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Airport Technology In UK Add in library

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Question:

Investigating the impact of UK airport security procedures and the technology being used and the affects from the passengers view.

 

Answer:

Introduction

In the recent years, the protection of passengers has become a major concern for airports; the need of airport security procedures is highly essential when ensuring passenger protection. Airport security refers to the use of methods or any modern techniques as a means of protecting aircraft, staff and most importantly passengers, from any criminal threats or malicious/accidental harm. We all know that airports are occupied by masses of people every day, thus, becoming potential targets for terrorist attacks and other criminal activities. Hence, it becomes highly essential for airport security organisations to prevent any such occurrences from taking place; they not only work towards preventing any such activities from occurring within the airport premises but also from entering the country.

In recent years, several cases of hijacking have surfaced on media, which in many cases have resulted in severe loss to the mankind. Due to the potential high number of deaths that may occur from attacking aircrafts and the potential use of hijacked aircrafts as weapons against country governments, airports become number one targets for terrorist attacks. Thus, airports continuously work towards enhancing security techniques as a means of ensuring safety; the general public needs to know that they are safe and protected while they travel overseas. (Vishwanath, 2003).

A large variety of equipment is used by airport security professional as a means of ensuring public safety; some of these equipments include biometrics, detection systems, imaging technology, body scanners, explosive trace detection systems, bottled liquid scanners, threat imaging projection etc. Such advance use of technologies at airports has resulted in a reduction in the chances of occurrence of terrorist attacks. However, at the same time, it has had a significant impact on the passenger view regarding airport security measures. In fact, use of such intrusive technology has causes the travelling public to oppose some of the measures that they believe to be unethical and violating they personal space & privacy.

The following is a literature review on airport security procedures used airports in UK. It discusses the different types of technologies being implemented and used at airports by airport security organisations and how they affect passenger view. The report will take into account the security techniques at various airports in UK such as Glasgow airport, Heathrow airport, Birmingham airport, Leeds Bradford airport, Gatwick airport & Stanstead airport. Similarly, the following review also discusses the recent developments and additions to the security procedures and airports and what response these techniques have received by the travelling public i.e. whether if these advancements in the security procedures are appreciated by the passengers or viewed as violation to their privacy and personal space.

How does Airport Security work?

First line of Defence

The first line of defence in airports refers to the walls, barriers and fences that surround airport ground. The reason for their implementation is obvious; to protect the airport premises. It is necessary to ensure that the airport is not open to all individuals so as to eliminate the risk of potential terrorist or criminal attacks (Dahlgaard, 2004). By surrounding airport premises with tall fences, walls and barriers that are difficult to climb, airport organisations eliminate the chances of “anyone” entering the premises without authorization and identity verification. Additionally, several security patrols are made to scan the airport grounds for any disruption at the fence lines, at all times. Sensitive areas such as terminals, baggage handling areas or fuel depots, are provided with higher security in the form of security checkpoints and fences.

 

Identity Verification

Confirming and verifying ones identity is possibly one of the most important security measures at an airport. It is highly essential to confirm and verify the identities of the passengers travelling using airport facilities. For this reason, passengers are required to present their passports if travelling abroad and Photo IDs if travelling domestically. However, simply presenting your passport or photo IDs is no longer enough; nowadays biometric measurements are also being taken as a means of confirming and verifying identity. Biometrics simply refers to the verification of individual by checking fingerprints, facial patterns and retinal scans using computer systems. For instance, there may be cases where individuals pretend to be someone they are not; in such cases, they identity can be established by using biometric tests.

It is important to understand that verification of identity is highly essential for airport officials to ensure safety of travelling public and protection of aircrafts. Any unknown individual found on the airport premises is often indicative of potential harm. For this reason, airport facilities are arranged in such a way that they ensure prevention of attacks on airports & aircrafts, prevention of accidents and fatalities that may result due to transportation of hazardous materials and ensuring security and safety of passengers travelling using aircraft facilities.

Detection Systems

Metal detection systems play a significant role in ensuring safety at airports; individuals are asked to step through metal detectors while all their belongings are subjected to x ray machines. Along with metal detectors several other scanners are now being used at airport grounds such as body scanners, bottled liquid scanners, advanced imaging techniques, threat imaging projections, explosive trace detection systems etc. These detection systems ensure proper scanning of individuals and their belongings so as to omit transportation of harmful and illegal materials. Any individual suspected with such belonging is often taken into custody by airport police officials for further inspection. These systems ensure public safety however several of these systems are surrounded by controversies that question they intrusive and invasive properties. For instance, body scanners are questioned for their effectiveness along with being blamed of invasion of privacy (Anthes, 2008).

Baggage Checking

Along with passenger checking, the baggage deposited by passengers is also scanned in x-ray scanners. In addition to the baggage that passengers carry with them, airplanes also carry massive cargos and these cargos are required to be checked and scanned before they are loaded onto the aircraft. For this reason, cargos are subjected to x ray systems such as medium-x ray systems and mobile x-ray systems. Medium x-ray systems are fixed systems that simply scan the entire cargo while mobile x-ray systems are trucks carrying the complete system of x-rays which are driven besides trucks carrying cargos or any content; they scan other trucks for suspicious items. Similarly, the use of trained dogs still continues; these dogs sniff for chemical odours that may be present in cases of bomb plantation. These special dogs are referred to as k-9 units; in cases of presence of suspicious content, these dogs start barking.

When boarding

At the time of boarding, several measures are taken up by officials present at boarding counters such as re-checking carry-on baggage for any harmful items, food items & liquid items or any items such as guns, cutters, knives, drugs etc. It is very important for passengers to let airport officials to complete their tasks. Since terrorism and criminal attacks pose as a constant threat to airports, any use of words such as “hijack,” “bomb,” or “gun” may result in removal from the passenger plane and possible arrest. All security personnels & flight attendants are trained to react to such words immediately.

 

Security Personnels on Board

Every boarding flight consists of air marshals who ensure passenger safety and security. Often Air marshals are disguised to look like regular passengers and are boarded onto the flight like every usual passenger. These marshals are authorized to carry guns and make arrests when in need. Often their assignments are kept a secret since there are not enough marshals to cover every flight (Mascarenhas, 2009). Thus, no one will ever know who the marshal is or if there even is an air marshal on flight. The concept of having an air marshal on board, has just recently added to the list of other security measures taken up by airport organisations.

Types of Technologies

Body Scanners

Currently, two types of body scanners are being used and tested in UK, which include: “Rapiscan secure 1000” and millimeter wave scanners. The Rapiscan Secure 1000 is a backscatter x-ray scanner that emits ionised radiation when attempting to scan the subject while millimeter wave scanners use radio-wave frequencies that are within the frequency range of 24-30 GHz. These scanners are further divided into two types, where one type is a machine that emits radio waves to as to produce a scanned image while the other uses natural radiation received naturally from the subject being scanned to produce the image.

When implementing the use of such scanners in airports, several other factors are to be considered. For instance, one of the major concerns with using body scanners is exposing individuals to high radiation that may result in potential harm along with violate their privacy. The use of body scanners resulted in public outrage where many lawsuits were charged against the use of body scanners as they found body scan machines to constituting an invasion of privacy. Also, several question the effectiveness and safety of such scanners due to reasons such as exposure to small amounts of radiation; we know that high dose of radiation has been linked to cancer.

It is important to understand that for the purpose of scanning, no physical contact is required and the passengers do not experience any harm. The passengers in suspicion are expected to take up a stance and are guided into the system. The complete process does not last any longer than a few seconds. Passengers who are selected for such scans are only chosen on a random basis. The selection of passengers for the purpose of scanning is not done on any particular basis that may constitute of any type of sex, gender, religious, race or age discrimination.

X-RAY Scanners

While passengers are expected to step through metal detectors, their carry-on belongings are subjected to x-ray scanners. The conveyor belt carries each object through the scanning machine. The scanning systems used at airports are of a dual-energy x-ray system. These systems consist of a single x-ray source that releases electromagnetic ways at a range of 140-160 KVP. It is important to understand that the higher the KVP, the deeper the x-ray penetrates. Once these rays are passed through the item, they are picked up by detectors which they pass onto filters that allow blockage of any low-every rays. Rest of the high-energy x-rays are then picked up by the second detector. The signals picked up by both of the detectors are then compared. (Find biometrics, 2004).

CT Scanners

Most airports in UK utilize Computer Tomography scanners for the purpose of scanning baggage. A CT scanner allows scanning of baggage without causing any harm to it. It is a hollow tube that surrounds the baggage and bombards it with x rays and record the data obtained from it. This data is then used by the scanner to create a detailed and appropriate tomogram of the baggage. Additionally, the scanner is capable of calculating the baggage’s density and mass. In case of presence of any hazardous material, the CT scanner warms airport officials of its presence. When comparing to other scanners, this scanner consumers more time due to which not all baggage is checked; only suspicious ones. For instance, any individuals who have booked a one-way ticket out of the country tend to trigger suspicion thus alarming computer systems to flag the person. Once flagged, the passenger’s baggage is immediately subjected to CT scanning.

 

Biometrics

As a means of overcoming the usual control methods used at airports for the purpose of strengthening security, biometric measurements are now being used. For instance, to control the access of doors to crucial areas within airports, biometric measurements are being used as “keys.” Biometric identification is considered as an alternative to the traditional and usual access control methods. It allows the officials to verify an individual’s identity and authenticate that the passenger is who he/she claims to be. This can be done by three ways which would be by what something one knows such as passwords or pins, by what someone may taken such as keys, token, ID card and by something that one actually is i.e. in terms of fingerprints. Biometrics seems to be the more convenient and secure tool to ensure one’s identity. One can define biometrics as any technology that allows one to analyse and measure the biological and physiological characteristics of an individual which can later be stored and retrieved for the purpose of positive identification. (Biometrics group, 2001). Biometric identification is considered as an alternative to the traditional and usual access control methods. It allows the officials to verify an individual’s identity and authenticate that the passenger is who he/she claims to be. This can be done by three ways which would be by what something one knows such as passwords or pins, by what someone may taken such as keys, token, ID card and by something that one actually is i.e. in terms of fingerprints. Biometrics seems to be the more convenient and secure tool to ensure one’s identity. One can define biometrics as any technology that allows one to analyze and measure the biological and physiological characteristics of an individual which can later be stored and retrieved for the purpose of positive identification.

UK Airports and their Security Facilities

Glasgow Airport

Some of the security measures taken up by Glasgow Airport towards ensuring the safety and security of their passengers are focused on what the passengers are allowed and not allowed to carry along with them during their journey. For instance, they ensure hand luggage allowance of only one handbag which too is limited by their instructions regarding the size of the baggage. The dimensions for hand baggage include 56 cm long, 45 cm high and 25 cm deep; these dimensions take into account all the handles, wheels and side pockets. Similarly, the airport restricts is passengers from carrying certain items such as scissors, knives, razor blades, tweezers, knitting needles, darks, catapults. Sporting bats, household cutlery, hypodermic needles, toy/replica guns, billiards or snooker or pool cues etc. Any needles or syringes being carried may be only allowed if and when provided with medical reasoning. In addition, only “some” liquid items are allowed to be carried in hand baggage. These include cosmetics, gels, lotions, pastes etc. However, all these liquids cannot be of more than 100 ml each.

Leeds Bradford Airport

Body scanning technology has recently been introduced at Leeds Bradford Airport as recommended by the regulations set by UK department for transport. As per the regulations, the passengers will be randomly selected for the purpose of scanning and subjected to body scanners. The selected regions of the individual will be scanned and highlighted in the images. It is important to understand that no images of the individual will be produced and that none of these can be stored or retrieved from the system. The scanner only reads or scans the areas of the individual that are needed to be checked by the officer. In addition, other limitations on what the passenger can carry into the aircraft are similar to those of Glasgow’s airport. They too ensure that passengers do not carry harmful items mentioned above.

Gatwick Airport

Recently Gatwick Airport discusses their inclusion of an “iris scanning technology” in combination with self-bag drop process. The airport uses new technology to increase security measures within the airport premises. The airport supports a self bag drop system that allows passengers to drop their baggage directly by themselves. This system ensures minimum interaction with passengers; they aim to find a solution that ensures minimum interaction and offers total common use for all passengers. In addition, to the bag drop system, the passengers will be expected to have their iris registered rather than their passports, bag tag and boarding passes. Thus, iris scanning can be used throughout their journey at the airport. These biometric techniques are a reliable form of ensuring security measure for airport officials along with passengers (Moore, 2008). It allows passengers to check in from home using they smart phone cameras, which in turn saves their time.

Heathrow Airport

To ensure a smooth journey for passengers, the Heathrow Airport has recently trailed a “glasses-free 3D” technology that works towards reducing the number items in a hang bag that are prohibited. This technology is built in the departure security zone of the airport and allows officers to view 3D images of the items that are not allowed through security. If any such items are identified in the baggage, the baggage is removed from the scanner and subjected to hand search by officers (Segar, 2003) . Airport officials discuss that using such technology allows airport officials to save time and reduces the chance of passengers to have their bag checked; the 3D images produced make it easier for officials identify and remove such items.

Stanstead Airport

As of 2013, Stanstead Airport uses “smart access” scanners that eliminate the need of using manual boarding passes. This new systems allows passengers to quickly and easily reach their departure lounge. The Airport aims to enhance and improve passenger experience at the airport by simplifying their journey at the airport. These smart access systems also have affected and improved the security of passengers and airport. This system scans the boarding passes and verifies whether if the passenger is travelling on the correct flight and on the correct date. It ensures improved experience for passengers on the airport and easier travelling.

Birmingham Airport

Birmingham Airport now supports the use of security scanners that are expected to provide an additional layer of security for its passengers by effectively screening its suspicious passengers. These are body scanners that use millimeter wave frequency signals that pass through the clothes however not the body which result in 3D stick like figures of the passenger’s body instead of an actual image of the passenger’s body. For the purpose of scanning, no physical contact is required and the passengers do not experience any harm. The passengers in suspicion are expected to take up a stance and are guided into the system. The complete process does not last any longer than a few seconds. Passengers who are selected for such scans are only chosen on a random basis. The selection of passengers for the purpose of scanning is not done on any particular basis that may constitute of any type of sex, gender, religious, race or age discrimination (Vito, 2007).

Recent Developments & Technologies

The trends in technology have been playing a significant and important role in improving the journey of airports in UK. In the future to come, it has been assumed that these technologies will be creating huge differences in the experiences of the passengers as their journey will be improving in a significant manner. Bounds and leaps being developed in the automation of processes for the passengers have resulted in instigating a shift or movement within the passenger being positioned in a significant manner. The airlines in UK have been providing a number of different processing services and there will be no need for processes within the terminal that have been making the functions highly chaotic.

 

In the current context, two categories of body scanners are being utilized and tested at a number of different airports, which include: “Rapiscan secure 1000” and millimeter wave scanners. The Rapiscan Secure 1000 is a backscatter x-ray scanner that emits ionised radiation when attempting to scan the subject while millimeter wave scanners use radio-wave frequencies that are within the frequency range of 24-30 GHz. Further division of these scanners has been done into two different categories, where one category is a machine that emits radio waves to as to produce a scanned image while the other uses natural radiation received naturally from the subject being scanned for the production of the image.

Recently, in addition to the previous UK airport security measures, all passengers are not expected to provide airport officials with a proof that the electronic devices that they are carrying will be working when they fly in and out of the country i.e. all passengers are expected to only carry “charged” electronic devices. Their cell phones, laptops, tablets etc. will be turned on and their battery life will be verified and checked for (Shanks, 2004).

The Heathrow airport has warned its passengers that no one will be allowed onto flights with devices that cannot be powered up when boarding the aircraft. In such cases, the airport is going to advices its passengers to buy chargers at the airport and would also provide them with sockets so that they can charge up their devices. Metal detection systems play a significant role in ensuring safety at airports; individuals are asked to step through metal detectors while all their belongings are subjected to x ray machines. Along with metal detectors several other scanners are now being used at airport grounds such as body scanners, bottled liquid scanners, advanced imaging techniques, threat imaging projections, explosive trace detection systems etc.

These detection systems ensure proper scanning of individuals and their belongings so as to omit transportation of harmful and illegal materials. Any individual suspected with such belonging is often taken into custody by airport police officials for further inspection. These systems ensure public safety however several of these systems are surrounded by controversies that question they intrusive and invasive properties.

Impact on Passengers

Airport security procedure may affect individuals physically and mentally. For example in cases of body scanners, when implementing the use of such scanners in airports, several other factors are to be considered. For instance, one of the major concerns with using body scanners is exposing individuals to high radiation that may result in potential harm along with violate their privacy. The use of body scanners resulted in public outrage where many lawsuits were charged against the use of body scanners as they found body scan machines to constituting an invasion of privacy. Also, several question the effectiveness and safety of such scanners due to reasons such as exposure to small amounts of radiation; we know that high dose of radiation has been linked to cancer.

Conclusion

A large variety of equipment is used by airport security professional as a means of ensuring public safety; some of these equipments include biometrics, detection systems, imaging technology, body scanners, explosive trace detection systems, bottled liquid scanners, threat imaging projection etc. Such advance use of technologies at airports has resulted in a reduction in the chances of occurrence of terrorist attacks. However, at the same time, it has had a significant impact on the passenger view regarding airport security measures. In fact, use of such intrusive technology has causes the travelling public to oppose some of the measures that they believe to be unethical and violating they personal space & privacy.

In recent years, several cases of hijacking have surfaced on media, which in many cases have resulted in severe loss to the mankind. Due to the potential high number of deaths that may occur from attacking aircrafts and the potential use of hijacked aircrafts as weapons against country governments, airports become number one targets for terrorist attacks (Vishwanath, 2003). Thus, airports continuously work towards enhancing security techniques as a means of ensuring safety; the general public needs to know that they are safe and protected while they travel overseas. Metal detection systems play a significant role in ensuring safety at airports; individuals are asked to step through metal detectors while all their belongings are subjected to x ray machines. Along with metal detectors several other scanners are now being used at airport grounds such as body scanners, bottled liquid scanners, advanced imaging techniques, threat imaging projections, explosive trace detection systems etc. These detection systems ensure proper scanning of individuals and their belongings so as to omit transportation of harmful and illegal materials. Any individual suspected with such belonging is often taken into custody by airport police officials for further inspection. These systems ensure public safety however several of these systems are surrounded by controversies that question they intrusive and invasive properties. For instance, body scanners are questioned for their effectiveness along with being blamed of invasion of privacy.

References

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