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Case study

Describe about the Banking System and its Impact on the Economic Development?

Banking system plays a key role in the economic development of the United States of America. The Bank of New York was formed in the year 1784, and is known to be one of the oldest banks in the country. There are different types of services rendered by the bank. The performance of the bank depends upon the global economy of the country. It has played an indefinable role in the economic development of the nation. The centralised banking system has improved the payment systems, which is an important factor of the economic development. Apart from this, the authorities of the banks also work towards issuing currencies to the nation. The banks also work towards issuing legal tender, which is also called as the “Federal Reserve Notes” and “coins.” One of the major reasons for the economic development of the country has been due to effective financial sector that operates in the USA. The reformed system has helped the authorities in drafting and implementing changes that are required for analysing the long term financial requirements of the nation. This essay has been prepared on the global economic event about the lawsuits that were lodged against some of the established banks in the USA (Adrian and Shin, 2007).

Issue with the banks

There is no second opinion about the fact that the banks play a key role in the development of the nation. However in the year 2013, there were many lawsuits that were registered against reputed banks like JPMorgan Chase, and others. In fact the banks had to loss huge amount on compensating against the cases that were filed against the authorities. Most of the lawsuits were filed by the government, and the funds had to be compensated to the federal authorities. Some of the reasons that were stated for charging the compensation amount were -

  1. Investments in the sales pre-financial crisis
  2. Bad mortgage (Gorton, and Metrick, 2010)

Apart from this, there were tremendous increase in the number of small litigation charges that were filed by different parties like the -

  1. Small and medium sized business houses
  2. Individuals (BIS Woing Papers, 2000)
  3. Government

Apart from the JPMorgan, there were many other banks that also faced tough time with handling the issues related to litigation in the United States of America. Such factors had a direct impact on the economic development and plan that was drafted by the authorities of the country. This was one of the reasons, the rules and policies governing the banking policies in the country made quite strict.  Besides this, the law amount varied from each other and completely depended on the case that was filed against the banks. Some of the banks that had to bear the crunch of lawsuits were-

  • Bank of America
  • Goldman Sachs
  • Morgan Stanley

Many of the companies had to face issues with the procedure that was adopted for the sales of securities including mortgage.  The banks had manipulated the sales figures in order to increase the sales for the organization. Such lawsuits had created a wrong impression about the financial system that existed within the country. As per some experts, an increase in the lawsuit was direct indication that the financial system and the federal authorities had fair chance to adopt fraudulent methods for manipulating the figures. This had directly affected the economic viability of the country, and impacted the performance (Gordy, 2000).

Issue with the banks

The economic performance of the country depends upon various factors, and they have to be analysed at regular intervals. In 2014, the economic progress of many developing countries including the United States of America was not up to the mark. This was basically associated with the financial market and its stability. The economic had viewed changes in different prices like oil, increase in the interest rates, and many others. In order to regularise the price and the performance of the banks, it was quite important to introduce rules through which the policies and rules could be regularised for this, it was essential to draft the best policies through which the wrong practices could be reduced or controlled. Both the factors were considered to be quite important, and the federal authorities had to take the corrective steps through which the changes could be implemented (Jones, 2000).

Financial experts had discussed about the impact of improper banking systems on the savings and payment transactions that were carried out by the individuals. This is one of the reasons, the performance of the multilateral developmental banks were analysed. Through this method, an attempt was made to analyse the current structure that was followed by the management to improve upon the performance of the banks. In order to improve the performance, the managers of the banks were vested with additional responsibilities to check and supervise the business operational activities. It also included supervising the programs that were developed by the banks to benefit the people and other industries. Banks specialising in the market based loans had to follow strict rules through which the changes in terms of policies and other factors could be implemented. This was quite an essential step, and was meant to help in improving the performance of the banks. In this process, the rules to grant concessional loans to the individuals, industries, or to the countries were analysed. This was done to introduce the best policies through which the changes could be implemented for increasing the performance of the banks. The process that was expected to be followed by the banks, including the repayment procedure was supervised. Through this method, the management had expected to decrease the possibilities of wrong recording of the details or information. It was also necessary to improve the standards that were expected to be followed by the banks. This would help in increasing the level of transparency that was followed by the banks (Mitchell, 2013).

Also an attempt was made to minimise the number of fraudulent actives that incurred between the clients and the banks. This was one of the most important factors that were expected to help in improving the performance of the banks. Due to inefficient performance of the banks, many individuals were also impacted. It was noticed that the mortgage loan interest rates had tremendously increased. This was indeed a matter to be concerned about. The changes that were proposed to be introduced by the government include analysing the reasons or factors that caused an increase in the rates of interest.  An increase in the rate of interest was a deep concern as this had directly impacted the savings of the people. Such a factor had to be controlled as the rise in the price had increased the cost of living for the people. In order to improve the condition, the government had to take up the necessary steps through which the changes in the market could be introduced. Apart from introducing the steps, it was also necessary to analyse the changes that were expected to be implemented for improving the banking system. Such a change had a direct impact on the financial budget that is prepared by the federal authorities of the country. In the usual process, the rules for budget are updated so as to implement the changes that would help in amending the financial system. This is one of the most important factors that would help in the development of the country and the people. However due to manipulation of the price and the reports by the banks impacts the financial position of the country. Apart from this, wrong sales of mortgage loans and other factors affects the confidence of the people. This affects the savings, which is quite important for the successful business operational activities of the federal authorities. Thus, the goals that were drafted by the authorities had to face unexpected challenges (Morgan Stanley Research, 2010).

Improving bank performance

Just like the under-developed and developing countries, the developed nations have to make the best use of the resources. The resources include finance, human, and knowledge.  This has to be done, so as to provide the best support to the economic developmental program that has been drafted by the authorities of the nation. In this case, the structural reformat program has to be drafted and implemented in the best possible manner. This will help the management in adapting and implementing the best reformat programs that will be suitable for the nation and the people. Improper performance of the banks was one of the major roadblocks that could directly affect the economic development of the country. This also includes developing and implementing the best policies for introducing the investment plan that were required in the private sector factors. It is quite important for the banks and other financial sectors to concentre on the development of the industries, as it could generate stable and lucrative jobs for the people (Song, 2009).

The federal authorities of the country are working towards introducing the best policies for improving the banking rules. This is being also done to increase the transparent level that has been followed by the banks. In other words, the banks and the financial system are expected to provide maximum information to the clients. In fact, the offer to sell the product shouldn’t be forceful. Apart from this, the strategies followed by the authorities have to be impressive and intend to benefit the customers. This is one of the factors that would positively contribute towards the development of the nation and the people. Such a factor will also help the management to cope with the slowdown in the economic condition (Nouy, 2000).

As per bank capital regulation theory, it is stated that the policies and strategies needs to be regulated. This will help in controlling the down performance of various factors that causes market failure. In such a case, it becomes imperative to analyse the external factors that can affect the performance of the banks. Thus, it is stated that the performance of the banks, including its policies needs to be regulated. This will help in improving the performance of the financial institutions. The theory highlights the features of the systemic crisis that are associated with the performance of the banks. The other factor that needs to be considered in this process is the inability of the depositor to check on the performance of the banks.

In the systemic risk argument, it is stated that the banks that renders the liquid services to the clients has to update the accounts on a regular basis. This has been done with an intention of analysing the reason for liquidating the assets that is held by the banks. At this time, it is essential to provide the depositors with the right information that would talk about the value of the deposits. Such factors would reduce the possibilities of providing wrong information to the clients, and other institutes (Stein, 2010).

In the other case, the banks are recommended to invest in the riskless securities. This basically includes short term securities that have been issued by the federal authorities. However the challenges that are involved in the process have to be analysed.

It has been stated that the banking policies and rules has to be regularised, as this will help in handing the challenges that are faced by the authorities and clients. It means the ownership factors needs to be differentiated from the management. This will improve the performance and help the banking authorities to make the right decision. The rules associated with the same needs to be communicated effectively with the members, companies, and other organizations that are a part of the banking activities. The contracts and other deals have to be clearly mentioned and discussed with the clients and other individuals who are associated with the performance of the banks. This will help the depositors to analyse the challenges and get a clarification about the tasks that were expected to be performed by the banks. It is true that the depositors are not vested with the responsibilities to check on the performance of the bank. However, it is equally true that the authorities need to make the right choice through which the necessary changes in case of the performance of the bank can be implemented this is one of the most important factors that would help in adopting the best strategies through which the necessary changes can be implemented by the federal authorities (Stiroh and Strahan, 2003).

Such regulations have to be implemented as it would help the banking authorities to do the right things through which the policies and the performance of the banks can be improved. Apart from this, the banking frauds and other inabilities can be overpowered. This will help in adopting and implementing the right steps through which the performance of the banks can be improved (Song, 2009).

Conclusion

The challenges faced by the banks and the federal authorities have to be analysed. This will help in analysing the issues and taking the right steps through which the quality of the services provided by the banks can be improved. This is necessary to ensure that the members have the necessary information through which the issues related to the banking methods and policies can be evaluated. In this process, the policies have to be evaluated and the corrective steps needs to be taken to introduce the necessary changes that will help in increasing the performance.

References

Adrian and Shin, 2007. "Liquidity and Leverage" forthcoming in Journal of Financial Intermediation.

BIS Woing Papers, 2000.Bank Capital Regulation In Contemporary Banking Theory: A Review Of The Literature. Viewed on 3rd Febuary, 2014. Retrieved from https://www.bis.org/publ/work90.pdf

Gorton B, and Metrick A, 2010. “Securitized Banking and the Run on Repo.” Yale ICF Working Paper 09-14.

Gordy, M.B. (2000): “A Comparative Anatomy of Credit Risk Models,” Journal of Banking and Finance 24, 119-149.

Jones, D. (2000): “Emerging Problems with the Basel Accord: Regulatory Capital Arbitrage and Related Issues,” Journal of Banking and Finance 14, 35-58.

Mitchell A, 2013. 10 Most Important Economic Events of 2013. Viewed on 3rd Febuary, 2014. Retrieved from https://wallstcheatsheet.com/stocks/10-most-important-economic-events-of-2013.html/?a=viewall

Morgan Stanley Research, 2010. “European Banks: €49 Billion of Swiss CoCos.”

Nouy, D. (2000): “Reforming Bank Capital Requirements” Presentation at the Bank Structure Conference of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

Song S, 2009. “Reflections on Northern Rock: The Bank Run that Heralded the Global Financial Crisis.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 23(1), 101–119.

Stein C, 2010b. “Securitization, Shadow Banking, and Financial Fragility.” Daedalus, 139(4): 41–51.

Stiroh J and Strahan E, 2003. “Competitive Dynamics of Deregulation: Evidence from U.S. Banking.” Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 35(5): 801–28.

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