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Aim: To write a comprehensive research paper with a research plan based on extending the research outlined in the journal paper you have selected at the start of the course.

In undertaking this exercise, you must demonstrate the following:

  • Technical knowledge of the research topic
  • A review of the previous work in the field (a literature review in which at least 5 references which have been carefully analysed etc)
  • A research plan including
  • a research hypothesis,
  • an outline of the planned methods to be used,
  • the method of gaining and analysing the data,
  • the statistical methods needed to prove your hypothesis,
  • follow up research plan
Literature Review

Topic: Time Of Flight Camera Without Moving Parts

In this modern generation number of consumers uses 3-D technology because it provides motion of an object. A time of flight camera is an advanced version of 3-D which can be used for long distance detection process. In this type of process light signals transfer between the camera module and object and it is completely based on the laser-based technology (Beyl, et al., 2016). LIDAR is a laser system which is used to capture a complete scene with the help of laser pulse and each laser beam reflect information of any object on TOF camera. The main objective of this report is to understand the fundamental concept of time of flight camera system. In this technology time of flight, phenomena are used because it is the very efficient process to capture the motion of any human being (Bronzi, et al., 2016). This paper is categorized into three parts, for example, literature review, research methods, and data analysis process. In this process, infrared radiation is used to improve the functioning of the camera and signals are transferred with the help of this radiation system.  

  1. What is the phenomenon of time of flight technology in the camera module?
  2. What is the concept of the concept of a real-time range camera without moving parts?

There are the following hypotheses will be utilized to gather the main goal and purpose of this research:

H0: There is no relationship between the time of flight camera and security

H1: There is a most important relationship between time of flight camera and security

Time of flight is a very latest innovation is the field of information technology because it increased the performance of sensing and capturing devices. It has the capability to provide an effective resolution system for any photographic picture (Corti, et al., 2016). There are many authors that researched on this topic and they identified that security is a very common issue with this technology and it cannot provide a high-resolution image. The researcher also observed that the main advantage of the time of the flight process is that user can obtain a clear depth of perception (Fürsattel, et al., 2016). This type of camera device is very simple and easy to design by which many organizations are using this technology. They are very light in terms of weight but the implementation cost is very high due to which many consumers are not able to adopt this technique. Time of flight camera operates at a high frequency and near-infrared radiation process. Modulation is a process to improve the strength of the input signal and it also uses in this type of camera (Heide, et al., 2015).

Research Methods

Laser beam divides information into the form of pixels which is used to determine amplitude, phase angle and offset value. According to the author, for this technology continuous wave modulation method is used rather than light pulse (Lee, and Shim, 2015). In which the CW method find the phase difference between two signal waveform. The traditional time of flight process uses a point detector and scans the data signal with the help of a modulated laser beam. It is identified that to reduce distortion and noise in the input signal sampling technique can be used. Sampling is a process to convert the analog signal into digital and in which each signal is sampled at a particular frequency (Luna, et al., 2017). At the end of the network signal again convert into original form with the help of the demodulation method. Therefore, people should adopt a modern communication system and they can adopt encoding and decoding techniques to avoid noise from the signal.

The research methodology is a kind of process which is used to gather knowledge about any research. The research method will include different plans, policies, and process that will be utilized by the author at the time of research. In this research there are several methods will involve such as design analysis, data collection process, approach and philosophy of the investigation (Pagliari, and Pinto, 2015). The main purpose of these methods is to improve the efficiency of this research and the researcher will involve some flow charts by which readers can understand the concept of TOF technology. Numbers of studies and articles will be added to this investigation to maintain the relationship between research title and relevant information.



Time of flight theory

3-D measurement

Infrared radiation theory

Range measurement method

Sampling theory


To perform time of flight method there are many equipment and components will be used such as an amplifier, sampling, transmitter, receiver, laser beam, radiation system, CCD, camera, frequency band, RF-modulated circuit, CRO, and screen. These entire devices will be used to develop time of flight camera without moving part and in which the output waveform will capture with the help of infrared radiation.

The researcher will use cathode ray oscilloscope and CCD measurement devices to calibrate time of flight technique into digital cameras. CCD sensors are very effective to capture the motion of an object and researcher will involve this process to improve the performance of the digital camera.  

In this research, a mixed research design will be used that involve both quantitative and qualitative method. In qualitative analysis method information will be collected from a different process like a book, journal articles, and literature review. In this research, the author will use a survey based process to collect information from writers and people to understand their opinion on the field of time of flight (Rozantsev, Lepetit, and Fua, 2017). Quantitative process collects data from various graphs, charts, and data presentation and the researcher will use previous research data and statistics on the topic of time of flight.

Data Analysis Process

Data collection method is the very common process to gather and collect all information about the research and author used the mixed method to explain the concept of time of flight (Salau, et al., 2017). In this research primary and secondary methods are used and primary data collection process includes survey, focus group, interview, and observation. In secondary data, method information is collected with the help of various resources like books, journals, peer-reviewed articles, and online websites. In this research writer, data will be collected by conducting a survey to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of TOF technology. Moreover, a secondary type of data is collected through a literature review.

The data analysis technique is used by the author to describe both primary and secondary process to understand the principle of time of flight process. There are many procedures through which data or information can be analyzed such as statistical, content analysis, data presentation, and discloser process. In this research author used statistical analysis and data presentation method to capture the image of any human being by using time of flight camera. With the help of this method, the author can be enabled to depict the information from different sources like charts, graphs, and comparison tables. Microsoft software is used to interpret the outcomes through charts and graphs. Data analysis method provides a platform to understand the working mechanism of any research topic and it also produces more effective data by tables, and charts.

The outcome of this research wo9uld aid to improve the knowledge about the time of flight camera and it is also observed that author explained the concept of demodulation and sampling (Shrestha, et al., 2016). This research report will aid to generate a clear concept about research concern and will address the strength and weakness of this technology. Moreover, there are few drawbacks of this innovation for example, less effective, more costly, and take more time to recognize any image. All these factors may directly impact the phenomena of time of flight.


Time of flight is one of the advanced developments in communication technology and most the digital cameras use this technology. This method is completely based on the modulation and 2-D array and in which a picture divided into two or more pixels and each pixel find the amplitude of the input signal. This report explained the working mechanism of time of flight technology and their advantages and disadvantaged. The pixel structure is very capable to improve the performance of the sampling process and it is identified that this technology does not require any moving part for the camera. Modulation is a process to modulate the amplitude of the input wave and in this report, the concept of sampling is also described. Therefore, consumers should adopt this technology because it is more effective and flexible to capture the motion of any human and it can be used for the security of personal data.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Time of Flight Camera System

Although there is a research gap in this research project in terms of depth analysis research issue and insufficient sample size. Hence, research will avoid these gaps in future to produce the reliable and more accurate outcome and research can also use high sample size in future work. With the help of these things a researcher can enhance the knowledge about the time of  

The time plan is a type of practice which is used to provide the outline of the research study and it demonstrates the various kinds of practice that will be applied to gain the objective of this research. There are following steps and research plan can be used for this investigation:

Activities that would be applied

Days for research completion  
















Selection of research topic

Design the purpose and goal regarding research

Data gathering by data collection methods

Design of survey through questionnaire

Sample selection with an appropriate tool

Data assessment and discussion

Final drafting   

Submission of report



Beyl, T., Nicolai, P., Comparetti, M.D., Raczkowsky, J., De Momi, E. and Wörn, H., (2016) Time-of-flight-assisted Kinect camera-based people detection for intuitive human-robot cooperation in the surgical operating room. International journal of computer assisted radiology and surgery, 11(7), pp.1329-1345.

Bronzi, D., Zou, Y., Villa, F., Tisa, S., Tosi, A. and Zappa, F., (2016) Automotive three-dimensional vision through a single-photon counting SPAD camera. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 17(3), pp.782-795.

Corti, A., Giancola, S., Mainetti, G., and Sala, R., (2016) A metrological characterization of the Kinect V2 time-of-flight camera. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 75(5), pp.584-594.

Fürsattel, P., Placht, S., Balda, M., Schaller, C., Hofmann, H., Maier, A. and Riess, C., (2016) A comparative error analysis of current time-of-flight sensors. IEEE Transactions on Computational Imaging, 2(1), pp.27-41.

Heide, F., Heidrich, W., Hullin, M. and Wetzstein, G., (2015) Doppler time-of-flight imaging. ACM Transactions on Graphics (ToG), 34(4), p.36.

Lee, S. and Shim, H., (2015) Skewed stereo time-of-flight camera for translucent object imaging. Image and Vision Computing, 43(6), pp.27-38.

Luna, C.A., Losada-Gutierrez, C., Fuentes-Jimenez, D., Fernandez-Rincon, A., Mazo, M. and Macias-Guarasa, J., (2017) Robust people detection using depth information from an overhead Time-of-Flight camera. Expert Systems with Applications, 71(6), pp.240-256.

Pagliari, D. and Pinto, L., (2015) Calibration of Kinect for Xbox one and comparison between the two generations of Microsoft sensors. Sensors, 15(11), pp.27569-27589.

Rozantsev, A., Lepetit, V. and Fua, P., (2017) Detecting flying objects using a single moving camera. IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence, 39(5), pp.879-892.

Salau, J., Haas, J.H., Junge, W., Bauer, U., Harms, J. and Bieletzki, S., (2014) Feasibility of automated body trait determination using the SR4K time-of-flight camera in cow barns. SpringerPlus, 3(1), p.225.

Senouci, B., Charfi, I., Heyrman, B., Dubois, J. and Miteran, J., (2016) Fast prototyping of a SoC-based smart-camera: a real-time fall detection case study. Journal of Real-Time Image Processing, 12(4), pp.649-662.

Shrestha, S., Heide, F., Heidrich, W. and Wetzstein, G., (2016) Computational imaging with multi-camera time-of-flight systems. ACM Transactions on Graphics (ToG), 35(4), p.33.

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