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Assignment: Final Research Proposal Add in library

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Questions

In this assignment you will finalize your research proposal through including sections on possible data sources and limitations.  

1. Introduction

2. Research question

3. Literature Review

4. Methodology
 
5. Data Collection

6. Limitations

7. Works Cited

 

 

Answer:

1. Introduction:

Studies are very important aspect of human life, and talking about the studies of children going to school or pursuing higher education is an important topic of discussion. What leads a person to studies is the motivation he gets for it. This motivation can be from someone near to him or can originate from his inner self, but this is the most important thing which drives a person towards education. This essay will focus on various factors that facilitates or de-facilitates the motivation part in a student’s life, and will help the people working in or associated with the field of education can better understand the needs and drive them more with proper motivation. This will also help them to understand the student’s mental state and to pre judge when they are going to fall in their studies. (Kamauru, 2000). Lumsden (1994) in his research has found that the zeal to learn new things and study faces a remarkable decline with the growing age, many of the student lose their interest in studies and are in the schools more out of compulsion than by their own will, this makes them present physically in the classroom but mentally they are not present there. This is the main reason of large number of youth leaving education before graduation. Motivation is the key ingredient, required for a student to like and pursue education. By the time various researchers have gone through this topic, about what motivates a student and what not. In this process various definitions have been used for the term motivation, as it directly effects the students overall performance. For example Lumsden, (1994) worked on the field of student’s involvement in education and the role of motivation in it. Marshal (1987) found motivation as a force beneficial to the learners. Ames (1990) was of the opinion that motivation is a long term process, and is linked with the quality of education provided. Most of the theorist form the opinion that learning requires motivation at every step, and it is very difficult to do anything learned without this factor.

Considering student as a customer in the system of education, then the customer satisfaction, i.e. the satisfaction to students’ is the top most priority of all educational institutions. The idea of assuming student as a customer in the educational system is not at all new. Aldridge & Rowely (1998) were also of the opinion that things are carried out more efficiently when some sort of feedbacks are collected from the students, but is also important at the same time to collect feedbacks from the academic staff too, because the study of both can only solve the puzzle of overall performance (Aldridge & Rowely, 1998). In short we can say that motivational factors are precursors to education. This essay will focus on the intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved in the process of motivation. It is interesting to see that the performance of students who are motivated by themselves, i.e. intrinsically score high and have a constant performance, whereas on the other hand, student who are motivated with external forces, i.e. extrinsically perform low and are also not consistent in their studies.

2. Research question:

Question 1: How intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influence on academic performance?

 

3. Literature Review:

As per Babar & Kashif, regarding the effects of teaching and student motivation, it is said that student motivation to learn is actually to acquire the competence that is developed by the basic experience rather than stimulated directly by the expectations communication, modeling, and through socialization and direct instructions through the others mainly teachers and parents (Broussard & Garrison, 2004). Motivation implies the reasons, which underlie the behavior, which is actually characterized through the willingness as well as volition (Broussard & Garrison, 2004). It is noted that intrinsic motivation is actually animated through the interest, personal enjoyment, and pleasure. Extrinsic motivation is actually governed through the contingency reinforcement (Broussard & Garrison, 2004). Motivation includes the constellation of the related perceptions, actions, beliefs, interests, as well as values.  Motivation in individuals is actually different all across the various areas of subjects, and this domain mainly enhances with age (Broussard & Garrison, 2004). Motivation as a child predicts motivation in the later life and it also helps in bringing the stability within the relationship for the purpose of strengthening with age (Broussard & Garrison, 2004).

Previously, educators try to consider the intrinsic motivation to get more describe and in result of that it consider better results of learning in place of extrinsic motivation (Broussard & Garrison, 2004). In general, most of the children seem to appear to enter school with a high intrinsic motivation level, although this motivation tends towards declining as the children tries to progress in the school (Broussard & Garrison, 2004). It is noted that various research has suggested that motivation could be easily manipulated by the specific practices of instructions, although studies has tried to demonstrate the positive as well as negative impacts (Broussard & Garrison, 2004). The reward usage might either try to encourage or might get reduced in motivation, relying over the various types of rewards and the context in which it could be offered (Broussard & Garrison, 2004).

Teachers can also try to provide students with the control over their own style of learning which permits them to make decisions and simultaneously use collaborative as well as approaches of cooperative learning (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). Along with this, teachers can also try to create an environment of a supportive classroom in respect to the structure of goal, external evaluation, as well as attributions (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). Researchers has also tried to made various recommendations over the educators who are interested in helping student motivation by covering up the limited reward usage, or using the rewards for offering the information related to competence, enhancing the autonomy of students and their selection, or using the cooperative methods of learning, and creating the environment of supportive classroom in context of the goal structure, external and attribution evaluation (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). For instance, the literature over the impact of the extrinsic rewards over the motivation of students suggests that teachers should be sparing in giving rewards and should try to use various reward types within the classroom (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002).

Specifically, tangible rewards holds importance and might have negative impacts on both the behavior of free choice or it is self-reported interest as compared with intrinsic rewards, although when the rewards are actually expected, they tend not to hold the effects of decreasing motivation (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). When the rewards are quite contingent in the activity, in spite of the students excel in the task, the negative impact of the tangible reward over the free selection behavior importantly higher for the children in comparison to the students of the college (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002).

While it is noted that events can dramatically alter the motivation of the students towards learning and this can positively impact over every student, it is significant to acknowledge that motivation of student is quite dynamic (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). Through one’s own behavior, or through the teaching practices and course design, one can try to create the conditions of classroom, and can even try to encourage the motivation and engagement towards learning at various levels (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). Therefore, through implementing the various strategies that could fit into the classroom environment or in the teaching style, one can easily try to sustain the motivation of students towards learning in the classroom or in the overall matter of subject (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). Along with the motivational resources, the schools can even organize the workshops all throughout the year over student motivation, classroom management, and various styles of learning and engagement of student (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002).

 

4. Methodology:

4.1 Data Sample collection

The sample was collected from the some of the renowned universities in Delhi, India. The dataset was of 342 students in total. The questionnaire was about the level of motivation they feel in their university experience and what actually motivates them. The survey was carried out on both boys and girls. There were 82% male and 18% female students in the survey and their average age was 20 years.

4.2 Instrumentation and Measurement

Survey was carried out using TUSMSQ2 instrument developed by Neill and containing 30-items. The questions focus on measuring both the Intrinsic and Extrinsic factors of motivation for students. In total there occurred two intrinsic factors of motivation, i.e. Self-exploration and Altruism and four extrinsic motivators were found, i.e. rejection of Alternative options, career and qualifications, Social enjoyment, and Social pressure in the questionnaire. The questions were based on five point Likert scale. For each item, students rated themselves on a scale of 1 to 5; 1 being “Very False”, towards, 5 being “Very True”.

4.2.1 TUSMSQ Questionnaire

 

Background Information
 
(Write or circle the best answer)

Office Use


ID

 

 

1. Gender: Male / Female    2. Age:________ years    3. Overseas Student?  Yes / No

4. Name of Degree enrolled in: _______________________________________________

5. Enrolment Status: Part-time / Full-time     6. % of degree completed (approx): ______

7. GPA: ________    8. UAI: _________  9. Accommodation:  With Parents / Ressies / Other

10. Relationship Status:  Single / Partner / Other    

11. Number of Dependent Children: _____

12. Average hours per week in paid employment: _________

13. How likely is it that you will complete your current degree?

Definitely won’t finish

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Definitely will finish


14. What have been the main motivations for you to attend university?  

Please describe up to 3 key reasons for why you’ve chosen to be a university student?

1.

2.

3.

Student Motivation

Listed below are several motivations for going to university.  Please rate the extent to which each motivation is accurate for you, using this scale.  Circle the best answer for each item.

FALSE NOT LIKE ME

 

TRUE LIKE ME

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

This statement doesn’t describe me at all; it isn’t like me

More false
than true

More true
than false

This statement describe me very well; it is very much like me

 

 

I attend university…

False

 

 

 

 

True

1

Because I don’t know what else to do.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

2

To understand myself better.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

3

To gain valuable skills for my career.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

4

Because it’s fun place to be.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

5

Because others expect me to get a degree.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

6

Because I genuinely want to help others.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

7

Because it’s a better alternative than working.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

8

Because I want to explore new ideas.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

To enhance my job prospects.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

10

Because I enjoy the social life.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

11

Because other people have told me I should.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

12

Because I want to contribute to society.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

13

To avoid being unemployed.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

14

Because I want to challenge myself.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

15

In order to get the qualification.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

16

Because I enjoy the social environment.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

17

Because it would disappoint other people if I didn't.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

18

Because I want to help solve society's problems.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

19

Because it gives me something to do.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

20

For my personal growth and development.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

21

Because it will help set up my future career.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

22

Because of the social opportunities.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

23

It seems to be the recommended thing to do.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

24

Because I want to improve the world situation.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

25

Because I don’t have any better options.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

26

Because I love learning.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

27

So I can get a better job.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

28

Because it’s a great place to develop friendships.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

29

Of social expectations from those around me.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

30

Because I want to be more useful to society.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8


Student Satisfaction

We are interested to learn more about students’ satisfaction with their university experience.

1. Please describe what aspect of this university have you been most satisfied with?

2. Please describe what aspect of this university have you been least satisfied with?


Listed below are several aspects of students’ university experience.  Please honestly rate your level of dissatisfaction-satisfaction by circling an answer for each item:

1

2

3

4

5

Very Dissatisfied

(VD)

Dissatisfied

(D)

Neither Satisfied or Dissatisfied (N)

Satisfied

(S)

Very Satisfied

(VS)

 

My satisfaction with…

VD

D

N

S

VS

1

Library resources.

1

2

3

4

5

2

Opportunities to make friends.

1

2

3

4

5

3

Professionalism of my lecturers & tutors.

1

2

3

4

5

4

Lecture theatres, tutorial rooms & laboratory facilities.

1

2

3

4

5

5

Social events provided for students.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Level of knowledge of the staff who teach me.

1

2

3

4

5

7

Availability of computers & technology.

1

2

3

4

5

8

Opportunities to develop close friendships.

1

2

3

4

5

9

Quality of the education I am receiving.

1

2

3

4

5

10

Extra campus facilities
(e.g., banks, cafes, childcare, parking, bookshop, etc.).

1

2

3

4

5

11

Chances to pursue my social interests.

1

2

3

4

5

12

Quality of the staff who teach me.

1

2

3

4

5

13

Places to study on campus.

1

2

3

4

5

14

Quality of the social life at this university.

1

2

3

4

5

15

Interest that teaching staff take in my progress.

1

2

3

4

5

16

Student support services
(e.g. student union, academic assistance, counseling, etc.).

1

2

3

4

5

17

Chances to spend enjoyable time with other people.

1

2

3

4

5

18

Teaching ability of my tutors & lecturers.

1

2

3

4

5

19

Overall quality of the campus facilities.

1

2

3

4

5

 

The following items contain the key to sources of motivation mentioned in the survey:-

Intrinsic

Extrinsic

Self- Exploration 2, 8,14,20,26

Rejection of Alternative options 1, 7,13,19,25

Altruism 6, 12,18,24,30

Career and Qualifications 3, 9,15,21,27

 

Social enjoyment 4, 10,16,22,28

 

Social Pressure 5, 11, 17, 23, 29


4.3 Procedure

The survey questionnaire was distributed among the students of various disciplines, studying in different years of their university randomly, and the data was collected. Data was then analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 17.0) for the accuracy of analysis and results. Analysis included regression analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

 

5. Result

 The report begins with the results of the students’ information on segments like gender and languages. This study revealed that 82.4% respondents are male while 17.6% female, participating in this survey. Responses of the females were so minimal to be called as significant. This study reveals percentages of languages:

Language

Percentage

Punjabi

34.5

Sindhi

8.6

Hindi

10.8

Tamil

6.5

Urdu

33.5

English

0.7

Marathi

5.4


Different languages are spoken across the entire country, but in a university, students’ from different background, cultures and places of origin come to study under the same roof, so consideration for language was also done. Some prominent languages and few local languages were selected for the survey to happen. Now we have a clear picture of the respondents’ answers regarding student motivation and student performance, as shown in the table:

The results reveal that the model is significant (p<.10) and there is a strong relationship between independent and dependent variables. The independent variables of the study show strong relationship with the dependent variable. The variables when compared on an individual basis, all variables are insignificant (p>05). The results of regression analysis with the values of R-Square=0.80 and the F-statistics= 16.010.

Option

Regression Coefficient

Rejection Alternative

0.713

Career Qualification

0.088

Social Enjoyment

0.069

Social Pressure

0.035

Self Exploration

0.100

Altruism

0.112


The regression coefficient for Rejection Alternative Option is 0.173, and signifies that student’s performance is sensitive to Rejection Alternative Option and increase by 17% due to it. The regression coefficient for Career Qualification is 0.088, signifying that student’s performance is sensitive to Career Qualification and increase by 08% due to it.

The regression coefficient for Social Enjoyment is 0.069, bringing out that student’s performance is sensitive to Social Enjoyment and increase by 07% due to it. The regression coefficient for Social Pressure is 0.035, which signifies student’s performance is sensitive to Social Pressure and increase by 03% due to it. The regression coefficient for Self Exploration is 0.100, meaning to student’s performance is sensitive to Self Exploration and increase by 10% due to it. The regression coefficient for Altruism is 0.112, pertaining to student’s performance is sensitive to Social Pressure and increase by 11% due to it. This result is self-explanatory to describe the student’s performance with both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

The results of regression analysis with the values of R-Square=0.79 and the F-statistics=24.585 are as follows:

The results bring out that the model used for survey is significant (p<.05) and there exists a strong relationship between independent and dependent variables. The variables when compared on an individual basis, both the variables are insignificant (p

Regression Coefficient

Percentage

Performance

Intrinsic motivation

0.237

increase by 34%

Extrinsic motivation

0.342

decreases by 23%


The regression coefficient of intrinsic motivation is 0.237 in this model and remarkably significant, it means that student’s performance is decreased by 23%. The model is overall significant (p<.05) and both independent and dependent variables are important to student performance, with varying degree of importance.

 

6. Findings

Rejection of alternative options, career and qualifications and social pressure are the factors responsible for degradation in the academic performance.

Same way, intrinsic motivation is achieved through altruism, and self-exploration. This survey researches factors of student motivation and their impact on student academic performance. Student performance is found to get increased between 23 to 34 percent due to extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.

The survey and its findings reveal R-square is 80 percent which signifies the strong relationship of students’ motivation with their performance. Academics performance is found to increase by 34 percent due to extrinsic motivation whereas academic performance is found to increase by 23 percent due to intrinsic motivation.

Every student is unique and comes from a completely different background, with differences in the various factors in the environment leading to various level or type of motivation in him. Some student who had best schooling options available with them are found to have abundance of skill due to the reason they were grown up in a better environment to grow. It also depends on the capability of the teacher teaching in the classroom to make the subject much more interesting to gain student’s attraction and make him learn it by himself. There is no miraculous formula available to judge the performance of a student, other than the method of intrinsic and extrinsic questionnaire.

7. Conclusion and Recommendations

The study examined various factors involved in the process of motivation to the student, whether intrinsic or extrinsic. It was observed that there exists a relationship between the various factors of motivation and overall performance. It was seen that students who were better motivated performed better, and those student who performed good were motivated easily.

From the above findings it can be concluded that intrinsically motivated students show a better performance academically than extrinsically motivated students. Students who are extrinsically motivated, might deliver a good job or perform well to achieve a certain reward, but it does not keep them motivated for long-term and overall performance does not change or is consistent. They might perform very well in one semester or quiz to achieve a certain reward or goal and then next semester might show poor performance because the reward did not exist anymore.

Their performance does not remain constant as a result. Students’ who are intrinsically motivated take up tasks or perform well academically for their own interest and for their own learning. These kinds of students are truly interested in learning and in achieving high goals. This shows in their overall consistent performance.

From the above results as well as analysis, this study comes to a conclusion that performance in academics is positively affected by intrinsic motivation and also negatively influenced by extrinsic motivation.

 

References

1. Ames, C. A. (1990). Motivation: What Teachers Need to Know? Teachers College Record, Vol. 91(3) pp. 409-421.

2. Blank, W. (1997). Authentic instruction. In W.E. Blank & S. Harwell (Eds.), Promising practices for connecting high school to the real world. FL: University of South Florida. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 407 586). pp. 15-21

3. Bomia, L., Beluzo, L., Demeester, D., Elander, K., Johnson, M., & Sheldon, B. (1997). The Impact of Teaching Strategies on Intrinsic Motivation. Champaign, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education.

4. Bowen, W., & Bok, D. (1998). In the shape of the river: Long term consequences of considering race in college and university relations. Academic Outcomes. pp. 53-90.

5. Brophy, J. (1986). On Motivating Students. East Lansing, Michigan: Institute for Research on Teaching, Michigan State University. pp. 73.

6. Condry, J., and J. Chambers. (1978). Intrinsic Motivation and the Process of Learning. In the Hidden Costs of Reward, edited by M.R. Lepper and D. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. pp. 61-84.

7. Deborah J. Stipek, Karen B. Givvin, Julie M. Salmon and Valanne L. MacGyvers. (1999). In the Eyes of the Beholder: Students’ and Teachers’ Judgments of Students’ Motivation. University of California, Los Angeles.

8. Dev, P.C. (1997). Intrinsic motivation and academic achievement: What does their relationship imply for the classroom teacher? Remedial and Special Education. Vol.  18(1). pp. 12-19.

9. Ericksen, S. C. (1978). The Lecture. Memo to the Faculty, no. 60. Ann Arbor: Center for Research on Teaching and Learning. University of Michigan.

10. Huitt W. (2000). Motivation to Learn: An Overview, Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta State University.

11. Kamauru R. J. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Predict Academic Performance of College Students. More house College.
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