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Topic: write the letrature review Robots as Doctors? Consumer acceptance of robots in healthcare settings.

Your review should be structured with the following sections:

Introduction:

This section should introduce the background to the managerial issue of interest, pointing out overall trends, the key directions the research has taken, and justifying the need for further research. Conclude by stating the managerial issue that you are going to address in this major piece of work (so that the reader knows what the discussion relates to).

Literature review:

Your review should demonstrate a thorough knowledge of the topic of interest, through:

• a critical evaluation of the literature, rather than merely describing previous literature;
• integration of the key concepts from the literature relating to the managerial issue you have identified, rather than being more like an annotated bibliography
• identification of key authors and the key works in the area;
• citations of claims by the original authors' (usually based on their empirical findings), rather than citations based on unsubstantiated claims or by other authors simply repeating or referring to the original claims;
• clearly demonstrating the position that you are taking arising from the evidence in the literature reviewed which is relevant to your stated managerial issue.

Conclusion and possible ongoing research:

Summarise the key findings of the review, including the key research gap that requires attention. Conclude with a clear discussion of how this topic of research could be extended by identifying and explaining at least three (3) research objectives that would guide a future research project that could further address the managerial issue in a more practical way.

Literature Review

In the present environment, the robots are serving different task and purposes in the field of the medical/health and social care sectors that goes beyond the outdated possibility of the surgical and rehabilitation robots are poised to become one of the most crucial technology innovation in the 21st century. It has been determined that robots are being developed for the proper physical monitoring as well as assistance majorly for the simple tasks which consists of the removing the bed linen, preparation of different required tools. This is the fact that the older person always has the high healthcare requirements. On this, the younger people are more easily acceptable of robots as doctors than the older person which shows that at the old age people like to prefer humans as their doctors. When it comes to the acceptance of the robots in the healthcare as doctors then it has wide range of the issues which will be discussed. Thus, this shows that the acceptance of the robots as doctors is difficult for the patients.

The paper focuses on conducting the literature review in which the different views and opinions of the researcher can be identified. The literature review is conducted on Robots as Doctors. However, the managerial issue that has been witnessed is consumer acceptance of the robots in the healthcare settings. It has been found that machines as the doctors are accepted or not because they can only work according to their set programing. On the other hand, the doctors can make use of their own brains in the complex and difficult situation of surgeries. The discussion about the managerial issue is acceptance of robots by consumer as their doctors.

A review of the literature is considered as the search and evaluation of the present literature in the given chosen topic area. It provides the current information which comprises of the substantial findings and also the theoretical contribution to specific topic. Over here, the topic on which the literature review is conducted is related to the robots as doctors and also the acceptance of the customers of robots as their doctors.

In the present environment, the evolving role of Artificial intelligence is clearly witnessed and it has been proven effective in the accurate diagnoses of the different conditions of the medical. This is clearly witnessed in the diagnosis, psychiatry, treatment and also in the different aspects. According to the research of Loh (2018), the major question which arises in the mind is related to the can AI completed replaces the role of the doctors. It has been observed in the study that AI can be good or even better but definitely presently it cannot substitute the character of the doctors. However, evolution of the AI can bring changes in the robots as doctors. This research is supported with the view of Hall, (2019) study which AI platform just only takes 10 min in order to analyse the patient with the issue of the brain cancer and according to that they provide the treatment plan which is much less when it comes to the human doctors. The human doctors generally take 160 hours to make a similar plan. This shows that the robots system might be considered as better than the human doctors when it is about the diagnoses and also for the management of the plans.

Conclusion and Possible Ongoing Research

Kocher & Emanuel, (2019) research pointed that robots will substitute the surgeons by 2035 which is due to their emergences as life saver. In 2017 study, Massachusetts General Hospital and MIT showed that an artificial intelligence system was equivalent or even improved than the radiologist when it comes to the reading mammograms for the high risk of cancer. Disagreeing with the view, the study of PWC (2020) reflects that AI could not contribute in making the health care improved but instead of this they can inadvertently exacerbate many of the worst features of the present health care systems. By making the use of the deep and machine learning, the AI system evaluate the wide amount of the data that helps in making the effective predications and provide the recommendations for the interventions. This is witnessed that the improvements in the calculating power have allowed formation and cost-effective examination of the big datasets of electronic health record data, medical images, genetic data, laboratory data, prescription data, clinical emails, and many others (Broadbent, Stafford & MacDonald, 2009). The functioning of the robots is entirely depended on the data, health care records, treatments which are available and many others. Without these datasets, the use of the robots is totally of no use.

According to the study of Arab News (2020), it has been found that the growing use of the technology in the healthcare industry will provide to expand but should not take over from the primary care provider that is offered by the doctors and nurses. It has been found that a panel of the health experts conducted a discussion with the world economic forum. It has been witnessed that the panel addressed the vital role of the artificial intelligence and robotic in medical but the fact is that they can replace the doctors. The customers who are dealing with the medical issues don’t want to operate with the robots and want human as their doctors. The fact can’t be denied that the technology can provide the brilliant solution but it is remain difficult for the consumer to trust on this technology. The human doctors are trustable as compared to the technology which comes with the core of empathy (Medical Futurist, 2018). The process of the trust shows that attending to other individual, paying attention on their requirements, stating the feelings of the compassion, and providing the responses in the method other person want and understand. In the present scenario, no one likes to trust on the robot with the decisions that are related to the lives of the people. The customer acceptance for the robotics as their doctors is not possible so far as they cannot want to imagine the healthcare services without the empathy of human. The patients need their doctors who hold their hand and make them trust that they will be fine with the help of diagnosis which includes the guide for the therapy and also for the overall support (Gessl, Schlögl & Mevenkamp, 2019). The human doctors provide the different level of the trust to humans which make them think that they should select this treatment from them.

According to the research of Srivastava, (2020), it has been witnessed that maximum sophisticated digital health solution will need the capability of the specialists who are qualified in terms of medical, whether it is related to the AI or robotics. This can better be understood with the help of the example of greatest normally known as the surgical robot which is known as the da Vinci Surgical system. It majorly features an exaggerated 3D high-definition system of vision and tiny wristed tools that rotate as well as bend far higher than human hand. Although, surgeons have to study the way to operate it while performing their practice. It has been found that doctors together work with their patients who can actually select the action and only surgeons can analyse whether the smart algorithm that came up with the possible suggestions that might be considered as useful for the treatment. It has been determined that no robot or algorithm could evidently interpret the complex multi-layered issues (Medical Futurist, 2019). While robots will offer the data, but the interpretation of the same will always remain in the territory of humans. The human doctors can’t be replaced by this robotics doctors.

Contradicting the above views, the Head (2018) says that most of the customers as patients are now willing to get the care from the forward-thinking technologies that have possibility in order to convert the services provided by the healthcare centre to make it better, faster and even more nearby for all kind of medical issues. The findings shows that youth are able to adopt the services because they rely on these doctors and they find if there is proper documentation then these robots can easily make the things simpler. In the research, the survey is directed on the 11,000 people from the 12 countries across Europe, the Middle East area, and Africa. Across all these regions, it has been determined that over than half of respondents 55% said that they were prepared to make use of the progressive computed technology or robotics with AI (PWC, 2017). The better facilities of the healthcare are availed by the high-income group people because they can easily make the payment of the high technology services. The major reason that has been determined due to which the people agree for the robots include the accuracy level and speed of the diagnosis as well as treatment which is one of the crucial factors for the willingness. However, it has been found that trust in technology is important for making the extensive usage and adoption of services. The touch by the human as a doctor is immense which cannot be changed.

On this view, the Faucheron, Trilling, & Reche (2017) study presents the role of the government in the healthcare sector which might makes the customer to easily accept the robots as their doctor in the near future and not at the present state. It has been found that government of the countries like UK, Africa and others need to form the quality standards as well as the regulatory framework that are only applicable to as well as obligatory for the all sectors of the healthcare and also for the suitable incentives for adopting the new approaches. This will make the customers to accept the robots for their surgeries but they can’t rely on them for the critical surgeries. Apart from the government, the healthcare professional also needs to understand the way how robotics has the possible to perform the work for and with them in the medical setting and accept the change. The overall analysis shows that there are different aspects which affect the customer acceptance as robots.

In the study of Yu, Li, Teng, Shi, & Jiang, (2018), this has been determined that research age is one of the factors that can influence the acceptance of the customers towards the healthcare robots. The older age negatively impacts the usage of robots by the people. It was asked by the customer that people can spend living in a daily basis with the robots then most of the positive responses include youth and least positive from the adults with more than 65 years. Although it was asked that they accept the robots for the health care facility then it has been found that older people are less comfortable with the technology. The youth who can accept the robots as doctors include male as they have the strong connection in terms of the psychology which helps them in forming the mind-set through which they can easily accepts the robots in the form of doctors. On the other hand, women have fewer acceptances towards the robots which make them to not accept the robots as doctors.

Another important factor that can influence the acceptance of robots as doctors include needs. Ostrom, Fotheringham & Bitner,. (2019) pointed out that the needs of the people affect their perception towards the robots. Some of the people need assistance with the issue of mobility, vision or hearing, or other. The older people need doctors who can understand their need to motivate them and make them feel better at the time of surgery or before the surgery. This is not possible with the adoption of the robots as the doctors.

Contradicting the above research, the Wirtz, et al, (2018) research presents that lack of the familiarity with the technology can be considered as one of the reasons due to which people might feel the uncertain about the robots as the doctors for the treatment. This is witnessed that the direct experience of the usefulness of the devices that are assistive that leads to the change in the attitude of the older people. The acceptance of the robots among the people will occur when they will get familiar with the use of these robots as the doctors. It will take time to bring the changes in the reviews of the people. Slowly and gradually the people will be able to develop the relationship with the robots as the doctors which are used as the surgeons to provide the treatment. Furthermore, it has been determined in the study that cognitive ability as well as education also contributes in bringing the change in the acceptance of the technology for the solutions for the diseases that are majorly faced by the customers (Pino, Boulay, Jouen & Rigaud, 2015). The proper education among the people makes them to develop the trust for the robots for the surgeries. On the other hand, there is a possibility that the incomplete or the improper education might affect the acceptance of the customer negatively as they don’t want to trust on the robots due to their nature.

Broadbent, et al, (2010) pointed out that differences in the culture have also been found in the attitudes towards robots. It has been determined that American was more positive than any other country when it comes to the acceptance of the robots as the doctors for the purpose of the surgery. In the cross-culture study, it has been found that the assumption of the customers is for the humanoid type of robots. In the survey, the Japanese people respondent that they will be able to accept the humanoid robots easily while comparing it to the other robot. It is believed that these robots will be capable enough for emotions like human and also those they can fulfil the role of the humans which include communication with the patients that helps in generating the trust. It has been found in the survey that the robots are acceptable by the customer for the support services in the health instead of the doctors (Beer, Prakash, Mitzner & Rogers, 2011). The doctors are required to be humans who can remain in the touch with the patients for their care. In addition to this, it has been found that apart from these factors there are some factors include role, anxiety, and attitude towards the robots which affects the working of the robots as the doctors and their acceptance.

It has been found in the research, the ability of robot’s needs to adapt its behaviour for the preference and personality of the customer can enhance the acceptability. In the research, Robinson, MacDonald & Broadbent, (2014) provides the views that the acceptance by the customers is explained as the healthcare robot being freely combined into the personal lives. In order to develop the acceptance of the robots, there are majorly three basic needs which include the motivation that include use of the robots, sufficient ease of the use of robots as well as the comfort with the robot in a physical manner cognitively and also emotionally. It is witnessed that the associated models for the acceptance of the technology are determined that the apparent practicality of comfort of use, stimulation and preference that are related to the meanings of consumption.

Conclusion 

From the analysis, this has been found that robots have high potential to aid independence and to enhance prove health outcomes in the aged and also relieve the burden for the caregivers. It has been found that the robots have been developed so that the healthcare services can be improved. The review shows that the robots as doctors are possible but it can’t replace humans. The humans have the emotional connect with the patients and they can develop the trust which is one of the vital factors that contribute in human as doctors. The development of the robots is helping the patients in the proper diagnosis in a less time period while comparing it with the human doctors. The human doctors can build trust with the help of the empathy which makes the quick recovery of the patients. The robots work on the data which is provided to them without which they can interpret and not even them can’t provide the treatment to the patients. It has been found that they work where the details of the customers are not appropriate. Thus, this concludes that the use of the robots as the doctors has limitation or disadvantages of the use of the robots as doctors. On the other hand, the humans have the different skills and knowledge that helps them providing the treatment as doctors.

The surgeries which are conducted by the robots as the doctors can attain the success more than the humans because they are making use of the updated technologies like AI. This is witnessed that the acceptance of the customers for the robots as the doctors is difficult for them. There is a wide range of the individual that affects the acceptance by the customers for the robots as the doctors. These factors consist of age, gender, cultural differences, needs of the customers, lack of familiarity and many others. In the end, it is analysed that there are different ways that contribute in improving the acceptance of robots by customers. The possible on-going research is on humanoid type of robots which works as the doctors and they can provide the improved services to the patients. This can include the ways to improve communication which is effective in forming the trust of the customers. Overall, the possible on-going research might be considered as effective in the near future. The results of the research might show that the robots can replace the, humans.

References 

Arab News. (2020). Are robots ever going to replace doctors? Experts say ‘no’. Retrieved from: https://www.arabnews.com/node/1617216/business-economy

Beer, J. M., Prakash, A., Mitzner, T. L., & Rogers, W. A. (2011). Understanding robot acceptance. Georgia Institute of Technology.

Broadbent, E., Kuo, I. H., Lee, Y. I., Rabindran, J., Kerse, N., Stafford, R., & MacDonald, B. A. (2010). Attitudes and reactions to a healthcare robot. Telemedicine and e-Health, 16(5), 608-613.

Broadbent, E., Stafford, R., & MacDonald, B. (2009). Acceptance of healthcare robots for the older population: Review and future directions. International journal of social robotics, 1(4), 319.

Faucheron, J. L., Trilling, B., & Reche, F. (2017). Robots for rectopexy: probably hindrance... till now!. ANNALS OF LAPAROSCOPIC AND ENDOSCOPIC SURGERY, 2.

Gessl, A. S., Schlögl, S., & Mevenkamp, N. (2019). On the perceptions and acceptance of artificially intelligent robotics and the psychology of the future elderly. Behaviour & Information Technology, 38(11), 1068-1087.

Hall, A. K., Backonja, U., Painter, I., Cakmak, M., Sung, M., Lau, T., ... & Demiris, G. (2019). Acceptance and perceived usefulness of robots to assist with activities of daily living and healthcare tasks. Assistive Technology, 31(3), 133-140.

Head, H. T. (2018). Patient commentary: Stop hyping artificial intelligence—patients will always need human doctors. Bmj, 363.

Kocher, B. & Emanuel, Z. (2019). Will robots replace doctors?. Retrieved from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/usc-brookings-schaeffer-on-health-policy/2019/03/05/will-robots-replace-doctors/

Loh, E. (2018). Medicine and the rise of the robots: a qualitative review of recent advances of artificial intelligence in health. BMJ Leader, leader-2018.

Medical Futurist. (2018). 5 Reasons Why Artificial Intelligence Won’t Replace Physicians. Retrieved from: https://medicalfuturist.com/5-reasons-artificial-intelligence-wont-replace-physicians/

Medical Futurist. (2019). From Sur Medical Futurist. (2019)geries To Keeping Company: The Place Of Robots In Healthcare. Retrieved from: https://medicalfuturist.com/robotics-healthcare/

Ostrom, A. L., Fotheringham, D., & Bitner, M. J. (2019). Customer acceptance of AI in service encounters: understanding antecedents and consequences. In Handbook of Service Science, Volume II (pp. 77-103). Springer, Cham.

Pino, M., Boulay, M., Jouen, F., & Rigaud, A. S. (2015). “Are we ready for robots that care for us?” Attitudes and opinions of older adults toward socially assistive robots. Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 7, 141.

PWC. (2017). Consumers ready to embrace AI and robots for their healthcare needs. Retrieved from: https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/news-room/press-releases/2017/consumers-ready-to-embrace-ai-and-robots-for-their-healthcare-needs.html

PWC. (2020). What doctor?. Retrieved from: https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/news-room/docs/what-doctor-why-ai-and-robotics-will-define-new-health.pdf

Robinson, H., MacDonald, B., & Broadbent, E. (2014). The role of healthcare robots for older people at home: A review. International Journal of Social Robotics, 6(4), 575-591.

Srivastava, R. (2020). Will robots make doctors obsolete? Nothing could be further from the truth. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jan/22/will-robots-make-doctors-obsolete-nothing-could-be-further-from-the-truth

Wirtz, J., Patterson, P. G., Kunz, W. H., Gruber, T., Lu, V. N., Paluch, S., & Martins, A. (2018). Brave new world: service robots in the frontline. Journal of Service Management.

Yu, F., Li, L., Teng, H., Shi, D., & Jiang, Q. (2018). Robots in orthopedic surgery. ANNALS OF JOINT, 3(3).

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