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Now that we understand “policy” as a big picture kind of concept, we can talk about all of the different ways that we can recognize and identify what actual policies are around any given issue or social problem, based on how people interpret and act on what they believe the problem to be (Paper 1). In this paper, you’ll provide a thorough description and explanation of the various ways that policies are expressed in the real world. You’ll talk in equal parts about formal, institutional responses and “informal” or nongovernmental responses to the problems your policy issue raises.

Describe and discuss the range of laws, judicial rulings, executive decisions, and programsthat relate to your policy topic. Address effects on specifically affected/targeted populations.

Provide a brief history of how the laws/judicial rulings/executive decisions and programs you discussed above came to be (i.e., social, cultural, and political contexts).

Political will in the current context—what’s going on today

 Who are the decisionmakers? Identify them and describe their positions/power

 Who influences the decisionmakers? Identify them and the kinds of influence they have

Who doesn’t have much power but would like to? Whose voices are not heard, but should be? Identify them, their positions, and circumstances.

What are some alternatives to the way we address the problem now?

Other than the current formal expressions you discussed in “a),” above, what are some other options that society might consider—or something that’s been proposed but not enacted—in order to deal with the social problem?

Who supports these other options, and why?

Describe and discuss what actions people are taking, collectively and individually(e.g., social movements, business, religious orgs, community leaders, others….) outside of formal systems.

Provide a brief history of how these emerged/developed over time (i.e., social, cultural, and political contexts).

What specific groups or activists are making things happen? Identify them and describe their positions/power.

Who supports them, how, and why? Identify them and the kinds of influence they have (e.g., money, social media, community action, etc.).

Explain how the people and actions you discussed in Questions 1 (Formal expressions) and 2 (Informal expressions) influenced each other in the past, and do so currently.

Describe using clear, detailed examples.

Formal Expressions: Governmental Responses

In the current increasingly globalized world, there has been rising number of disparities where most of the population lives a life full of daily challenges. Immigration has been one of the polarizing topics for most of the years (Banks, 2014). The current administrative documents revealed the challenges faced by millions of undocumented immigrants and their elevated issue towards their educational system.  There lies a wide range of laws, executive decisions regarding the policies in connection to the rights of the primary or the basic education to the immigrant’s children. The affected groups of population are the immigrant’s students and some of the major challenges they face are the barriers in language and in communication. Furthermore getting used to custom and the cultural practices are some of the challenging factors for the immigrant students.

The right of the education to the children towards compulsory and free primary education has been long overlooked in the history of the culture of the right of the child. In the concept of the international legal basis, the right to education is generally illustrated in the international law on the article 26 of the universal declaration of human rights and in the article 13 and 14 in the international social and the cultural rights (Perez, 2015). Policies related to the education among the children have been reaffirmed by the UNESCO conventions and the protocol relate to the convention of the human rights. Stemming from the 1948 universal declaration of human rights, the rights of all the children towards education irrespective of the social and the economic status affirm the development of the personality of human together with the respect for the human rights.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the UN General Assembly in the year 1948, 10 December (Callahan & Humphries, 2016). The formation of the rights related to the universal declaration of human rights was the result of the experience related to the second world war. The policy in connection to the right to free and compulsory education of the children was developed under the chairmanship of Eleanor Roosevelt. The documentation of human rights was first written by shah in the Cyrus cylinder depicting the freedom in relation to opinion and other basic human rights.

Some of the basic influencer to the policy maker of the international UN Commission is the society and the social norms regarding the development of the country and the people.

The effected group of people in this connection is the immigrant families with very low socio economic status. It is them who do not have that much of power to address the issue.  Many of the immigrant students and their families tend to experience fear and anxiety towards their future (Nienhusser, 2014). The concentration of the immigrants students in the schools tends to have adverse effect on the integration efforts but the major factor of disadvantage is the concentration of the socio economic disadvantages that hinders the success and the achievement of the student.

Description and Discussion of Laws, Judicial Rulings, Executive Decisions, and Programs Relating to Policy Topics

The right to education among the  children is the basic human rights. In the context of the human rights to education, the makers of the policy axiomatically tend to relate on the notion of the value neutral education (Nienhusser, 2015). The strategy in connection to the human rights and education is a long term strategy with the aim towards the need of the upcoming generations. The education for the future is essential towards the construction of innovative educational programs for the advancement of the human development, democracy, peace and the respect towards the rule of law.

Some of the best alternatives for the challenges in connection to the education system of the students can be the provision of the information to the immigrant parents in the options of schooling that is available for their children, limitation of the extent to which the advantaged schools tends to select the students regarding their socio economic status, the retain policy and the attraction of more advantaged issues in the schools for the hosting of the immigrant students.

Some of the action which is taken collectively and individually outside the formal systems for addressing and discussing the challenges of the immigrant students includes finding ways for enhancing and achieving the self awareness of the cultural heritage among the students. Promotion, facilitation and participation of the immigrant students I the activities for the increase in their knowledge of the cultures, helping the students to understand the language related to communication and conversation with the emphasis on earning for speaking fluently. Some of the other actions may include provision of effective support services for the immigrant families, orientation programs for the new immigrants, free and reduced proc for the lunch programs for the immigrants, after school child care programs for support in home work and the ESL classes for both the immigrant’s students and their families.

A brief history regarding the educational policy of the immigrant students includes the school based strategies encompassing the issues of the students. Public schools are some of the complex environments where all the aspects related to the developmental requirements of the students tend to be addressed. Meeting the requirements of such diverse immigrant family and the child tends to require commitment, knowledge and the strategies related to emotions. It all started when families from one country flew down to another due to the employment purpose and found it utterly difficult to adjust in the new environment especially in terms of language and communication. The policy in relation to the education of the immigrant students was formed keeping in mind the challenges and the barriers they face in the school with the students from other countries which is a hurdle in the pathway of their success.

In the year 1982, the supreme court of United States issues a decision regarding the challenges and the factors affecting the immigrant children and their right towards the primary education (Darling-Hammond, 2015). The Supreme Court based is decision in the notion of the equal protection clause of the UDHR and the constitution. In the notion of the information context, agencies working for the rights of the immigrants are making things happen.

The policy regarding the education of the immigrant students are supported by the federal government and the United Nations on the basis of the basic human rights towards education. The community actions are one of the basic instances how the government poses its influence on the issues of the immigrants.

The government and the governmental agencies working for the rights of the immigrants are working towards the enforcement of policies to address the challenges faced by the immigrant students in the foreign countries (Rindermann & Thompson, 2016). One of the major issues that the immigrant students face is the language and the communication barriers. The governmental agencies like United We Dream, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship of Canada, Center for immigration studies are initiating training and education programs of ESL for helping the immigrant students. The government furthermore should introduce new policies for improving the educational system for the immigrant students.

References

Banks, J. A. (2014). Diversity, group identity, and citizenship education in a global age. Journal of Education, 194(3), 1-12. DOI: 10.3102/0013189X08317501

Callahan, R. M., & Humphries, M. H. (2016). Undermatched? School-based linguistic status, college going, and the immigrant advantage. American educational research journal, 53(2), 263-295. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4820317/

Darling-Hammond, L. (2015). The flat world and education: How America's commitment to equity will determine our future. Teachers College Press. https://aasa.org/uploadedFiles/Publications/Journals/AASA_Journal_of_Scholarship_and_Practice/Summer2012_JSPFINAL_v2.pdf#page=33

Nienhusser, H. K. (2014). Role of community colleges in the implementation of postsecondary education enrollment policies for undocumented students. Community College Review, 42(1), 3-22. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.939.3138&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Nienhusser, H. K. (2015). Undocumented immigrants and higher education policy: The policymaking environment of New York State. The Review of Higher Education, 38(2), 271-303. DOI: 10.1353/rhe.2015.0006

Perez, W. (2015). Americans by heart: Undocumented Latino students and the promise of higher education. Teachers College Press. https://www.mvcsp.com/accreditation/Evidence/Evidence/Undocumented-Student.pdf

Rindermann, H., & Thompson, J. (2016). The cognitive competences of immigrant and native students across the world: An analysis of gaps, possible causes and impact. Journal of biosocial science, 48(1), 66-93. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021932014000480

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