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This assignment consists of a number of tasks (parts) and has been designed with the aim of providing students a practical case where they could apply the various quality (planning and analysis) tools and techniques covered in this subject.

As the topic of your assignment, you are free to choose one of the following options:

a) Design and production of a PRODUCT (e.g. household devices, electronic devices, clothing and shoes, transportation equipment, etc.),

b) Design and provision of a SERVICE (e.g. traveling, education, hospitality, healthcare, etc.) or

c) Design and completion of a WORK (e.g. constructing a house, bridge or road, etc.)

Introduction to Power Transformers

Power transformers have the capacity to transfer power with the help of electromagnetic induction usually at the same frequency having different currents and voltages. Generally power distribution and transformation in daily life is performed by the transformers. At the time of transferring power to long distances, power transformers act as a supportive bridge. It has been found that in the absence of power transformer transmission of voltages to different locations leads to uncanny situations. So it is always recommended to adopt a power transformer at the time of long distance power transmission. The use of power transformers is largely dependent on the power demands. It can be said that power distribution as well as transmission is not possible without the use of power transformers (Blanco, 2009). The initial power transformers are of 1500 KVA capacity. In future, the load amount of the transformers will be increased up to 2500 KVA.

Significant role of transformers in the Energy supply chain

The company is thinking on production of few power transformers which are in demand in the current market. The features that are associated with full range transformers proposed by the company are mentioned below:

  • HVDC Transformers
  • Shunt reactors
  • Auto Transformers
  • Mobile Transformers
  • Large and medium sized power transformers
  • Phase shifting transformers
  • Track side Transformers

Usually two or more coils are wrapped in and around a magnetic material in a transformer. Transformers react differently in relation to AC and DC currents. For example: DC current can pass through the transformer without encountering any change in the wires however AC current cerates significant impact upon the wires. As the current passes into one coil then flow to another coil does hamper. Transformers are able to understand the need of voltage by checking on the turning of the coils (Borucki, Boczar & Cicho?, 2011). Voltage can be defined as energy per charged particle and current is defined as the flow of charge per second. There is a direct correlation between voltage and current flow. With the increase in the voltage, there is a significant increase in the flow of current. Alternating flux is known to produce an alternating current and the flux varies so as to ensure self-induced emf that is found across winding. This system works in accordance with Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. It can be discerned that supplied voltages act as cause and emf is its effect. As per Lenz’s affect works in opposition to cause. Self-induce emf is highly dependent on supplied voltage and not on the number of turns taken by coil (Borghetti at al., 2009).

Usage of Power Transformers in Power Distribution and Transmission

Stakeholder Analysis:

The stakeholder analysis has been performed in a planed way (Reed et al., 2009). The Australian company proposes to take note of all the stakeholders and satisfy their needs and demands in near future. The stakeholder analysis has been done and represented in tabular format. All the stakeholders, starting from government to contractual workers, have been taken into account. In the last financial year the company received various acclamations for heavy industrial power backup generators. The plan of modelling and commercial production of the power transformers was undertaken last year only. The marketing team has done a market survey to build a core team of engineers. In the first phase the mobile transformers will be marketed. In the second phase, company plans to launch its maintenance team with categorical engineering team. Following table has been generated for stakeholder analysis (Prell, Hubacek & Reed, 2009).

Table 1: Details of the stakeholders of power transformers

Stakeholders

Requirements

Internals

Higher Administration

More proficient items with minimum conceivable cost

Minimum misfortunes

Reliability

Long-enduring creation

Increased creation and supply

Reputation

Government

Low support

 Cheap profitability with positive yield

Long-term unwavering quality

 Cheap and powerful assembling

Investors and Sponsors

More wage with higher intrigue

More cost sparing ways

Higher profits for the speculation

Internal Auditors

Profitability

More requests

Less debasement

Customer fulfillment

 Stable market

Externals

Contractual workers

Timely generation

Instant conveyance

Expect greater requests

Cheap cost

Wholesalers

Ability to deal with surges

Efficient working item

Long enduring administrations

Secured from harms

Providers

Flexibility

Guarantee

Providing upkeep

Seeking tenders

Purchasers/Retailers

Reviews

Reputation security

Meeting the request

Intrigue Groups

Cheap rebates

Low running expense

More returns

Prompt conveyance

End clients

Modernization

Developing new innovation

Creating advancements

End users

Minimum operational cost

Low introducing cost

Consumer well disposed

Capturing needs of the customers

It is quite essential to analyse different methods for meeting the needs of customers. There are some techniques given below that are meant to capture need of the customers. As in this case, customers are generally government or private electric supply agencies, special client handling team was formed for the purpose.

Surveys

 Surveys are the best ways to understand a customer’s need. A survey can be conducted with the help of a questionnaire whereby a manufacturer can take opinion of customer regarding a particular product. A manufacturer can bring changes in their items by giving a close attention on the survey results.

Focus groupp

It is not possible to gather data from each and every customer and so it is better to form a group. A group of people can be selected for holding discussion on products. Focus groups are helpful means to know demands of customers. In power transformers electric supply agencies are the prospect customers for buying transformers.

Complaints

Feedbacks are an important way to understand about the feeling of a customer in relation to any product. Complaints of customer can help a manufacturer to improve their products or even bring changes in their services. Government ratings are taken care of and obligation to built quality of the transformers was imposed by the company.

Customer visits

It is important for a retailer or a manufacturer to sell and design products as per the preferences off their customer. This is because as satisfied customers are sure to increase profit margins.

Stakeholder Analysis and Planning for Consumer Demands

Interviews

A face-to-face interview can bring better results in comparison to surveys as it gives a scope to retailers to understand the viewpoint of customers. The interview results can be used as an effective parameter for a retailer. The gathering generally includes the legitimate requests which are expected to get the desired information. These gatherings are valuable to get feedback from the customers. The data procured from these meetings generally are expansive and does not by any stretch of the imagination focus on the arrangement. In interviews customers tend to give inputs from their own specific acknowledgment. Subsequently a huge amount of information is amassed from this regular talk between two social events. Rules are taken from 2015 standard of ISO 9001 and accentuation is given on broad ceaseless change of client dealing with process in view of client prerequisites

Analysis of customer needs (KANO Analysis)

The ABC limited company progressed with customer requirement exploration and analysis, the customer needs for the power transformers were categorised in working condition and non working condition. The analysis was done to search for the alternatives.

Table 2: Questionnaire for KANO analysis

Format

Question

Ratings

Working conditional

On the off chance that the Power transformer has been effectively charged and in the working region under flawless working conditions.

It's ideal to have.

Basic need this

Neutral sentiment

Acceptable under specific points of confinement

Not adequate

Condition if not working

On the off chance that the Power transformer has not been effectively charged and not in the working region under flawless working conditions.

It's ideal to have.

Basic need this

Neutral sentiment

Acceptable under specific points of confinement

Not adequate

Responses that were given by the customers have been collected with the help of different mediums in the form of a template but we have sued 3 out of them. The coding were denoted as; Must was denoted by M, Want denoted by W, Attractive denoted by A, Not used for the current study- Q & I.

Table 3: Create consumer requirements

Consumer Needs / Design properly

Not Working properly conditions

1

2

3

4

5

1

Q

A

A

A

O

2

R

I

I

I

M

3

R

I

I

I

M

4

R

I

I

I

M

5

R

R

R

R

Q

These evaluations has been doled out subsequent to being searching for various quality the utilized scientific arrangement for Kano examination KR is as beneath:

Table 4: Necessitate support categorization

Sl No.

Needs

A

O

M

I

R

FMS

RS

KR

3

2

1

0

-1

1

Transformer insurance

0.00

0.00

18.00

0.00

0.00

18.00

18.00

1.00

2

Checks for oil Transformers

3.00

2.00

19.00

1.00

0.00

28.00

25.00

1.20

3

Legitimate working Procedures to deal with

9.00

0.00

20.00

0.00

0.00

33.00

29.00

1.40

4

Specialist Safety directions

6.00

1.00

20.00

0.00

0.00

30.00

27.00

1.30

5

Legitimate Quality of winding

4.00

2.00

12.00

3.00

0.00

23.00

21.00

1.10

6

No space for misfortunes

0.00

1.00

16.00

1.00

0.00

18.00

18.00

0.95

7

Silica Gel for checking dampness

0.00

1.00

20.00

1.00

0.00

24.00

22.00

1.15

8

Dampness control instruments

0.00

8.00

9.00

0.00

0.00

17.00

17.00

0.90

9

Amazing winding material

0.00

1.00

20.00

3.00

0.00

26.00

24.00

1.15

10

Top quality material

0.00

9.00

6.00

2.00

0.00

17.00

17.00

0.90

11

Low opposition

0.00

15.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

14.00

15.00

0.75

12

Negligible Losses

6.00

5.00

0.00

4.00

0.00

14.00

15.00

0.75

13

Capacity to deal with surge

0.00

2.00

17.00

1.00

0.00

21.00

20.00

1.05

14

Legitimate security hardware's

0.00

2.00

14.00

0.00

0.00

15.00

16.00

0.85

15

Establishment guides

12.00

0.00

20.00

6.00

0.00

42.00

38.00

2.10

16

On location support

20.00

0.00

0.00

2.00

0.00

24.00

22.00

1.15

17

Simple support

20.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

21.00

20.00

1.05

18

Shoddy choices

3.00

0.00

10.00

0.00

0.00

11.00

13.00

0.65

19

Capacity to direct extensive streams

5.00

0.00

15.00

0.00

0.00

21.00

20.00

1.05

20

No copper misfortunes

6.00

0.00

4.00

0.00

0.00

5.00

10.00

0.50

21

No surges

9.00

7.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

15.00

16.00

0.85

22

Legitimate CT's

15.00

3.00

15.00

6.00

0.00

44.00

39.00

2.15

23

PT's for assurance

15.00

3.00

15.00

6.00

0.00

44.00

39.00

2.15

24

Least expensive conceivable support

0.00

6.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

3.00

6.00

0.30

25

Crisis dealing with methods

12.00

2.00

20.00

0.00

0.00

38.00

34.00

1.90


KR requirements are assessed by KR values. MUST situation is denoted by KR = 0.5, WANT is denoted by KR = 1, Attractive is denoted by KR = 2. Now based on this gradation system the following table has been generated, which represents KANO analysis (Jepsen & Eskerod, 2009).

The above scaling has been further characterised and arranged in the need basis analysis table. From the KANO analysis the following table presents the detailed consumer requirements (Glover, Sarma & Overbye, 2012).

Table 5: Need base Analysis

Sl No.

Must(s)

Want(s)

Desire(s)

1

No space for losses

Transformer safety

Emergency taking care of methods

2

Dampness control tools

Estimate for oil Transformers

Security purpose PT's

3

Poor resistance

Correct working Procedures to handle

Correct CT's

4

Insignificant Losses

Worker Safety

5

Appropriate security equipment's

Correct Quality of winding

6

No copper losses

Usage of Silica Gel for checking dampness

7

Modest alternatives

High quality winding material

8

No surges

Capability to deal with surge

9

Least expensive conceivable maintenance

On-site upkeep

Simple upkeep

Capacity to lead huge streams

Customer needs being translate into design requirements (QFD):

Needs of customers are transformed in accordance with the design requirements for utilization of quality. In consumer needs understanding  has been provided with gradation scored compared to standard average scores.

Techniques to Capture Consumer Demands

Table 6: Customer needs understanding

Client Expectation/Design Requirements

Significance Rating

Quality Checking

Standard Techniques

Instruments

Serviceability

Management

Proper Knowledge

Machine Safety Methods

Machine Safety Cross check score

   MUST(s)

No space for misfortunes

6.00

6.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

8.00

8.00

9.00

Dampness control devices

7.00

8.00

9.00

9.00

5.00

Low opposition

5.00

6.00

6.00

7.00

9.00

Negligible Losses

8.00

7.00

8.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

Legitimate insurance gear's

9.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

5.00

No copper misfortunes

6.00

6.00

9.00

8.00

Shabby options

4.00

8.00

9.00

9.00

6.00

7.00

No surges

7.00

7.00

7.00

6.00

8.00

5.00

Least expensive conceivable support

9.00

8.00

8.00

6.00

5.00

      WANT(s)

Transformer assurance

7.00

9.00

6.00

6.00

Checks for oil Transformers

8.00

9.00

6.00

6.00

7.00

Legitimate working Procedures to deal with

3.00

7.00

6.00

Specialist Safety

9.00

7.00

6.00

7.00

6.00

Legitimate Quality of winding

7.00

7.00

9.00

9.00

6.00

Silica Gel for checking dampness

8.00

9.00

7.00

7.00

Brilliant winding material

5.00

7.00

9.00

6.00

Capacity to deal with surge

6.00

7.00

6.00

9.00

6.00

7.00

7.00

On location support

8.00

6.00

Simple support

9.00

7.00

6.00

9.00

6.00

6.00

Capacity to direct vast streams

7.00

9.00

9.00

DESIRE(s)

Crisis dealing with systems

7.00

7.00

9.00

7.00

7.00

PT's for assurance

8.00

9.00

9.00

7.00

5.00

7.00

Legitimate CT's

6.00

8.00

8.00

9.00

6.00

7.00

Obtained Score

75.00

107.00

77.00

86.00

93.00

61.00

97.00

86.00

Required Score

150.00

105.00

79.00

89.00

74.00

98.00

102.00

67.00

94.00

Design Risk Analysis (FMEA)

The failure model was designed in a step by step module (Carlson, 2012). The design was drawn based on all possible disappointments and negative feedbacks of all stakeholders. The effect has been depicted in a tabular form (Arabian, Oraee & Tavner, 2010).

Table 7: Failure representation and outcome analysis

Section

Potential Failure

Failure on system

Effect on system

Root reason for failure

Beforehand Risk taken

Reduction of risk technique

Pro-action Risk

P

S

R

P

S

R

Inside winding

 Failure due to Resistance

Shock from electrical installations

Welfare loss

Mistake from Human-end

3.00

4.00

12.00

Material of top quality

1.00

4.00

4.00

Wiring of dry and press

Not legitimately winded

Leakage of power

Low quality output

No care taken

3.00

5.00

15.00

Worker with Knowledge

1.00

5.00

5.00

Making Isolators

Below par conductivity

Failure in electric supply

Loss of resource

Low quality association

5.00

2.00

10.00

Check up on regular basis

1.00

3.00

3.00

Convey tests of Electrical

To come up short system

Resistance from high shunt

No thought regarding outcomes

Bleak condition

4.00

3.00

12.00

Complete testing

1.00

4.00

4.00

Investigation for the product

Discovering major deficiencies

Poor quality

Low quality standards

 Adjust without check

3.00

3.00

9.00

Periodic monitoring

1.00

5.00

5.00

Identification of components

Power transformers consist of different components and it needs large number of suppliers. Components that are required to be subcontracted have been specified below:

  • Tap charger
  • Insulating materials
  • Wires
  • Human management
  • Information systems
  • Windings
  • Breather
  • Supply management
  • Maintenance and general services
  • Integral quality management
  • Transformer oil

In order to develop criteria for supply chain, transformer oil can be chosen from the components. It can be said that transformer oil is important for the operating power transformers at the time of high voltages. Transformer continuously operates which results in increase in their temperature and it is not good for their functionality. That is why transformer oils lies within its body for lowering down its temperature thereby reducing chances of blast. It is to be considered as significant for any problem in the power transformers can cause severe damages like electricity blackout.

In order to minimise occurrence of such mishaps, it is essential to follow a set of criteria that can help in safeguarding power transformers and they are discussed below:

  • Prime quality oil should be used
  • It is important to carry out testing process
  • Steps need to be taken for controlling temperature of the power transformers.
  • Balance need to be established in terms of power use
  • Technical procedures are to be followed
  • A check on the moisture levels is required.
  • For increasing efficiency levels standards is to be maintained.
  • Oils need to have high accuracy levels.
  • Presence of expertise is required.
  • There should be regular checks on the temperature.

Construction of Supplier choice model

After going through the above discussions for transformer oil, suppliers are to be selected and each of the suppliers will be given a score. The scores are compared for the choice of ideal supplier and thereby helping in the decision making procedure.

Table 8: Supplier selection model

Requirements

                    Proposed   Suppliers

Weight age

Score of Supplier 1

Weighted Score of Supplier 1

Score of Supplier 2

Weighted Score of Supplier 1

Score of Supplier 2

Weighted Score of Supplier 1

High accuracy transformer oil

8.00

9.00

72.00

7.00

56.00

6.50

52.00

The first quality of products

4.00

6.00

24.00

6.00

24.00

7.00

28.00

Mechanical assistance

7.50

8.00

60.00

7.00

52.50

7.50

56.30

Testing on regular basis

6.50

7.00

45.50

7.00

45.50

8.00

52.00

Cross check dampening

9.00

9.00

81.00

8.00

72.00

7.00

63.00

High standards Adherence

8.00

6.00

48.00

7.50

60.00

6.00

48.00

Inspection for balance of interests

8.50

8.00

68.00

9.00

76.50

8.00

68.00

Control temperature

7.00

8.50

59.50

8.00

56.00

7.00

49.00

Cross check temperature

8.50

9.00

76.50

7.50

63.80

6.00

51.00

Expert Group

9.00

9.00

81.00

7.50

67.50

7.00

63.00

Factors which are environmental

6.50

7.50

49.00

8.00

52.00

6.50

42.30

Aggregate Score

87.00

664.50

82.20

625.50

76.50

572.60

Report

The above mentioned list of suppliers is to be evaluated for supplying transformer oil in terms of their scores. A close look at the scores indicates towards the fact that among several suppliers, Mitsubishi and ABB are good choices. However for final selection Mitsubishi is chosen as it suits the required criteria that have been set for the product. It can be discerned that of we choose this supplier then we are surely going to get high quality power transformers (Yang et al, 2009)..

Identification of procedures

Customers always want to choose the most reliable transformer for safeguarding them from any sort of mishap. While choosing transformer it is quite essential to keep a check on its quality. So a manufacturer has to ensure that they deliver high quality power transformer to their users. The following steps are followed by a manufacturer before the delivery of transformer to the customers.

KANO Analysis of Power Transformer Consumer Demands

Design

It can be called the initial stage of checking the reliability of power transformers. A thorough check on the design can help a manufacturer to satisfy the demands off the customers. Design assist in giving adequate information regarding setting the product criteria as per FMEA.

Selecting suppliers and cost sign off:

After checking on the design, the next step is to choose an appropriate supplier for the product. After that the vendor further precedes this process by signing off cost between manufacturer and vendor.

Inspection of supplier’s products:

Supplier’s products are to be checked properly before delivering it to the users. In this regard ITPs, test plan and inspection procedures can be adopted.

Defect Inspection:

In order to ensure complete quality check of the goods, defects are to be inspected. It is always recommended to check whether any technical faults have taken place during the manufacturing process or not.

Testing:

A standard quality is use for testing the units that have been produced. This test is conducted prior to delivery of goods to the market (Cheim et al., 2012.).

Distribution procedures:

The next step after testing is distribution of goods across market. In order to carry out the distribution procedure, multiple groups are selected and products are shipped to various enterprisers.

Marketing products:

Marketing turns out to be an important component after distribution of process. Advertisements of the products are carried out for promotional purposes. An effective marketing is able to attract large number of customers (Ortiz, et al., 2013).

Using SPC charts for monitoring:

Organisational performance can be evaluated with the help of statistical process control chart. This chart involves certain steps for monitoring performance of the products in a more effective manner. The chart assists to visualise and to evaluate as well as analyse the ways in which the process is carried out and at the same time checking its effectiveness. SPC chart is able to provide a picture of accuracy involved in the production process. You can find the following information in a SPC chart and they are:

  • Lower control limit
  • Upper control limit
  • Central line

Both lower and upper limit gives an idea of the variation limits that can be acceptable. On the other hand central line shows the mean value that displays a specific characteristic. The chart can be divided into different categories and they are discussed below:

P-chart:

It belongs to the qualitative and categorical variable. P-chart is mainly used for monitoring attributes. This category of SPC chart is adopted for evaluating defective as well as non-conforming items. The central line and upper control in a p-chart indicates mean while the n—bar indicates the sample size. The total number of defected items can be checked by this chart.

6NP chart:

This chart functions similar to that of P-chart for both of them helps in detecting defective items during manufacturing of power transformers. This chart can be used when measurements runs out of calculate criteria.

Chart:

This category of chart is used for plotting sample size of the defective items. The total number of defective pieces per flock can be checked by C-chart.

U-chart:

The suspicious items can be detected at the time of production and manufacturing process undertaken for the power transformers.

X-chart:

The output requirements can be detected by the use of X-chart and these outputs include length, thickness and diameter. This chart is totally dependent upon measurements.

Construction and usage of SPC chart:

Here we are actually implement the data of P-chart for the purpose of analysis of the total number of defective time that have been found at the item of manufacturing of power transformers. It is calculated by analysis the number of defective pieces found in first 12 days. The procedure for the calculation has been given below:

Table 9: Limits for control chart

Shift/Time

Rejected Items (x)

Total Items (n)

p

3*sqrt

UCL

LCL

First shift Mon

54

245

0.22

0.082

0.32

0.16

Shift 2 Mon

55

272

0.20

0.078

0.32

0.16

First shift Tue

52

269

0.19

0.078

0.32

0.16

Shift2 Tue

62

202

0.31

0.090

0.33

0.15

Wed First shift

59

253

0.23

0.081

0.32

0.16

Wed Shift 2

66

250

0.26

0.081

0.32

0.16

Thu First shift

60

299

0.20

0.074

0.31

0.17

Thu Shift 2

50

207

0.24

0.089

0.33

0.15

Fri First shift

51

254

0.20

0.080

0.32

0.16

Fri Shift 2

50

217

0.23

0.087

0.33

0.15

Sat First shift

62

247

0.25

0.081

0.32

0.16

Sat Shift 2

59

262

0.23

0.079

0.32

0.16

Sun First shift

56

201

0.28

0.090

0.33

0.15

Mon First shift

61

212

0.29

0.088

0.33

0.15

Mon Shift 2

50

271

0.18

0.078

0.32

0.16

Tue First shift

57

282

0.20

0.076

0.32

0.16

Tue Shift 2

52

273

0.19

0.077

0.32

0.16

Wed First shift

60

202

0.30

0.090

0.33

0.15

Wed Shift 2

59

225

0.26

0.085

0.32

0.15

Thu First shift

60

245

0.24

0.082

0.32

0.16

Thu Shift 2

55

205

0.27

0.089

0.33

0.15

Fri First shift

60

207

0.29

0.089

0.33

0.15

Fri Shift 2

66

281

0.23

0.076

0.32

0.16

p-bar

0.24


                                                                   Figure 1: P-bar chart for production control

Explanation

The format shows that there is a problem in a movement, on Tuesday the singularity has touched the top control. Despite the way it approached but did not succeed, in the remaining cases a standard advantage appeared. Therefore, the strategy for the period of coverage of the composition can be considered a responsible system. However, the good conclusion is to conduct a review on first Tuesday and second Wednesday to continue the review because there are so many cancellations in this movement (Lago et al., 2012)

To better understand the aging process of light-based cards, we must use the N-P diagram. Since this graph P did not use the information on the extent of the disfigurement that occurred.

The diagram shows that there is a problem in a movement, on first Tuesday and second Wednesday the singularity has touched the upper control limit. Despite the way it was focused, however, it did not perform superiorly, and in the rest of the cases, it showed a direct factory race. From now on, the roofing strategy of buildings can be considered as a control methodology. However, the reasonable conclusion is to carry out a review on Wednesday to continue the review because there are a lot of evictions in this movement.

 To obtain a better appreciation of the process of producing tiles with solar energy, we must use the N-P chart. Since this table P did not use the data, the number of defects has arrived.

Identification of problem solving tools:

Power transformers are used on a large scale and so vast applications are into operation for its production. Henceforth a number problem can arise in relation to its functionality. The problems that often arise are as follows:

  • High cost
  • Transportation issues
  • Larger area
  • use of hi-tech machine for assembling process
  • Increase in unit cost
  • Requirement of extra space

Steps that are to be taken for resolving the above mentioned problems are discussed below:

  1. Pareto diagram
  2. Check sheet
  3. Process flow chart
  4. Why-why analysis
  5. Cause and effect diagram

Usage and construction of problem solving tools:

Both brain storming and cause and effect diagram cane b sued for tackling the issues.

Brainstorming:

It is adopted by holding discussions with a group of member regarding the ways to deal with the problems. The panel enlist possible cause of a problem and record its responses. For example, assembling of transporting has been taken into consideration (Markalous, Tenbohlen & Feser, 2008).

Causes:

  • Limited number of technical assistants
  • Low amount of capital
  • Small manufacturing space
  • Lack of expertise
  • Small manufacturing sites
  • Low capital for buying costly equipments

Engineers who come from different business meetings are conceived together about possible ideas behind ideas. The conclusions of these conversations usually consist of the relative past experiences of the past. At that time, FMEA aims to maintain any new irritation and wait for what will happen (de Queiroz Souza & Álvares, 2008)

Why-Why Analysis

It is a great conceptual system that starts the survey for the main surveillance guide. We have to be curious about ourselves because we have a question for everyone until we get the information in the plan on the key issue. The system is neutralized when it comes to adapting scanned ideas that target a hidden engine to detect a fault. We have to be curious to tell us why we have to dispute every reason until we have a firm settlement of the issue. The system is clarified if it is taken.

Cause- and –effect diagram

The entire analysis has been done based on major causes of the business and their pro and adverse effects. The fish bone or cause effect diagram clearly shows the entire scenario analysis (Harrington, 2016.).

 

Figure 2: Fish Bone diagram for the process

Pareto Analysis

In the current concentration universe due to the strongly forced nature of the market, different foundations have begun to look for different approaches. In the same way, it is practiced to reduce the waste of raw materials. The minimization of waste accepts a crucial role in the collection of business. The consumption of unrefined goods controls the cost of the thing and decreases the level of performance of the company or the other route of generation. Therefore, efforts are continually striving to reduce operational waste (Dai, Wang & Jarman, 2010). The Pareto exam serves to perceive the varied disfigurements and orchestrate them according to their meaning. The expulsion of raw materials is stimulated by distortions.

Table 10:  Main cause of product and guidance for maintenance group

The main causes

Reoccurrence

Percentage%

Percentage Cumulative %

Improper electric wiring in transformer

31.00

42.47%

42.47%

Improper installation

18.00

24.66%

67.12%

Growth of surge

9.00

12.33%

79.45%

Below average conductivity

4.00

5.48%

84.93%

Shock from electrical installations

5.00

6.85%

91.78%

Resistance from high shunt

5.00

6.85%

98.63%

Shock from electrical installations

1.00

1.37%

100.00%

Total

73.00

100%

To choose the main drivers of reasonable discharge, Cause and Graphic Effect is also a strong instrument of great resistance. Recognize order and show the purposes behind a specific problem or a quality mark. Graphically represents the association between a known result and all the elements that influence the result and, therefore, to perceive the convincing hidden controllers that are clear explanations behind a specific effect, problem or condition. The information is collected for a conceivable reason; its frequencies are plotted along its aggregate percentage (Wade, et al., 2010).

Conclusion

The evaluation of the market and the examination of the articles showed that the power transformer product range was suitable for the leading market for tiles based on sunlight. Less number of contenders was distinguished as one of the real reasons (Expósito, Conejo & Canizares, 2016). The KANO exam and the critical thinking procedure encouraged the administration to expand its range of products in the market. The other parallel power transformers were examined for the design of the high load sharing purpose. The capacity of the transformers was a concern; the management of ABC limited was looking to build more transformers of higher loads. The product range of the mobile transformer was within the control and, therefore, the design limit was further extended for the European and Asian markets. The benefit study was carried out after the quality test. In accordance with Australian AS 60076 standard the mobile transformers were made, and the company following the same compliance for future products.

References

Arabian-Hoseynabadi, H., Oraee, H. and Tavner, P.J., 2010. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) for wind turbines. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 32(7), pp.817-824.

Blanco, M.I., 2009. The economics of wind energy. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 13(6-7), pp.1372-1382.

Borghetti, A., Morched, A., Napolitano, F., Nucci, C.A. and Paolone, M., 2009. Lightning-induced overvoltages transferred through distribution power transformers. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 24(1), pp.360-372.

Borucki, S., Boczar, T. and Cicho?, A., 2011. Technical possibilities of reducing the sound pressure level emitted into the environment by a power transformer. Archives of Acoustics, 36(1), pp.49-56.

Carlson, C.S., 2012. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA).

Cheim, L., Platts, D., Prevost, T. and Xu, S., 2012. Furan analysis for liquid power transformers. IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, 28(2).

Dai, J., Wang, Z.D. and Jarman, P., 2010. Creepage discharge on insulation barriers in aged power transformers. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 17(4).

de Queiroz Souza, R. and Álvares, A.J., 2008. FMEA and FTA analysis for application of the reliability centered maintenance methodology: case study on hydraulic turbines. In ABCM Symposium Series in Mechatronics (Vol. 3, pp. 803-812).

Expósito, A.G., Conejo, A.J. and Canizares, C., 2016. Electric energy systems: analysis and operation. CRC press.

Glover, J.D., Sarma, M.S. and Overbye, T., 2012. Power System Analysis & Design, SI Version. Cengage Learning.

Harrington, H.J., 2016. Cause-and-Effect Diagram. In The Innovation Tools Handbook, Volume 2 (pp. 73-82). Productivity Press.

Jepsen, A.L. and Eskerod, P., 2009. Stakeholder analysis in projects: Challenges in using current guidelines in the real world. International journal of project management, 27(4), pp.335-343.

Lago, P., Bizzarri, G., Scalzotto, F., Parpaiola, A., Amigoni, A., Putoto, G. and Perilongo, G., 2012. Use of FMEA analysis to reduce risk of errors in prescribing and administering drugs in paediatric wards: a quality improvement report. BMJ open, 2(6), p.e001249.

Markalous, S.M., Tenbohlen, S. and Feser, K., 2008. Detection and location of partial discharges in power transformers using acoustic and electromagnetic signals. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 15(6).

Ortiz, G., Leibl, M., Kolar, J.W. and Apeldoorn, O., 2013, April. Medium frequency transformers for solid-state-transformer applications—Design and experimental verification. In Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on (pp. 1285-1290). IEEE.

Prell, C., Hubacek, K. and Reed, M., 2009. Stakeholder analysis and social network analysis in natural resource management. Society and Natural Resources, 22(6), pp.501-518.

Reed, M.S., Graves, A., Dandy, N., Posthumus, H., Hubacek, K., Morris, J., Prell, C., Quinn, C.H. and Stringer, L.C., 2009. Who's in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management. Journal of environmental management, 90(5), pp.1933-1949.

Wade, N.S., Taylor, P.C., Lang, P.D. and Jones, P.R., 2010. Evaluating the benefits of an electrical energy storage system in a future smart grid. Energy policy, 38(11), pp.7180-7188.

Yang, Z., Tang, W.H., Shintemirov, A. and Wu, Q.H., 2009. Association rule mining-based dissolved gas analysis for fault diagnosis of power transformers. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews), 39(6), pp.597-610

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