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1. List the elements to be an effective player in a sport. Pick a sport from invasion, striking/fielding, net/court or target games.
2. How did you determine which elements were needed to play the game effectively?
3. Place each of the elements into one of the subsets listed below
A. Technical
B. Tactical/strategic
C. Cognitive
D. Rules
4. List some games that you would use to develop the elements in each or in a combination of the subsets.
5. Under each element list questions that would develop understanding in the sport. Give examples of the four types ie recall, convergent, divergent and value.
A. Technical
B. Tactical/strategic
C. Cognitive
D. Rules

Introduction to Teaching Games for Understanding (TGFU) Approach

Many training and activity models have been adopted in the approach to Physical education. The Teaching for Effective Understanding (TGFU) approach has been considered as a fundamental methodology to approach any teaching of games and sports in the upper primary as well as other dimensions of education (Alcalá, & Garijo, 2017). For the success of any school-based physical education program, valuing movement is a concept that is essential in the undertaking.  The TGFU approach is beneficial to teaching in the Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority, Health and Physical education (ACARA-HPE) curriculum as it defines a fundamental ground for student engagement in a lifespan of participation in games and sports with competence and confidence. The TGFU approach bears essential elements that teachers utilize in support of students to develop their dispositions while gaining knowledge and skills through the undertaking of the school-based PE and sports. In middle age (4-6); Upper primary, many young people find satisfaction and enjoyment in the TGFU model as compared to the traditional based teaching approaches. Basically, Games and sports is a focus area in the upper primary that is considered to have had an effective impact from the TGFU model when incorporated in the teaching of the ACARA HPE curriculum (Macdonald, 2013).

The TGFU approach has been incorporated into the teaching of games and sports in the Australian context. The adoption is entirely based on the explicit impact of the approach in many schools based on physical education programs. The previous considerations for TGFU have successfully been effective in their application. This is especially because the TGFU has proved to bring effective results in students. Its focus of the play gives an upper hand on the critical tactical and strategic problems posed in a modified game environment (Fitzpatrick, 2013). In a student environment, the approach opens an established focus on cognitive skills such as decision-making, problem solving and tactics. The TGFU has over time earned names such as Game Sense, Play Practice and Games concept approach. Its general focus on student and problem solving is an advantage to ACARA HPE curriculum (Macdonald, & Enright, 2013). The teachers and coaches have been able to focus mainly on the main issues hence accrue results that are high and effective for the students. Since TFGU utilizes active learning since the students play through playing games. Fun becomes a key element in the lesson thus creating an atmosphere to teach (Macdonald, 2014).  Since the upper primary students lack much exposure, the level of questioning they are engaged in is regulated.

The Benefits of Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in TGFU

The TGFU has been considered as full of effectiveness for engagement as well as cognitive learning.  In this approach to teaching games, the teachers and coaches benefit from cognitive development through tactical exploration and decision-making skills which are accommodated within the modified games and sports in order to give essence to different contexts of learning. Thus, through this approach, cognition in gaming can be addressed. Notably, teachers in primary school expressed that students showed understanding and enjoyment while they engaged cognitively in games.  Since this approach recognizes social skills an important entity in the learning process, all places it has been employed reported high scores in self-confident, competence and self-worth. In a study observation done to two middle school PE lessons on hockey games, it was known that there was clarity in decision making for the TGFU group as well as the improved level of procedural knowledge (Penney, 2013). The group also showed articulate decisions in passing the hockey ball more accurately and effective passes.  TGFU has also been proved to increase the efficiency of players in volleyball games. This proves its importance in being incorporated for teaching in ACARA HPE curriculum especially in games and sports.

The TGFU approach to teaching ACARA HPE curriculum benefits the students outright. It is a theoretical model that explicitly supports Physical Education Pedagogy. It assists teachers to address higher order thinking in Physical Education. The approach encourages players to be tactically enabled and has the ability to make better decisions during game time. Through its diversified mode of learning, when used in teaching, it gives players a prompt for active strategic thinking regarding concepts in skill development while remaining ardent to the process. Tactical awareness of a game situation is an important element in learning games as it enables the players to maintain the focus on the main idea yet diversifies the student modes of engagement with the main idea. The adoption of TGFU in teaching has been associated holistic approach to the learning of game and sports skills, promotion of enjoyment for the students, promotion of player-centered learning, catering for various abilities and efficient implementation. Movement skills, a fundamental feature in games and sports learning is improved in the TGFU approach.  Movement skills are a key determinant to a consistent and life-long commitment to physical activity while keeping enjoyment in games and sports activities.

Games and sports are an important focus area in the ACARA HPE curriculum.  While being incorporated in the teaching of the curriculum, it has been faced with considerations regarding promotion of student co-operation as well as collaboration. The TGFU model exhibits more enjoyment in students as compared to the technical approaches. Valuing movement is considered an important proposition in teaching because it focuses on giving the student outright knowledge of what they need to become competent and confident in the movement skills. The TGFU approach lays a foundation for an approach that is positive and even distribution of beneficial health outcomes. In many TGFU works, PDHPE teachers analyzed the incorporation of the approach and found it having various strengths. The approach has different perspectives depending on the setting. Many suggested that it catered to different abilities among the players (Penney, 2010). This helped the teachers be able to accommodate all students in the learning process hence helping them to improve on their weaknesses, develop skills in thinking and critical decision making.  Fostering efficiency in all aspects of implementation was also noted as a strength (Exley & Mills, 2012).  Having a curriculum being supported by such a strong and advantageous approach is very important as it helps the students learn the structures of the approaches and challenging the teachers and coaches to learn intellectual structures of playing and learning in order to teach effectively. Higher order thinking is a key development in TGFU.

Cognitive Skills and Learning in TGFU

The TGFU approach to teaching has been enormously supported by the introduction of the ACARA HPE curriculum. The Australian document has expressed directly and indirectly through its propositions. On the other hand, TGFU supports most of the ACARA HPE propositions which are also incorporated in the TGFU model.  Critical inquiry as a proposition in the physical health for ACARA HPE is open to different interpretation because of its use (Alter, 2009). However, two basic interpretation applicable to this relates to the TGFU model.  The Critical inquiry approach supports thinking and problem solving which is one of the main benefits that those who engage in the TGFU approach gain in the learning process.  The critical inquiry is a proposition that requires support in the bid to support TGFU learning and teaching. Since they both have similar directions in regard to goals in the physical education, Critical inquiry directly supports the TGFU approach to learning and teaching (Leahy, O'Flynn, & Wright, 2013). It focuses on the critical concepts of the approach essential areas of games and sports in upper primary physical education.  The TGFU approach also builds critical thinking skills through engaging one in tactical problems. This is also an aspect that builds to the critical inquiry skill (Pearson, & Webb, 2008).

Educative outcomes are also in the forefront race for TGFU approach in teaching games. This is because the proposition points out physical education as an important entity in sports. In the TGFU approach educative outcome meets the situated learning theory. This theory provides the best framework that is authentic and which to position teaching and learning in PE (Johnston, 2016, November). It is the foundation for relationships in all dimensions of life including culture and social-economics. Through experiences of interacting with factual and legitimate knowledge, one has the capacity to participate this proposition whose idea is to settle on the genuine things. The TGFU approach to teaching PE opens a mind to international values, peripheral participation, and interconnections with people, activities and the world at large.  The TGFU approach also encourages awareness of one’s environment and the tactical skills in the learning process. The TGFU approach has had continuous strengths including a deep development of one’s knowledge of the game. (Kulinna, Scrabis-Fletcher, Kodish, Phillips, & Silverman, 2009).

Engagement in questioning in TGFU also helps develop a huge understanding of the elements. This is an important aspect of quality teaching in sporting teams.

Strength-based approach proposition directly relates to TGFU because its considerations for choice do not need emphasis. The TGFU approach to learning is also considered sealed by the emblems of people’s opinions, the proposition is effective to the approach. The TGFU was has been considered for incorporation in the ACARA HPE curriculum and other institutions that have adopted its concepts.  IN TGFU workshops, teachers developed a framework of strengths that it possessed in the all the contexts it was employed (McCuaig, Quennerstedt, & Macdonald, 2013).  On the other hand, TGFU demonstrates a natural tendency to be strength based strength based in regard to the expected performance.  This approach, therefore, earns itself a name to possess the capacity of being Strength-based and favoring the Strength-based proposition in the ACARA HPE (Hyndman, Mahony, Te Ava, Smith, & Nutton, 2017). This method is effective in teaching games and sports but will require teacher or coaches commitment to the capacities they that must fulfill.

Tactical Awareness for Higher Order of Thinking in TGFU

Valuing movement and health literary skill are essential factors in the initial implementation strategy. There are various skills and concepts that require the support of both teachers and students in order to be effective. People have the capacity to value movement when they participate in engaging activities. Acquisition of movement skills, concepts and other important strategies in physical education. These skills and strategies help in reaching the needs of the students participating in physical education. The insights created by this proposition creates a chance to approach the curriculum with a flexible mindset as well as adding more physical activities that will help the students to engage in games and sports. Health literacy skills are gained directly through which engagement in the games and sports activities (Alfrey, & Brown, 2013). The coach will identify activities that help to develop health literacy skills in the team the students. The various disciplines learned that give a student the confidence and competence are basic lessons that produce the knowledge in health literacy. The valuing movement proposition is utilized in the physical education context. Through the TGFU students have the ability to move along the various information tools. These students who develop to become more critical decision makers and competent have knowledge that applies across all models.  The general knowledge in tactical awareness and involvement in the game is part of the TGFU model strengths.  All these propositions from the ACARA HPE curriculum have a relative connection with the TGFU model of teaching. Thus they complement each other in the endeavor.

This analysis has investigated and analyzed the importance of the TGFU approach to teaching lessons.  The approach has proved to have a wide level of adoption beginning with the ACARA HPE curriculum. The wide range of acceptance is based on its strengths and advantages in all the schools that have physical education lessons incorporated with TGFU. Many approaches that are raised in the article analyzed have been considered relative to developing goals that are authentic and genuine. The essential and practical engagements of teachers and coaches in any efforts to helps student adapt should familiarize with the learning environment; the explored factors to be considered in the teacher's student environment. The incorporation of TGFU into the learning environment has been considered very fundamental in initiating the changes in the game learning environment. There have also been ACARA HPE propositions which have worked to the support of the TGFU approach to learning and teaching in physical education. These propositions have been geared toward the effort to place better grounds for supporting new learning initiatives in the physical education curriculum. The TGFU approach conversely helps in the driving the mandate of the ACARA HPE curriculum by ensuring that the five propositions are owned.

Collaboration and Corporation in TGFU

References

Alcalá, D. H., & Garijo, A. H. (2017). Teaching Games for Understanding: A Comprehensive Approach to Promote Student’s Motivation in Physical Education. Journal of human kinetics, 59(1), 17-27.

Alfrey, L., & Brown, T. D. (2013). Health literacy and the Australian Curriculum for Health and Physical Education: a marriage of convenience or a process of empowerment?. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 4(2), 159-173.

Alter, F. (2009). Understanding the role of critical and creative thinking in Australian primary school visual arts education. International Art in Early Childhood Research Journal, 1(1), 1-11.

Exley, B. E., & Mills, K. A. (2012). Parsing the Australian Curriculum English: Grammar, multimodality and cross-cultural texts. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 35(2), 192-205.

Fitzpatrick, K. (2013). Critical Pedagogy, Physical Education, and Urban Schooling. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 432. Peter Lang New York. 29 Broadway 18th Floor, New York, NY 10006.

Hyndman, B., Mahony, L., Te Ava, A., Smith, S., & Nutton, G. (2017). Complementing the Australian primary school Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum: exploring children's HPE learning experiences within varying school ground equipment contexts. Education 3-13, 45(5), 613-628.

Johnston, J. (2016, November). Online Learning and Pre-Service Teachers’ Literacy Knowledge and Skills. In E-Learn: World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 699-704). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Kulinna, P. H., Scrabis-Fletcher, K., Kodish, S., Phillips, S., & Silverman, S. (2009). A decade of research literature in physical education pedagogy. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 28(2), 119-140.

Leahy, D., O'Flynn, G., & Wright, J. (2013). A critical ‘critical inquiry’proposition in health and physical education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 4(2), 175-187.

Macdonald, D. (2013). The new Australian health and physical education curriculum: A case of/for gradualism in curriculum reform?. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 4(2), 95-108.

Macdonald, D. (2014). Sacred ties and fresh eyes: voicing critical public health perspectives in curriculum-making. Critical Public Health, 24(2), 239-247.

Macdonald, D., & Enright, E. (2013). Physical literacy and the Australian health and physical education curriculum. ICSSPE Bull J Sports Sci Phys Educ, 65, 351-59.

McCuaig, L., Quennerstedt, M., & Macdonald, D. (2013). A salutogenic, strengths-based approach as a theory to guide HPE curriculum change. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 4(2), 109-125.

Pearson, P. J., & Webb, P. (2008). Developing effective questioning in teaching games for understanding (TGfU).

Penney, D. (2010). Health and Physical Education in Australia: A defining time?. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 1(1), 5-12.

Penney, D. (2013). From policy to pedagogy: Prudence and precariousness; actors and artifacts. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, 4(2), 189-197.

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