants signed the consent form for the experiment and were briefed by the scholar about the purpose of the research, and were informed that no payment would be provided in appropriation of their service. The experience was conducted according to the ethical standards prevailing in the university administration and approved by the university ethics committee. The stimuli consisted of artificial family objects that were visually presented on a giant screen. Key object and target pairs were chosen for the main objects and objectives to be associated with a typical similar action, whereas the typical actions did not coincide with the other half. Since each main object was associated with the same number of simultaneous goals, hence, possible repetition effects may also affect congruent and inadequate states.

Descriptive Analysis

The average reaction time to describe abstract objects for positively primed situation (M = 24.47, SD = 11.89) was slightly greater than that of the slow primed reaction time (M = 23.39, SD = 11.75). Due to presence of few outlier reaction times positive skewness for both the reaction times were observed. From the side-by-side box plot in Figure 1, it was identified that Interquartile range of reaction timing for fast priming was larger than that of the slow primed situation. Due to presence of outliers the skewness in slow priming was greater than fast priming. But, abstract description timing for priming fast (W = 0.94, P < 0.05), and priming slow (W = 0.86, P < 0.05) were found to be normally distributed, by Shapiro-Wilk test (Razali, & Wah, 2011).

Figure 1: Side-by-side Box Plot for Reaction Time in Fast and Slow Priming

Action and Perception

The correlation between the reaction times for fast and slow priming were found to have a significant positive correlation (r = 0.647, p < 0.05) at 5% level of significance. Therefore, dominant effect of human brain and its functionality was one of the primary impact factors for the consistency between the typing speeds for the abstract shape descriptions under the stimulli of both type of priming. 

Figure 2: Scatter plot for Slow and Fast priming

Response of each participant was scrutinized and segregated by the experimenter as fast or slow typing time on the basis of describing the abstract objects visually observed in the studies. A paired sample t-test with the within-participants time factor modality for fast and slow priming yielded an insignificant effect of priming stimuli [t (123) 1.21, p = 0.114 ]. Following abstract stimuli, targets were described with more error in fast priming (SE = 1.068) than slow primes (SE = 1.055). This finding reflected that describing abstracts object is cognitively less challenging task for a subjective work to get affected by priming stimulus.

The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of the modulator representations of the operation on object recognition. In an action that uses the primer paradigm of measurement, the scholar assess whether action contributions to early detection are already inclined by a quick activation of effect representations to perception steps.

The results of the study showed that the representations of the action prevent the recognition and the end of the two phases of the process from being affected. The scholar found an effect of the stimuli after the image was displayed to the subject. The two primer effects of the stimuli were observed for the written representation. A subsequent conclusion was reached at the beginning for the effect of fast priming for the tying speed of the subjects. Also at the level of behavior, the scholar found an association on the two priming modalities.

The topography of the first primer effect corresponds to the previous studies of the physiological correlations of the presentation of the treatment of effects (Khalili-Mahani et al., 2013). Photos or words with great relevance to the representations of the generated actions were noticed during the experimental outcomes. The differences in general were associated with the activity of the brain areas for synthetic purposes (Smith et al., 2009).

The scholar have found that the activity of the parietal source, which is associated with the brain areas, is involved in a rapid process in the extract of the back-visual flow, that the unconscious action functionally with the preparation of the process with the areas of the brain (Noy et al., 2015). Many are enabled when manipulating objects are edited. The source activity in response to the darkening of the effect was also observed, which was often activated by manipulated objects (Santos, Iglesias, Olivares, & Young, 2008). It has been suggested that the memory is more closely involved in the representation of the movement. Unlike previous studies on the beginning of treatment, an action activity was found, with the exception of the primer zones. The scholar assumed that this was due to the fact that the right hemisphere functions dominantly in the treatment of visual stimuli and conscious detection. The system of the right hemisphere was more responsive to object-sensing measures compared to the left hemisphere.

Object Recognition and Action Planning

Additionally, for the abstract areas and other attention activities are related to the start of the action. These play an important role in the treatment of visual recognition, especially in the right hemisphere of the human brain. This simultaneous activation in response to an interaction creates a primer between recoil processes and previous visual flow processes when objects are visually detected.

Contrary to this conventional vision, however, it became increasingly clear that the neural and functional pathways found at the root of object recognition and object-oriented action are interdependent and based on calculations. According to research literatures close links between representations of conceptual objects and sensory brain systems for different representations of the plots in the system of critical detection of visual objects is evident (Kiefer, & Pulvermüller, 2012). For example, some patients suffer from acquiring knowledge of small and manipulated artificial objects, but have acquired knowledge of large objects such as large structures and animals and plants.

In summary, the scholar noted effects on the participants in two different phases, which were classified for abstract subjects formed by images, which means a fast reaction and initiation of the action representations in the return response under the object recognition. On the other hand, the initial effect of successive actions for the primary stimuli of abstract images has been achieved. This is probably due to the fact that this effect comes from the regions of the brain and reflects the integration of the semantic traits into a coherent concept, regardless of the primary modality. Recent results show that priming operations can quickly and slowly affect the recording of objects (Barsalou, 2008). It affects the fast processes induced by the first stimuli with images, but it can also adapt in the slow abstract image integration process that is caused due to functionality of subconscious human brain.

References

Barsalou, L. W. (2008). Grounded cognition. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 59, 617-645.

Binder, J. R., Desai, R. H., Graves, W. W., & Conant, L. L. (2009). Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex, 19(12), 2767-2796.

Chilisa, B. (2011). Indigenous research methodologies. Sage Publications.

Gupta, A., Kembhavi, A., & Davis, L. S. (2009). Observing human-object interactions: Using spatial and functional compatibility for recognition. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 31(10), 1775-1789.

Haggard, P. (2008). Human volition: towards a neuroscience of will. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(12), 934.

Khalili-Mahani, N., Chang, C., van Osch, M. J., Veer, I. M., van Buchem, M. A., Dahan, A., ... & Rombouts, S. A. (2013). The impact of “physiological correction” on functional connectivity analysis of pharmacological resting state fMRI. Neuroimage, 65, 499-510.

Kiefer, M., & Pulvermüller, F. (2012). Conceptual representations in mind and brain: theoretical developments, current evidence and future directions. cortex, 48(7), 805-825.

Milner, A. D., & Goodale, M. A. (2008). Two visual systems re-viewed. Neuropsychologia, 46(3), 774-785.

Noy, N., Bickel, S., Zion-Golumbic, E., Harel, M., Golan, T., Davidesco, I., ... & Mehta, A. D. (2015). Ignition’s glow: Ultra-fast spread of global cortical activity accompanying local “ignitions” in visual cortex during conscious visual perception. Consciousness and cognition, 35, 206-224.

Razali, N. M., & Wah, Y. B. (2011). Power comparisons of shapiro-wilk, kolmogorov-smirnov, lilliefors and anderson-darling tests. Journal of statistical modeling and analytics, 2(1), 21-33.

Santos, I. M., Iglesias, J., Olivares, E. I., & Young, A. W. (2008). Differential effects of object-based attention on evoked potentials to fearful and disgusted faces. Neuropsychologia, 46(5), 1468-1479.

Silver, M. A., & Kastner, S. (2009). Topographic maps in human frontal and parietal cortex. Trends in cognitive sciences, 13(11), 488-495.

Smith, S. M., Fox, P. T., Miller, K. L., Glahn, D. C., Fox, P. M., Mackay, C. E., ... & Beckmann, C. F. (2009). Correspondence of the brain's functional architecture during activation and rest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(31), 13040-13045.

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