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Energy audit and analysis of consumption.

An energy audit is a process with viable and potential survey of inspection for the energy flows anlaysis for performing energy

The energy efficiency implementation. Inefficient and potentially huge energy consumed equipment has to be replaced

Efficient efficiency in au.

Energy consumption.

Consumption and Seasonal Consumption and Relative Charges

Energy audit include utility bills.

Energy management opportunities for the house.


An energy audit is a process with viable and potential survey of inspection for the energy flows anlaysis for performing energy conservation, in a particular house or in a system. The objective of the audit system is to reduce the total energy input into the system with no negative output affects.

The path of energy audit directs to the energy efficiency implementation. Inefficient and potentially huge energy consumed equipment has to be replaced with efficient equipment. The goal of the energy audit is to save and reduce the kilowatt hours (kWh) and kilowatts (kW). There is a small difference between such two measurements. Here, kilowatt is measured as power rating and kilowatt hours is the actual consumed energy measurement. Energy efficiency implementation results in reduced carbon footprint, through reducing the operational costs. The overall benefit of the energy audit and the expected outcome of energy efficiency implementation is to improve the quality of life. It plays a vital role to increase the revenue, in case the consumers make use of the greener product, in the place of non-greener product (Forsstrom, et al, 2011). Though a house is considered as a basic unit, small changes and the respective changes in the home energy consumption, can add up to larger savings. The overall benefits of the same are to decrease the operational costs, carbon footprint to increase or improve the quality of life.

The power consumption by every electrical appliance, in every house has direct contact and effect to the greenhouse gasses and so carbon footprint. Hence, every house has been taken as a basic unit to calculate the contribution of the greenhouse gas emission, by each house. The process of calculating the power consumption in a house is done through the process of energy audit. And the energy audit program stands as the key to the program of the energy management. The process of energy audit has the following stages (Barbara & Wolfgang, 2012).

  1. Collection of data and review of the same
  2. House Survey and System Measurements
  3. Appliances operating practices observation and review
  4. Analysis of data

Hence, energy audit process involves determining the how, why, when and where the energy is being used. The objective of the energy audit is to identify possible opportunities towards decreasing the cost of energy and so the emissions of greenhouse gas that eventually contribute to the climate change can be achieved, all towards improving the efficiency.

When a house is the object of the energy audit, then energy consumption reduction, while improving or maintaining the thermal comfort, human comfort, safety and health become the primary concerns. It is not just identifying the energy usage source, but it prioritizes the uses of energy, according to the cost effective opportunities starting from greatest to least, for the savings of energy.


When a home energy audit is considered, house energy efficiency is evaluated by the professional auditing engineer by using professional equipment, like infrared cameras and blower doors, etc. The aim of the home energy audit is usually energy efficiency improvement in cooling and heating of the interior of the house.

Home energy audit considers several building envelope’s characteristics, like windows, walls, doors, floors, skylights and ceilings. It makes an estimation of the R-value, which is also called as resistance to heat flow. The air infiltration or leakage rate of air through the envelope of the building is taken as concern, as these are affected strongly, by door seals quality and window construction, like weatherstripping. It quantifies the overall thermal performance of the building. The energy audit process also involves the assessment of the mechanical systems’s physical condition, efficiency and programming, like ventilation, heating, air conditioning, thermostat and equipment (Yezioro, et al, 2008). The process of auditing is easier and accurate, when the billing history of the homeowner is made available, as it shows fuel oil, natural gas, electricity or other sources of energy taken for a period of one year two years.

The energy audit process becomes more accurate, when the climate, behaviour and age of the home are taken as important factors.

The efforts to improve the energy efficiency by the country is initiated and being led by the Australian National Government. The effort is continued majorly with Department of Industry and Science. A National Strategy on Energy Efficiency contract is agreed by the Council of Australian Governments that represents each of the Australia’s territory and state, in July, 2009. The plan is of, ten year, in which the energy efficient practices nationwide implementation is accelerated for the transformation of country into the future of low carbon. There are many energy usage areas addressed under this NSEE (Thumann & Albert, 2012). The new adopted energy efficiency stresses on four major points, to achieve the energy efficiency state levels, as the following.

  1. To streamline the efficient energy adoption
  2. To help transitioning the businesses and households to a future of low carbon
  3. For governments to lead the energy efficient way and work with partnership
  4. To enable the houses and buildings with more energy efficient

The audit process and report covers the most of the power and energy utilized in a particular residential place, which is located in Brisbane, in Australia. The major power consuming elements at home, are users of major socket power, lighting systems and high power non-socket power consumption, using systems, that includes even stove and oven.

The entire house energy consumption is measured using power meter and LUX meter. So, most and primary power points, equipped in the house are considered for the report, though certain power points, such as for washing machine and study rooms are either of no easy access or inaccessible to switch on and off the power points. So, the overall and major affected areas power consumption is estimated.


The results obtained from the condition survey have been listed. The scope of the energy audit is limited to the internal and external sockets and appliances, present in the house. Each of the energy inputs is pointed and located, within the house (Matar, 2015). From this energy inputs, major energy consuming points are listed and noted, for further reference. Then the audit scope checklist is made.

Since every home has lights, the respective light efficiency is measured by LUX meter and the standard of manufacturer to provide the standard of lighting power. The overall energy usage and relative cost in a particular house is created through consumption and cost of electricity, consumed and compared quarterly, for the 2010 and 2011 years. The relationship in between the total energy usage and seasons, in a quarter, is shown as a graph.  A wireless energy monitor was inspected and used so that the consumption pattern range can be broadened and the stored data has been collected. The respective data indicates the periods that have most energy usage.

The lighting efficacy, manufacturer specification and a LUX meter are used for the usage of power for each of the inspected light measurement (Yezioro, 2008).

A wide range of sources have been considered to gather the information for this report, after selective evaluation. The primary sources for the report are power meter reading, power bill information, wireless energy meter readings, estimated daily run times, readings of LUX meter and socket power consumption meters. Apart from that there is also other evaluation done, such as electrical equipment on the website of manufacturer, for estimation of the respective power usage.

The power consumption estimation is done in the period of winter and so the respective season’s power readings are taken after measurement. It is specified because of the fact that the kind of equipment used for seasons also varied and so the power consumption and readings. Multi-phase system’s power consumption is measured by using wireless power meter, including the air-conditioner. It is because of the fact that the multi-phase meter was unavailable during the period of audit.

The house of audit contains three power meters, hence it is assumed that each meter is measured against a single phase of power from the mains. The reason for making this assumption is that while the total overlayed usage of power is inspected for each quarter, for each meter and the plots were made and the result is a significant pattern. Usually, all these power meters are the same for both the trough months as well as the peak months, where the peaks do occur during period of weather condition, which is warmer. An excess of 10 kW has been assumed for the fact that air-condition is run through the power of three phases and it is considered as a valid assumption.

Energy Efficiency in Australia

It is known fact that the air-conditioner is considered as a major usage of energy, per phase, it is difficult to estimate, at what phase, which part of the home’s overall power consumption is made. However, there are certain differences and signs, in the overall usage of power for each phase and the same determines the point of usage of power.

The house is located in a city Brisbane, in Australia. Energy billing history is considered from a few months and just a previous year. The energy audit has been done in dwelling and the process is started with the visual inspection of the equipment and areas. The inspection is conducted by understanding and anlayzing the ventilation system towards better analysis of the light and heat inflow and outflow. Then a survey has been made with the checklists of the appliances existing and their frequency of usage.

The occupants dwelling inside the house are contacted for the interview. The occupants are interviewed, to know their day to day habits of applications of the electrical appliances. So, it becomes the basis of how much and what are the electrical appliances are running in a day. The occupants are also asked for their staying time in the house, to understand the constraints in the timing and the operation and access time to facilities of the electrical appliances (Tuominen et al, 2015). Various resources that they have been using are also investigated, to investigate, whether any alternative or renewable energy resources, such as solar system or wind power energy has been used or not.

The house contains the main consumers of power, as the electrical appliances that take higher power with lower times of operation. The other category is the electrical appliances of low power consumption having higher operational times. Usually, power users use such kind of electrical equipment at the house and so inspection has to focus majorly on these main points, while the audit is performed. The impact of the small power consumers, who make use of the phone chargers, etc., is usually smaller and still these things are also inspected and measured for the impact on the overall consumption of power at home.

For instance the low operational time and higher power appliances are microwave, oven, kettle, vacuum cleaner, iron and stove top. On the other hand, the high operational time and lower power consumed appliances are usually, the electrical appliances operating most of the time, both during the night and day. Such things are usually, freezer, fridge, fans, fridge freezer, etc., which are more prominently used during the summer. The lights are used continuously, however these lights continue only for half a day. The same is applied to the televisions, especially, LCD televisions. There are many other standby devices and they have minimum impact to the overall consumption of the power, in the auditing house.


The main focus on the heating and cooling elements is that air-conditioning system. The auditing house consists of a major system of heating and cooling, as reverse cycle is also ducted, for air conditioner. However, the major usage of the air-conditioner is for cooling and so used for the period of summer, though it is used occasionally, especially, during the afternoons of winter. So, a single major contributor for the overall consumption of power is deeded to be the air-conditioner, throughout the year (Barbara & Wolfgang, 2012). The same is learned by monitoring the power meter, from the average usage of constant power, which is close to 0.7 KW, instantly, the consumption of power jumps to 10 KW excess, right after turning on the air-conditioner. A three phase power point is used for powering the air-conditioner.

The house that is being audited has a single station of hot water. The station is powered with gas and is manufactured to work with highest rating of star, in terms of efficiency. Since this audit system measures only electrical power, this gas system is ignored and uncovered in this report.

The system for lighting is majorly, halogen down lights having compact fluorescent lighting. It is used partially, at the house. The main light source is in a kitchen, which is a twin, short, linear, white linear fluorescent tube. It eliminates the need for halogen down lights, providing enough light, in the living area.

The auditing house has the set-up for two personal computers, which are configured to be from moderate to high end and are regularly used. And apart from that, there are also many ‘plug-ins’ for connecting to the computers. Such devices range from extra cooling fans to the additional external screens (Brown et al, 2008). Mostly used laptop is placed in the study room. It is considered for the audit report, because it is used for the need of instantaneous requirement for the device. The laptop power rating from the specification of the charger is considered to be a reference point and found to have 150 watts. Measurement is also done for another set-up of the personal computer and the results are again analyzed.

The energy audit has been conducted for a house that is not very old, but of total five years of age. The audit has found the fact that this particular house has got its power bills increasing to higher incremental stages, from the first power bill to the second power bill. Such houses are the important concern, in the national interest, since they are primary reasons for the incremental global carbon footprints (Energiewende, 2014).


The average and most frequently used domestic energy consumption in the houses are majorly from the following appliances, such as,

  • Heating
  • Lighting
  • Cooling and refrigeration
  • Hot water
  • Cooking
  • Washing and drying
  • Miscellaneous electric load

The usage summary gives an analyzed report of what and how the power has been consumed and the best part is that the power consumed compared and summarized according to various elements. According to the usage summary of the report bills,

Total average usage per day is 13.22 kWh, which has incurred the cost of $4.39 for a single day. Daily usage and cost per day have been increased from 10.62 kWh in the previous year to 13.22 kWh, in this year. The summary bill also clearly shows the total greenhouse gas emissions resulted from the power consumption of the electrical appliances in this house. The summary also shows the percentage of increase or decrease from the previous year. So, the total greenhouse gas emission for this year is 1.1 tonnes, which is an increase from 0.9 tonnes.

So, the increased usage of daily power usage in this year = 13.22 – 10.62 kWh = 2.6 kWh,

which is considerably, more for a house, for a smaller element, when seen as the total number of houses, in a country and continent.

And the total increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, in this year = 1.1 – 0.9 = 0.2 tonnes.

And another element of concern here is that there is no provision or facility for the Green Power that can decrease the carbon footprint to a considerable extent (Diesendorf & Mark, 2007).

So, the total increase of power usage daily = 24.48%

Chart 1: Power usage in consecutive years

During the peak period,

Total usage of power = 767 kWh

Charges for power = $187.99

During the lean period, the total usage of power = 436 kWh.

            Total usage of power = 436 kWh

            Charges for power = $68.80

Total average usage per day is 15.20 kWh, which has incurred the cost of $4.98 for a single day. Daily usage and cost per day have been increased from 14.39 kWh in the previous year to 15.20 kWh in this particular year. The summary bill also clearly shows the total greenhouse gas emissions resulted from the power consumption of the electrical appliances in this house. The summary also shows the percentage of increase or decrease from the previous year. So, the total greenhouse gas emission for this year is 1.3 tonnes, which is an increase from 1.2 tonnes.

Source of Information and Assumptions

So, the increased usage of daily power usage in this year

 = 15.20 – 14.39 kWh = 0.81 kWh,

which is considerably, more for a house, which is a smaller element, when seen as the total number of houses, in a country and continent.

And the total increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, in this year = 1.3 – 1.2 = 0.1 tonnes.

And another element of concern here is that there is no provision or facility for the Green Power that can decrease the carbon footprint to a considerable extent.

So, the total increase of power usage daily = 5.63%

Chart 2: Power usage in consecutive years

During the peak period,

Total usage of power = 1030 kWh

Charges for power = $252.45

During the lean period, the total usage of power = 399 kWh.

            Total usage of power = 399 kWh

            Charges for power = $62.96

The power bill has been taken for every three months that contribute from almost 90 days to 95 days, with the flexibility of maximum two business days. Hence, the corresponding seasonal changes can be found for each of the usage period of power. Hence, for the two considered bills, the seasonal power consumption has been presented, as under (Huesemann et al, 2009).

Chart 3: Power usage in two consecutive quarters

The above chart shows that there is an incremental change from Jan to May, in both the sample years considered and taken. It shows the fact that there is a probability of increase of the power consumption, in this particular season.

At the same time, there is an additional data made available in the bills, about more months, regarding the varied power consumption in each of the quarter, in both the current and previous years. So, the varied power consumption from January, 2017 to January 2018 have been presented and compared using the following chart.

Chart 4: Varied power consumption in consecutive seasons, in consecutive years

There are certain assumptions made to measure the usage of energy by the air conditioner, lights and appliances, operating time of the respective equipment, etc. The occupants’ average daily appliance habits are considered to be the key point and estimated operation is deduced. Certain assumptions are considered, on the basis that the usage of total power does not get excess, compared to the total and not exceeding below (ICER, 2010).

The utility bills are considered as the basis for the audit. Then the metered data is extracted from each of the energy inputs. Then the applicable utility rate structure is extracted and utilized.

The appliances used in the house range from higher power consumption to lower power consumption. The major cooling and heating appliance is the air-conditioning system, along with the other regularly used appliances, such as lights, fans, geezer, etc.

Though there are hundreds of appliances that run with the power do exist in the house, only the appliances that have been plugged continuously, are considered. For instance, there are appliances that have the usage for just 10 minutes, in yearlong (Andreas et al, 2015). Such systems are in contrast to the some of the systems, like entertainment systems and so are considered to have insignificant usage of power. A standard socket power meter is used to take the measurements available and the resulting readings are well tabulated. However, for the appliances that have less access, like main fridge, its power usage is estimated and found by searching the closest model match and comparison, from the relevant reputed website. There are certain appliances that are both unmeasurable and inaccessible, with no licensed electrician supervision, and a home wireless energy monitor is used to measure the change in power displayed on it, when the appliance is turned on. The results are again tabulated. Such appliances are majorly, air conditioner, stove, oven, etc. Though the finding of usage cannot be done accurately, this method is found to be cheapest and safest, by far and so this system has been adopted.

The average time is estimated through calculation of the operational power usage estimation done for each of the appliance, while considering the load approximately the appliance is under. The modified watt appliance usage is then multiplied by the estimated values, by the appliance watt usage, so that daily usage pattern can be provided. It was multiplied by 90, further, so that the approximate appliance usage can be found over a period of three months that represent the interval of quarter and billing (Matar, 2015).   

Initially, the audit is performed for lighting component, for the area of house having the facility of the switch lights. LUX meter has been used for making the measurements, where the position of meters is done at majorly used locations, like at the table centre, etc. Hence, the actual LUX amount of light is provided, as experienced by the occupant. All the usage of wattage is considered and calculations are made, based on the specifications from the manufacturer. So, some error level is also expected, because the overall consumption is done, based on certain estimations and assumptions (Tuominen et al, 2015).

The light average usage is estimated, according to the manufacturer specified maximum power consumption and the operational power usage is estimated, for calculation of each of the area. Extension of 90 days is done for the average usage to estimate the overall power usage per quarter, approximately.

The overall summary of energy of consumption for two consequent quarters is given as the following.


Total Consumption

Quarterly Cost (Excluding GST)

Consumption Index





in $



14 Oct 2017 to 16 Jan 2018






13 Jan 2018 to 16 Apr 2018






Table: Energy Consumption Comparison and Relative Cost & Performance

Major sources of energy are considered and the breakdown of energy consumption is done, on the basis of cost.


Power Usage

Total Cost in $






















Table: Estimated Energy Consumption and Cost by Application

Chart: Power Usage Breakdown

It is ensured that there are no errors in the calculations and so all the bills made available after the process of audit are re-calculated thoroughly and accurate calculations were ensured for the energy companies. This is to assure that there is no involvement of the over-charging.

Each of the bills is taken and the respective values are noted down. Consumption of energy is taken and noted, for periodical time. The bill details are checked against the periodical data relevant consumption drivers.

At this point of time, profile energy use patterns is drawn and analyzed. Ideally, energy usage pattern is to be developed for gas flow, humidity, airflow, light level, pressure, temperature must be measured, along with the electrical power. However, the study and report is limited to analyze the pattern of the electrical power and so the same has been performed, in the study. Electrical power and energy usage has been recorded from the logged data over some specific intervals of time, like starting from one minute and goes till one hour and also one day.

From the profile energy use patterns, inventory energy use has been anlayzed for better understanding. Drawings and specification of each of the facility and equipment has been done with rough sketch. The data of the equipment, regarding the power rating, etc., is collected from the manufacturers’ specifications of the same appliances. And respectively, consumption of power is calculated. And simultaneously, temperatures, flow rates are measured and calculated, though not used in the power consumption calculations. Ideally, condition of each of the electrical appliances has to be checked, so that power consumption levels of each of the appliance can be understood (Dietz et al, 2009). However, only the major and high powered electrical appliances are considered for the same and energy usage inventory is roughly noted.

The major objective and expected positive outcome of the energy audit is to identify the energy management opportunities, so that the occupants or the homeowners can start working on reducing their share or contribution to the greenhouse gas emission, by reducing the carbon footprints, on behalf of their home.

Energy management opportunities for the house that is being audited in Brisbane, in Australia has been conducted to identify, such opportunities. The process is started with the listing and anlayzing the energy inventories and the respective balances. Walk-through into each of the room and area of the house, has allowed noting down each of the appliances and the respective reduced utilization, to reduce the power consumption. There are certain appliances selected, where there are opportunities for better management of energy. Then, respectively, EMO checklist has been made (Huesemann & Joyce, 2011). The checklist shows the following appliances that have the opportunity to reduce the energy consumption.

Total energy use by application is broken down and certain power is used in the home lighting system. The overall consumption of approximately 17% is because of the lighting system present in the house. So, this power consumption and so the cost of the lighting system has to be reduced to a possible extend and so the recommendation for the system is to adapt to the usage of the lighting systems with higher efficiency. Cool white short fluro tubes are already installed in the kitchen, two LED down lights, a round fluro tube in the study area.

Since the major lighting system in the home is based on the Halogen down lights, the more cost effective alternative should be replaced with the existing halogen down lights, since the major lighting is from the Halogen down lights, like heat and light output, high power output and high powered bulbs. LED down lights should be replaced with. The only problem with such low powered light bulbs is the initial cost. In case the fittings of the halogen have to modified, the overall cost demands overall 77 years to overall current tariffs to re-pay. It is because of the LED light’s high initial cost, relatively.

 A large amount of energy can be saved through changing the high run time down lights. Money can be saved by the occupants, by changing the dining room, garage entrance, halogen down lights of Dining room, to better and efficient LED down lights. However, it is possible after 32 years, having the usage to continue and cost per kWh continues to be constant. There will be reduction of the saving time, exponentially, because of the energy price constant rise.

And the lighting facility in any house can be optimized by relying on the natural light, which could replace the power consumption used for the purpose of lighting. During the day time, there is abandoned sunlight available to almost any dwelling in the world. So, it is important to keep open the doors and windows, when the temperature is comfortable and as long as thermal comfort are felt by the occupants in the house. It is ever best method to potentially utilize the natural light resources, rather than relying on the expensive fossil fuels (Lovins, 2012).

Heating and cooling are the important aspects of any house, as every occupant wishes to feel thermal comfort. So, again the natural heating and cooling system, from the external weather is an important source and so the same can be set accordingly. Keeping the doors and windows open, as long as enough light and thermal comfort temperature is found outside. It can reduce the power consumption both by the air-conditioning system as well as the geezer and heating systems, equipped in the house (ICER, 2010).

There are certain recommendations made for EMO. This process is done by assessing the costs and benefits of the new action plan made. Action plan is taken place, by comparing the energy consumption of the existing appliances and energy consumption of the proposed usage methods of the appliances. Then the respective incremental cost of energy is also calculated, so that the direct reduction of the energy can be shown. In fact, the proposed solution shows only the cost saving in terms of utilization by the end user of energy, however, it also saves the raw material and fossil fuels used for generating the energy that is utilized. The following step is the optional existing consumption measurement as well as the optional measurements conditions (Wright et al, 2011).

The usage of air conditioner can be limited through 40 minutes, everyday, the overall power usage can be reduced by 430 kW, so that the average bill cost can be reduced, closely to $80. It shows an overall reduction of 13% of the price of the average billing, to $651.

So, the overall recommendation proposed can be,





Air Conditioner

Usage reduction for 40 minutes


$80 from Average Bill

Dining Room 1

LED D/L to replace 4 Halogen D/L with

32.26 Years


Dining Room 2

LED D/L to replace 6 Halogen D/L with

Garage Entrance

LED D/L to replace  Halogen D/L with

Table: Recommendations for replacement

Though each of the modification does take some time, effort and also money, these are all worth, as it not only saves the carbon footprint, but also increases the quality of life. There are many countries, which have initiated encouragement for the energy consumption savers, by offering certain benefits at national level (Yezioro et al, 2008). It is all possible, only when both the government and public come on a single path. The benefit is not only for the environment, but also for each of the living being, within, on and above the surface of the earth. So, it is worth practicing and implementing.

Energy audit is a new and potential auditing system to measure the consumption of the power, in the basic unit or system. The home energy audit system is a system to measure the energy consumption in a specific house, in detail. The energy consumption gives direct clue and indication of how much greenhouse gas emission is emitted in tonnes from the usage of the electrical appliances in the same house. The carbon footprint is also calculated from the same audit. However, the energy audit system is performed for recommending the energy management opportunities, after a detailed analysis of the energy consumption, at present. Energy efficiency is a major key consideration for energy saving prospect in the world, especially, by developed and developing countries. Hence, Australia has initiated NSEE to reduce the carbon footprint from the dwellers and businesses from the country.

Home energy audit system is conducted in a specific house in Brisbane, in Australia, using energy billing history of the same house from several months, before the audit. General electrical appliances used and the respective characteristics are measured and studied. Then the main appliances, present in the house are listed out, such as heating & cooling, hot water, lighting, Personal Computer. The overall energy consumption is calculated from these electrical appliances to record the usage summary. There are two bills considered, extracting previous months’ statistics for the summary. The respective energy audit measurements and calculations are done, to see how much energy is consumed by each of the electrical appliance or by overall appliances. The bill details are taken as the basis.

Based on the energy usage and consumption, better and energy management opportunities are explored, based on the electrical appliances used, either by reducing the usage of the same, by making use of the natural sunlight and heat from the sun. There are also ways to reduce the operation period, so that each appliance reduces consumption, on an overall, though in longer period of time. The two major considerations for the same are the heating & cooling and lighting. There are also detailed recommendations are given including the action plan of what to be replaced and with what they should be replaced, along with the respective benefits.

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