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Discuss about the The Impact of Right to Carry Laws and the NRC Report.

The difficulty that arises during the measurement of the prices consists of the heterogeneity of the housing market, cost /price or the inflation and the affordability which are linked to the earnings and the income.

Housing prices

The index of the quality adjustment is that it attempts to measure the price of the housing prices that are adjusted to attempt the sense of the measuring the price that is fixed for the housing assets (Aneja, Donohue and Zhang, 2012). Different house prices yield different estimates of the growth in the housing prices that stay particularly for a short period. It is seen in the case of the housing prices that are helpful for the measurement of the fixed prices for the case of the property or the assets. It is also important to note that the prices are measured according to the four main indexes which help the seller to continue its long run even during the period of recession. It is important to note that the comprehensive national indexes are used in the case of the housing prices which help in the balance of the price regarding the housing assets.  

Heterogeneity of the housing market

Heterogeneity of the housing market is commonly seen in the sellers that are helpful for trading the durable goods. Like in the other markets the state of the housing prices are mostly determined by the prices that are mostly demanded according to the agent’s behaviour (Besley, Meads and Surico, 2010). Sellers are heterogeneous in motivation which is having different strategies for the development of the hypothesis which gave evidence of different motivations which are helpful for the selling of the houses be4ing there are variations in the market of the housing. The fact that the behaviour of the different sources of the real estate’s differs from the property owners whose effect can be reflected on the real estate agents and the private individuals who are linked with it.   


Issues of the cost are also known as the affordability which is the heart of the current debates about the topic housing. There are several other different concepts which use different measures that have been moving differently (Carl, 2011). To avoid confusion, it is important to clear the distinctions of the outset. Housing prices are the upfront of the cost of coming to own the property which is often being met to aid the mortgage particularly lies for the first time buyers. It hence represents the price of the buying of the assets. The assets derive the economic value of the fact which provides the future flow of the housing services. Hence, the owner buying the asset tries to sell its asset to someone for some period i.e. a type of rental assets that can be given to someone. There are certain costs of the housing over the certain period which may vary according to the period. For the case of the renters, the cost may vary with the rent that is asked for but the owner receives the main mortgage as a case of the interest.

Housing prices

There are some factors which show there are actual costing of the houses which are paid by the each household (Di, 2007). The key housing costs are the mortgage of the interest rents and the payments and also include the water charges, building insurance plan premiums for the owner-occupiers and the ground rents and the service charges. The proportion of the population is given with the different population rates which are a part of the housing tenure that should be included to the rental ailments that are included below for the different tenure groups with details.  

Owned outright: In this part of the housing tenure, the types of the housing costs that are included are buildings Insurance premiums, water rates / the charges, ground rent and the service charges. The percentage of the population that are included in this part of the housing tenure is about 27%.

Owned Mortgage: The owned mortgage includes the mortgage interest rates and the above charges. It also includes the percentage of the population which is 38% (Gariba et al., 2010).

Private rental: The housing costs of this part include the rent, water rates and the other charges. The private rent percentage of the population is about 17%

Social rental: The social rented of the housing tenure includes the housing costs which are water rent rates and the other charges that are included in it. The percentages of the population that are included in the housing tenure are about 16%.

percentages of the population that are included in the housing tenure

The segmented markets are hence can be divided into the two markets which are mass marketing and the target marketing (Gramlich, 2007). This housing of process can be determined by the method of the target marketing which is defined as the course of the recognition of the diversity of the customers which does not try to appeal for the same offering. The target market segmentation process is applied to the description of the same group people which can be helped in the process of identification of the groups such as customers, prioritising the group to the address, understanding their interest and the response towards the appropriate decision marketing strategies that helps in the satisfaction of the segments that are chosen for the different preferences. The target markets can be classified into four types which are as follows with details:-

Demographic: the demographic variables are around the marketers that are included in the target market which includes the income, family size, family life cycle, religion, race, gender, nationality, generation and the occupation. This demographic characteristic protects the classes under the act of the discrimination of the houses (Holmes and Jones, 2013). It also helps in the proper implementation of the housing laws that can be protected with the proper implementation of this strategy.

Heterogeneity of the housing market

Geographic: - geographic characteristics includes the members that are targeted to the geographic market which is neighbourhood, urban, sub urban, rural areas, city or country, school districts, community and the employer. These geographical positions help in the proper distinction of the housing rates which are affected to the seller as well as the buyer (Housing Boom and Bust, 2010).

Referral: Referral targets are the groups of people that interact with the potential customers which are a part of the buyer profile. The examples of the referral are mortgage loan officers, real estate agents, home buyer educators and the neighbours near your homes. It can be seen that the referral markets are aware of the business that is probably related to the housing companies and the survey of the sellers and the buyers reports helps in the extraction of the view that are most probably useful for the housing agents or the brokers.

Psychographic: Members of the psychographic markets are divided according to their groups which help in the specification of their lifestyles that they are leading and the kind of the lifestyle they are leading increases the things which are common such as the interests, activities, opinions, values, etc. (Housing bulletin monthly report, 2009). The example of the psychographic market is pet owners, empty nesters, musicians and the artists seeking an urban style life style, employees of the social service agencies and the friends and the families of the current homeowners in your neighbourhood.

Along with the above points, the target markets which can be extracted into different types are as follows:-

Renters in the neighbourhood in which the home is located

Consumers of the city depend on the type of the usage of the media services.

Congregants of the neighbourhood which denotes the churches, mosques and other faith institution.

Families and the staffs of the neighbourhood school near your properties

Employees of the neighbourhood employers who belong to the corresponding income profile

Friends and the families of the existing neighbourhood (Housing bulletin monthly report, 2010).

Participants in the home buyer’s education class throughout the city or the region.

Renters with pets

Employees of the social service agencies

Referrals of the real estate agents who specialises in the comparison between the neighbours and the price ranges.

Policy evaluation is preferably applied to the overall assessment principles and the key techniques help to examine the overall content and thus help to provide a clear and implementation or impact of a key policy (Housing bulletin monthly report, 2011). Determination and identification of the key activity through which it helps provide a clear and precise idea about the overall understanding of the worth fullness, merit and key utility of the policy. It is very much significant to understand the how policy evaluation which hep to fits into larger policy method (2016). Government policies related to the housing in Britain are considered to unequal as the wealth varies from one house to other, especially in term of age, social class and region. Housing wealth inequality is deemed to be partly a product of income inequality and minute amount product of the past and current specific government policy interventions. Considered the part of the redistributive effect of the housing wealth across the generations and the key across social, economic team helps to determine and identify the policy impact of the two out key four government policies related to housing (2016).


The key four policies relate to the housing are,

Right to buy:~ the statutory right to buy a policy is primarily related to the Council of the house tenants which lead to the buying or purchase of their rented accommodation at a rate which is heavily subsidised prices (2016). The policy right to buy is introduced in the year 1980 which provide the right to buy option for the tenant. The policy was considered to be subsequently enlarged to different form related to the social housing in late 1990. It is deemed as one of the most various social policies which are undertaken in the current decades in the United Kingdom. The housing act of 1980 is introduced with a statutory right to buy for the key council tenant with at least given three years of tenure in the council house. Discount on the sales price on the market ranged from around 33% for tenants with around three years of tenures till 50% after 20 years. Local authorities are considered to have the highest significance to the housing applicant with the lowest income (2016).

Help to buy: ~ Government prepare policy which contributes to providing support financially and it significant policies. The government supports to people and support the aspiration to own rightfully their house. The government provide several vital help to buy scheme which permits the people to purchase a home's which are priced up to 6000000 pounds with a low deposit of around 5%.  There are three basic types of Help to buy scheme (2016).

Help to buy are equity loan and the government lends up to 20% of the overall value of the new build house.

Help to buy which contribute to mortgage the guarantee will run till 2016 and assist the permit the lenders to offer home buyer around 80% to 95% mortgages.

Help to buy new buy primary aim to help the buyer who needs to deposit of around 5% to buy a new build house.

Help to buy ISAS: ~ in the March 2015 budget announced by the government which published ISA a new saving scheme which helps the first time buyer in the United Kingdom which contributes to saving for the deposit which helps to buy the first home. The help to buy ISAS scheme was launched in the year 2015 December. Under this scheme, the first time buyer can save up to around 200 pounds per month by the their first deposit of the first new home which eventually help them to buy ISA account. There is no minimum amount of the monthly requirement is essential. The first-time buyer can make the first deposit of the 1000 pound when opening the account to permit the FTB to initial saving before the account is established. The government will add a bonus of around 25% to the FTB saving on the total purchase of a first time. The bonus is subject to a maximum of around 3000 pounds ("Help to Buy ISA - Council of Mortgage Lenders", 2015).

Factors that affect the different categories of the housing market

Social rent cut by 1%:~ social housing tenant will foresee their rent to decrease by around 1 % a year for the coming next four years after the Chancellor put forward a consent on the overall increase in the rent in the social housing sector and compelled the housing authority to decrease the price around 1% (Kelly, 2015).

The growth of the house ownership in the United Kingdom in the postwar period which is largely widened by the overall distribution of the health and thus help to decrease the overall inequality of the wealth ownership which was considerable determined in the interwar period. Housing wealth is considered or be essential be identified asa issues. In several words, it is considerable proved and identified by the great powerful force for the enhanced wealth equality and proper wealth distribution (2016). To a greater extent, housing wealth is considered to be a prior reflection of the accomplished social mobility in the overall sequence of the authentic job and income which are considered to be most easy o purchase and expensive house are present in the posh areas. Housing wealth also helps to provide financial suppose as the resource to remortgage which eventually contributes to free the part of the equity. In some general case, the cash is dispensed with to help of finance housing enhancement or extension which is also signified as the mode of the investment.  Cash are disbursed in the form of the overall consumption, for instance, a car purchase. Housing might provide the overall security on which the overall acceptance of the fund leads to the enhancement of the business (Johnston and Kay, 2007). The recent development in the present condition of the high house prices, which the overall role of the parental housing wealth help the young people to gain strong foothold o the housing ladder.  A parent might borrow fund in respect with their homes a form of security and thus help them to take a larger mortgage to give key fund to their children to provide a significant amount of the deposit.

The financial policy committee was established in the year 1998 under the Bank of England act with the help of various amendments which was made in the year financial service act 2012. The legislation is considered to be established in the FPC came into action in the year 2013 several housing tools are implemented by the financial policy committee (2016). The direction power over the LTV and DTI ratios helps to permit the FPC to need the PRA and FCA which help them to prevent the lenders from the extending the mortgages which can be deliberately increase by the limitation when the judges that are conducting states the level of risk related to the financial stability increase in the housing market.

Segmented Market

The LTV tool primarily regulated in the determining and identifying the limit on the overall proposition of the new mortgages which can be increased at a level of high LTV ratios. These helps to protect the lenders capital by decreasing the overall potential losses in the key events which increase the LTV borrowers default their level of mortgages and the value of the property dropped. In the case of the dealt lenders which are most likely to face the severe loss on the loan or mortgage loan where the situation is the lower proportion of the borrowed equity and more enhanced borrower equity and LTV loan are more susceptible related to the higher borrower at the default rate (Farmer, 2014).

The DTI tool is primarily operated in determine and placing the strict limit on the overall proposition of the mortgages which can be increased at the level of high DTI ratios which can be improved the financial stability by identifying the household indebtedness (2016). An enhanced form of highly indebted household can lead to the increased level of risk to the financial system which directly affect unfortunate all in the key income or change, the overall rate of interest signifies the more borrower,  who are not able to focus on the debt and default on their respective mortgages or indirectly, if it is considered to continue the overall service related to the debt. Household might decrease the overall consumption and hence leads to the decreased amount of the pressure on the bigger economic activities (Farmer, 2014). Both tools are considered to be helpful in decreasing r minimising the overall implication channel between the mortgages lending, overall expectation of the future house prices increase and the key housing market.


Aneja, A., Donohue, J. and Zhang, A. (2012). The impact of right to carry laws and the NRC report. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Besley, T., Meads, N. and Surico, P. (2010). Risk heterogeneity and credit supply. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.

Carl, J. (2011). Think social problems. Boston: Pearson.

Di, Z. (2007). Growing wealth, inequality, and housing in the united states. Cambridge: Joint Center For Housing Studies.

Gariba, S., Balogun, P., An, P. and Hildenwall, V. (2010). Independent review of the UNDP evaluation policy. New York, NY, USA: United Nations Development Programme, Evaluation Office.

Gramlich, E. (2007). Subprime mortgages. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press.

Holmes, R. and Jones, N. (2013). Gender and Social Protection in the Developing World. London: Zed Books.

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Housing bulletin monthly report. (2010). [Edmonton?]: Govt. of Alberta, Housing and Urban Affairs.

Housing bulletin monthly report. (2011). [Edmonton?]: Govt. of Alberta, Housing and Urban Affairs.

Johnston, R. and Kay, F. (2007). Social capital, diversity, and the welfare state. Vancouver [B.C.]: UBC Press.

Lovenheim, M. and Reynolds, C. (2012). The effect of housing wealth on college choice. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Mayock, T. (2015). Wages, Housing Prices and Commutes. Real Estate Economics, 44(1), pp.258-300.

Nguyen, T. (2012). Investing in the high yield municipal market. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Norris, M. and Redmond, D. (2007). Housing contemporary Ireland. Dordrecht: Springer.

Hilber, C. 2015. UK Housing and Planning Policies: the evidence from economic research, Centre for economic Performance, paper EA033, London School of Economics and political Sciences, London, UK;

Disney, R. and Luo, G. 2014. The right to buy public housing in Britain: a welfare analysis, Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), working paper series no. W15/05 22. London, CPP/ESRC

Disney, R. 2015. The right to buy public housing in Britain: a welfare analysis, IFS Briefing Note BN162)

(2016). Retrieved 25 March 2016, from

(2016). Retrieved 25 March 2016, from

Help to Buy ISA - Council of Mortgage Lenders. (2015). Retrieved 25 March 2016, from

Kelly, L. (2015). Social housing rents to fall by 1% a year, chancellor announces. the Guardian. Retrieved 25 March 2016, from

Farmer, R. (2014). Financial Stability and the Role of the Financial Policy Committee. The Manchester School, 82, 35-43.

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