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Understanding the Causes of Youth Crime in the UK

All around the world, youth crime rates are rising with the passage of time. For the first time in the history of the country's economy, there has been a significant surge in youth crimes.  There might not be a single factor that contributes to criminal behaviour. Crime is primarily the result of a number of negative social, economic, cultural, and familial circumstances coming together in one person's life. Around 7,500 RPIs were reported in the last year, a 19% rise over the previous year. There has been a 35% increase in the number of self-inflicted incidents (Bui and Deakin, 2021). This is the largest number of instances in the previous five years. Understanding the causes of criminal activity is essential if we are to stop it. No one cause of crime exists (Loeber et.al, 2011). Crime is primarily the result of a number of negative social, economic, cultural, and familial circumstances coming together in one person. Understanding the causes of criminal activity is essential if we are to stop it. The individual, the environment, or the individual's capacity to adapt to the demands or expectations of the environment are all potential risk factors (Bateman, 2014). Antisocial conduct and delinquency are influenced by children and teenagers' interactions and connections with their families and peers. In the early years of a child's life, contact with his or her family might have a lasting impact. Peer interactions become increasingly important during the formative years of adolescence. Some characteristics begin to emerge as early as childhood, while others do not manifest until puberty or later (Murray and Farrington, 2010). People's social circles might range from their own families to their local communities to their academic institutions. Some things fade away with age, while others stay with us for the rest of our lives. Furthermore, certain elements may be considered hazards at one stage of development, but not at another. A last point to make is to remember that what predicts the commencement of violence does not always indicate its continuance or termination (Lösel and Farrington, D.P., 2012).

It is crucial to identify risk and protective variables and determine when they appear in the course of development in order to avoid and intervene in violence. We need to focus on the causes of crime in order to come up with a strategy to reduce the number of incidents.

How social factors instigate the elements of crime among youth in UK and what are the possible ways through which justice can prevail for such crimes?

The research pertaining to the social factors influencing youth crime in UK are being studied in this research due to the increase in number of crime rates among youth. This is an alarming situation and the same is required to be addressed as youth are the future of any nation, it is thereby necessary to identify various causes which instigate them to involve in these crimes. It is the need of the hour to inculcate measures such as Strengthen the Law Enforcing Agencies, youth awareness programs, rehabilitative system for youth criminals, etc. Earlier several studies have been undertaken upon youth crime, but this research specifically focus upon social factors influencing youth crime and will help in resolving the causes behind it.

Impact of Social Factors on Youth Crime

In this section, the researcher discusses the numerous approaches that he or she plans to employ. The researcher's approach, philosophy, and other research-related characteristics will be effective. Research technique is one of the most important aspects of a study since it shows how the research will be carried out. A discussion of research methodology, as well as how a specific research design will be applied for the effective fulfillment of study findings, will benefit from this (Chakrabarti, 2010).

The research problem and its answers can be better understood by the researcher through the use of the viewpoint of research philosophy. Interpretivism is the philosophy that will be used by the researcher in this study to answer the question of what are the social factors affecting or instigating the youth crime in the United Kingdom and how these can be mitigated. There are two main types of scientific research: deductive and inductive. Unlike deductive research, which is more appropriate for positivist research, interpretive research is more suited to inductive research (Igwenagu, 2016). The researcher will use an inductive method to research in order to achieve the research's goals and objectives. Researchers can better solve their study topic by employing interpretivism in order to examine the monitoring factors affecting the level of youth crime and ascertaining measures to reduce the effect of the same. Study design is an important part of the research process since it determines how data will be collected or obtained to meet the research question at hand. It is less probable that past studies would provide support for an exploratory investigation, therefore the researcher is forced to independently address the study problem via the use of observation and interpretation of the data collected (Fletcher, 2017). Furthermore, exploratory research focuses on a single problem, but descriptive research uses a variety of statistical procedures to get at the desired result, and it is widely known that this study design is more complete than others. With the descriptive design employed in this study, the researcher will present an in-depth discussion and analysis of the issue. A variety of methods may be employed to gather data and come up with a solution that works (Flick, 2015). One may also do research using a variety of other methods such as in-depth analyses of existing data or conducting in-depth discussions with participants in focus groups or interviews. A descriptive and research approach has been chosen by the researcher because it best elicits the viewpoints, opinions, observations, and knowledge of the research participants (Kumar, 2018). Regardless of the subject matter, gathering data is usually the first and most critical phase in any research project. Depending on the information needed, various disciplines of study use different approaches to data gathering. To put it another way, it is data that has come from other sources and has previously been published in a variety of publications. In the field of business studies, no matter what your study topic is, you may find a wealth of information in these sources. Furthermore, the selection of secondary data based on a suitable set of standards plays a significant role in boosting the validity and trustworthiness of the research. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches are used to obtain primary data (Habib et.al, 2014).

Possible Ways to Address Youth Crime

Mathematical computations in a variety of forms underlie quantitative data collecting approaches. Closed-ended questions, correlation and regression, mean, mode, and median are some of the quantitative data gathering and analysis approaches. With regard to the comparison of qualitative approaches, quantitative methods are less expensive as well as may be implemented in a shorter period of time. It is also convenient to compare results due to the obvious high level of standardisation of quantitative procedures (Long-Sutehall et.al, 2011).

Contrary to popular belief, qualitative research methodologies do not rely on numerical data or computations. Qualitative research is intimately linked to non-quantifiable components such as words, sounds, sensations, emotions, and colours. There are many other types of qualitative research methods that may be used to gather data, such as interview with open-ended questions, focus groups and games or role-playing (Majid and Vanstone, 2018). Qualitative and quantitative research methodologies may be used by researchers in every study, and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Research methods may be divided into two categories: those that rely on case studies and those that rely on surveys and observations. In order to gain a thorough understanding of the topic, the researcher will employ qualitative approach in terms of primary data collection method by conducting an interview including aspects of focus groups such that based upon the observations and drawing conclusions based upon the research problem (Mitchell, 2018).

Gathering and measuring data on the variables of interest, in a defined methodical manner, helps the researcher to answer specified research questions, test hypotheses, and assess outcomes. All disciplines of study, such as the physical and social sciences, the humanities, and business, require data collecting as part of the research process. The focus on accurate and honest data collection is necessary, regardless of the method used. When doing research, data collection is the process of collecting, measuring and evaluating correct insights based on established and verified procedures with the purpose of drawing conclusions. In addition to the date of publication, credential of the author and dependability of the source, as well as the quality of discussions and analysis and how much of a contribution the text made to the advancement of research, these factors are used (Mohajan, 2018).

Even in the early phases of organising a study, ethics should be taken into account; this is especially true if the study incorporates primary research components such as questionnaires, focus groups, or interviews. Throughout the research, researchers should be mindful of their responsibilities to the communities and cultures in which they reside and work, and aim to serve the public (Pandey and Pandey, 2021). Participants and researchers should be protected from danger while the research is being conducted, and researchers should strive to achieve this goal at all costs. Precautions should be taken to ensure that any possible risks or damage are avoided, including the possibility of directing participants to resources or help for sensitive topics that may arise during the course of the study process (Reijers et.al, 2018). Prior to and/or during a given research endeavour, any conflicts of interest or bias on the side of researchers, funding agencies, or procuring bodies should be made apparent. Researchers must provide participants with clear and understandable explanations of the study's objectives, procedures and planned outcomes, as well the associated risks and benefits. Coercion or undue pressure should not be used to obtain consent from participants. To avoid any repercussions or victimisation, kids should know that they can reject to participate at any time and for any reason they choose. If they would not want to participate, they do not have to explain why (Newman and Gough, 2020). Information about how and where participants' data will be retained and for how long should be provided to them as well. It is imperative that the identities of participants in research studies be kept anonymous or secret at all times, unless those people specifically consent or request that their personal information be made public. For the benefit of society including public and private sector confidence, doing research in this manner allows people to review their actions and beliefs in light of trustworthy evidence that can be replicated (Cascio and Racine, 2018).

Research Approach and Design

When conducting an assessment of a project, it is important to gather information from those who are directly involved in the project, including participants, personnel, and other stakeholders, for this interview is the best suitable method. It is possible to learn more about the project's early stages and challenges by interviewing people involved in the research. The observations are carried out with the aid of a series of steps and devices that have been meticulously constructed (Flick, 2015). Interviewing and participant observation are both used in focus groups. The focus group is not a discussion forum, a problem-solving session, or a decision-making group, but rather an interview. Focus groups, on the other hand, take use of group dynamics. As a means of gathering information, interviews begin with the premise that the participants' points of view are important enough to know, understand, and express explicitly. Personal contact and chances for follow-up on intriguing comments need the use of an interview rather than a paper and pencil survey (Mohajan, 2018).

It is common for assessment researchers to conduct both organised and in-depth interviews, in which the interviewer does not adhere to a predetermined format. It is all about finding the right answers to properly worded questions in the first case (MacDonald, 2012). To guarantee uniformity in interview administration, interviewers are instructed to only slightly depart from the question phrasing. As a result, there may be a trade-off between broad coverage of a wide range of topics and in-depth investigation of a relatively limited set of concerns in the latter. Additionally, in-depth interviews facilitate the collection of qualitative data by allowing participants to express their thoughts and feelings in their own words (Kumar, 2018). A respondent's point of view can help the assessor show how valuable a certain event was for the subject. In-depth interviews are performed with one or a small number of people. Steps and instruments have been meticulously devised for the purpose of conducting observations. To describe an event, the observer must have a set of target ideas, definitions as well as criteria in mind when they arrive on the scene. In most investigations, observers' comments are or will be compared to a continuum of expectations, even if they just record and describe (Mohajan, 2018). With respect to this research and assessing the aspects of various social factors instigating the youth crime, the interview will be conducted based upon focusing upon focus group of youths ranging age from 15-24 years (25 in number) (randomly chosen from surrounding schools, rehabilitative centres, and online profiles), people working with youth crime justice authorities (10 in number) and on the basis of their personal experiences, opinions and views, and observing the same, researcher will  make an informed opinion with respect to finding measures to mitigate the factors causing youth crime and create a favourable environment in society.

Important points

Weekly based or Week-Wise (Research Timeline)

Required time

Week 1

Week

2

Week

3

Week

4

Week

5

Week

6

Week

7

Introduction

1 to 2 weeks

Research aims and Objectives and Questions

1 to 2 weeks

Literature Review

2 to 3 weeks

Research Methodology

2 to 4 weeks

Findings and Discussion (Interview based on focus groups and observations)

4 to 5 weeks

Conclusion and Recommendations

1 to 2 weeks

Bibliography and Appendices

1 to 2 weeks

References

Bateman, T., 2014. Where has all the youth crime gone? Youth justice in an age of austerity. Children & Society, 28(5), pp.416-424.

Bui, L. and Deakin, J., 2021. What we talk about when we talk about vulnerability and youth crime: A narrative review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, p.101605.

Cascio, M.A. and Racine, E., 2018. Person-oriented research ethics:

integrating relational and everyday ethics in research. Accountability in research, 25(3), pp.170-197.

Chakrabarti, A., 2010. A course for teaching design research methodology. AI EDAM, 24(3), pp.317-334.

Fletcher, A.J., 2017. Applying critical realism in qualitative research: methodology meets method. International journal of social research methodology, 20(2), pp.181-194.

Flick, U., 2015. Introducing research methodology: A beginner's guide to doing a research project.

Habib, M.M., Pathik, B.B. and Maryam, H., 2014. 

Research methodology-contemporary practices: guidelines for academic researchers. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Igwenagu, C., 2016. Fundamentals of research methodology and data collection. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

Kumar, R., 2018. Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. Sage.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D.P. and Cotter, R.B., 2011. Young homicide offenders and victims: Risk factors, prediction, and prevention from childhood. New York: Springer.

Long-Sutehall, T., Sque, M. and Addington-Hall, J., 2011. Secondary analysis of qualitative data: a valuable method for exploring sensitive issues with an elusive population?. Journal of Research in Nursing, 16(4), pp.335-344.

Lösel, F. and Farrington, D.P., 2012. Direct protective and buffering protective factors in the development of youth violence. American journal of preventive medicine, 43(2), pp.S8-S23.

MacDonald, C., 2012. Understanding participatory action research: A qualitative research methodology option. The Canadian Journal of Action Research, 13(2), pp.34-50.

Majid, U. and Vanstone, M., 2018. Appraising qualitative research for evidence syntheses: a compendium of quality appraisal tools. Qualitative health research, 28(13), pp.2115-2131.

Mitchell, A., 2018, July. A review of mixed methods, pragmatism and abduction techniques. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Research Methods for Business & Management Studies (pp. 269-277).

Mohajan, H.K., 2018. Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1), pp.23-48.

Murray, J. and Farrington, D.P., 2010. Risk factors for conduct disorder and delinquency: key findings from longitudinal studies. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(10), pp.633-642.

Newman, M. and Gough, D., 2020. Systematic reviews in educational research: Methodology, perspectives and application. Systematic reviews in educational research, pp.3-22.

Pandey, P. and Pandey, M.M., 2021. Research Methodology Tools and Techniques.

Reijers, W., Wright, D., Brey, P., Weber, K., Rodrigues, R., O’Sullivan, D. and Gordijn, B., 2018. Methods for practising ethics in research and innovation: A literature review, critical analysis and recommendations. Science and engineering ethics, 24(5), pp.1437-1481.

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