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You will assist us in developing a number of new tools over the next few months for internal use, including specifically:

A Buildability/Constructability Handbook a framework of company policies and procedures with regard to implementing buildability and constructability at project level The Handbook is intended for senior managers within the company (including project management, design development and construction management) and should provide a concise review of ideas, definitions and practice principles, as well as, a practical methodology.

The aim is to provide senior managers and project managers with a comprehensive strategic tool that will enable a seamless implementation of the concept of buildability and constructability most effectively and relevantly in their various roles and areas of responsibility.

The Handbook should identify how buildability and constructability can be used strategically, operationally and technically from the various perspectives of different
project stakeholders and functions. The policy and procedures framework should be a practical document that can be integrated into the organisation’s overall Quality Assurance (QA) system as well as providing action plans. You should consider flowcharts, checklists, action plans for different project roles and stages, and other innovative tools, and organise these into a logical structure.

The documents should also be relevant to our operations in Singapore, Hong Kong as well as in Australia.Our corporate library is equipped by an extensive number of resources that may be useful for you to study and use. You should, however, extend your research more broadly to current literature.

What is Constructability?

Constructability is an idea that has been considered to have the potential of making very noteworthy savings the constructed facilities without necessarily causing a variation in its quality or design. Constructability could be described as the “integration of construction experience and knowledge into all life cycle stages of a project.” Construction industries in several countries while maintaining the industry based task force, have established a system of constructability for their individual countries in order to make improvements in the industry. The idea of constructability is not new since it has been put into practice in several projects in many different ways. Some of the challenges, however, is that it is in most cases deliberated in a relatively ad hoc way and in some cases it is put into practice at an advanced or late stage in the project in order to achieve its full benefits. Constructability should be considered at an early stage since it has the ability to have an influence on the decreases in costs in a project with a bid to achieve its full potential (Anderson et al, 2010).

The constructability system helps those that are involved in it by issuing a framework that institutions can put to use in order to expand the constructability levels of the projects. A manual has to be prepared in order to support the document for the system. It majorly comprises of the following.

  • Strategies for implementation
  • 12 principles of constructability
  • Documenting benefits of case study data

The manual always gives a representation of the dedicated efforts from the research task forces of the Institute of construction industry. The details of the handbook have been endorsed by the relevant authorities as well as the industry. It is intended to act as a working document where the individuals are able to present personal experiences and valuable material that are specific to the constructability programs as well as policies to their institutions. The implementation of constructability and principles are not dependent on the size of the company or project. These principles do apply to generally all types of projects involving construction. The implementation of these principles of constructability has led to improved savings which range at an average of six to twenty percent of the total cost of the project. This is in relation to a number of research that has been carried out by several groups within the industry (Lam et al, 2012).

The main purpose of this task is to advance the current knowledge of the company on the principles of buildability and constructability. This handbook will, therefore, enhance the principles of management and efficiency in all the prospective and existing projects in the country and internationally as well. Specific aims of this handbook are as follows;

  • To develop this handbook in order to be used as a tool that will help in achieving the benefits of all the stages of construction.
  • To make a review of the principles and methods for constructability and buildability that are already in existence as it also focuses on making improvements in the areas of weakness
  • To make enhancements on the ability make implementations of the constructability and buildability principles as well as the methodologies to a number of stages and also the construction projects types.
  • To relay and portray the buildability and constructability concepts to all the BPRC members. This should always provide them the ability to integrate the techniques into their already existing roles.

Benefits of Constructability

The objective of developing this handbook is to give an essential implementation of BPRC constructability principles at the different project life cycle stages in order to fully achieve the expected value of the project (Arditi et al, 2012). The handbook is purposefully meant to be used as a user guide for a lot of project teams. The handbook is built on the basis of implementing the constructability strategies through putting into practice the principles of buildability and constructability to all the stages of the life cycle of the given projects. The specific objectives of the project are as follows;

  • To develop a competitive advantage over other competitors of the same nature in the construction industry. This can be done by issuing this manual to be used to provide directions to all individuals that are employed at BPRC
  • Conduct a critical analysis of the present constructability and buildability methods and strategies in a bid to ensure that the success of the project is improved at BPRC in relation to management.
  • To repeatedly offer education to the members of BPRC through the process of understanding the effective communication in the plans of construction as well as the phases in all types of projects.
  • To create and improve efficiency in BPRC projects. This involves making reductions in the timeframes through the inception of the project, the procurement as well as all the main life cycle stages and factors.

Constructability is all about the “integration of knowledge on construction in the delivery process as well as balancing the various environmental and project constraints in order to attain the goals of the project as well as creating a performance at an optimal level”. It is where the knowledge on construction is looked for and used all through the life cycle of the project in a bid to help in the factors that affect the ability to construct (Dunston & Williamson, 2009). It is referred to by many as the solitary concept of management that is developed and designed by the construction industry for the construction industry. The major parts of constructability may include the following;

  • The usage of pre-assembly or modularized fabricated components.
  • Value management or value engineering
  • Determination of more effective means of construction during the stages of construction.
  • Enabling the construction personnel to make reviews on the documents of design during the design stage.
  • Allocating the personnel of construction to the design offices during the design.

It is also worthy to note that constructability does not aim to decrease the integrity of design or the project quality. Constructability is concerned with making involvement with individuals who have the experience of construction in the project such that they are able to help those who are in charge of developing the design so that they make maximum use of the opportunities as well as meet the objectives of the project in the best way possible.

Buildability and constructability are ideas that have been evolving all through the years in many countries that are leading in the field of construction. A lot of suggestions have been put forward by many in relation to the concept of management style saying that it is construction industry specific. It is viewed as one of its only kind. The main emphasis of buildability and constructability is to detach the construction and design processes while also ensuring that there is maintained communication amongst the key members and the processes of a project (Fischer & Tatum, 2008).

Several study reports indicate that there have been several stages that were involved in the evolution of the concept of buildability and constructability. These research efforts have been carried out by several researchers in many different countries. The main research works that have influenced the evolution of constructability and buildability were performed by the following;

  • “The Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) in the UK”
  • “The Construction Industry Institute (CII) in the USA”
  • “The Building Performance Research Group (BPRG) at the University of Newcastle in Australia.”
  • “The Construction Industry Institute of Australia (CIIA)”

Challenges of Constructability

The concept of buildability first came about as an issue recognized in the construction management during the twilight years of 1970 in the United Kingdom. A lot of research and reviews were extensively carried out on the issue for close to a decade within the construction industry in the United Kingdom but no substantial achievements were recognized.  The initial approach that was taken by “The Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA)”, as well as other researchers from the United Kingdom, did relate buildability and constructability as an issue that arose mainly from the conflicts between the workers and the builders. This, therefore, led them to base their studies on the technical issues which included site construction planning as well as the design detailing. Their main concern during those periods was finding the causes of the problems related to buildability and the allocation of blame. Majority of the researchers and commentators were of the idea that buildability and constructability is a function that is under the control and influence of the designer. The researchers were, therefore, able to narrow down their studies in looking for the responses that would be deemed satisfactory to any solution that is complex in nature (Glavinich, 2015).

CIRIA presented a widely recognized buildability and constructability definition as “the extent to which the design of a building facilitates ease of construction, subject

to the overall requirements for the completed building.” CIRIA mainly considered this view since there was a perception that most problems that are related to buildability did exist simply for the reason of the comparative isolation from the practical process of construction done by the several designers. The shortcomings that were raised by the designers were not just their personal shortcomings but instead, they were of the separation of the construction functions and the design which has been the main referral point of the construction industry in the United Kingdom for the past century.

The definition of CIRIA mainly intensified on the link that is between the construction and the design. They pointed out that the factors that will have noteworthy impacts on the construction ease of a project are those factors that are independent within the control and influence of the design team. They also noticed that a good buildability and constructability needed the building design, structure or any other construction project to carefully put into consideration the construction phase with a lot of concern on the modes of construction, the overlap, the work sequence and the interrelation of activities as well as the methods through which they are put into the overall design (Griffith & Sidwell, 2008). There were up to 16 principles that present a guideline on how the buildability and constructability concepts can be achieved. The principles were summarized as follows;

  • Thorough investigation
  • Consideration of access during the stage of design
  • Consideration of storage during the stage of design
  • Better design for little time below ground
  • Early enclosure design
  • Application of suitable materials
  • Simple assembly design
  • Design for the available skills
  • Get the most out of the use of plant
  • Permit for sensible tolerances
  • Good planning for the full use of standardization and repetition
  • Permit for practical operations sequence
  • Prevent trade return visits
  • Make good planning in order to prevent change to work by succeeding operations.
  • Clear communication
  • Safe construction design

Principles of Constructability

Motivated by the ever declining cost-effectiveness as well as the quality that was observed in the construction industry in America, they felt the need to address the constructability issue. CII did define constructability as “the optimum integration of construction knowledge and experience in planning, engineering, procurement and field operations in the building process and balancing

the various project objectives and environmental constraints to achieve overall

Project objectives.” The task forces put up by the CII who carried out research on the constructability made use of an approach of case study and put up several needs for the conceptual stage of planning, procurement, and engineering and procurement phases of a project, as well as the improvements on constructability that are able to be carried out during operations in the field (Griffith & Sidwell, 2010). A review was later conducted on the constructability and buildability principles implementation, developing a model for project-level of procedures in order to help different institutions in constructability implementation.

The strategy for implementation of the CII was reliant on the advancement of a system of constructability that incorporated several components that are well laid out in the “constructability concepts file” for implementation of the program. Several concepts were put forward in the conceptual planning stage, the design, field operations and procurement phases.

Before the year 1988, there still never existed significant research in the buildability and constructability in the country of Australia. CIIA, therefore, took the initiative and followed on the approach of CII to adapt their processes of constructability to the standards of Australia. They modified constructability and buildability definition as “a system for achieving optimum integration of construction knowledge in the building process and balancing the various project and environmental constraints to achieve maximization of project goals and building performance.” The CIIA put into use a task force that was based on the industry in order to make a review of the work carried out by CII and they designed information of construction that is within the context of Australia. The initial results led to the emergence of 17 principles which were tested with response got from twenty-one experienced personnel. The result was the formulation of the constructability principles file that comprised of 12 overriding concepts of constructability and buildability (Hanlon & Sanvido, 2013). The concepts represented the present practices that are applicable to five stages of project life cycles. The 12 principles that were developed were as follows;

  • Integration- involves making constructability the fundamental part of the project plan.
  • Construction knowledge – the planning of the project has to incorporate construction knowledge as well as experience.
  • Team skills – the skills, experience, and how the project team is composed should be suitable for the project.
  • Corporate objectives – the project team should have an understanding of the corporate and project objectives of the client.
  • Available resources – the design solution technology has to be in line with the resources and skills that are available.
  • External factors – should be considered being that they can influence the cost and program of the project
  • Program – the general program of the project has to be genuine, be construction sensitive and have the project team commitment.
  • Construction methodology – the design of the project has to put into consideration the construction methodology.
  • Accessibility – consideration of the accessibility of the design and construction phases of the project will help enhance constructability.
  • Specifications – consideration of the construction efficiency in the specification development will enhance constructability.
  • Construction innovation – the implementation of innovative techniques will also improve constructability during the construction phase
  • Feedback – carrying out a post-construction analysis by the project team enhances constructability of future projects.

Evolution of Buildability and Construction

The approach that was taken by the CIIA was to inspire the project teams to make use of the practical measures that are established through considering vital issues and not prescribing precise procedures meant to enhance the process of construction.

The BPRG carried out reviews on the on the initial studies carried out by CIRIA. They did re-assessment on the buildability and constructability concept as a deliberate and not operational concern. They suggested that a workable idea of constructability should be able to identify that there are a number of project factors that make an impact on the design and construction process as well as the connection that is between construction and design. Such factors were deemed to be relevant and are shaped by the whole process of building procurement (Hartman & Fischer, 2008).

Decisions that are arrived at the design stage of a project has the capability to enforce constraints on the process of the design decision. These decisions are able to identify the goals of the project that have an influence on the designer decisions. This, therefore, makes them relevant factors whenever the ultimate ease of project construction is affected. Meanwhile, other decisions that are not covered by the designer relating to the intermediate functions between construction and design e.g. the selection of the contractor, documentation, choice of contract form etc. could at times have a substantial impact on the process of construction.

It was also recommended that a conceptual approach that makes use of the influence of all the pertinent factors and other goals of the project that are complex but important development of a buildability model that can be used in various projects. The full potential of buildability and constructability can be achieved by recognizing the complex interactions of these factors. The effect decisions in a bid to reduce the time of construction can at times have negative implications that are able to have an effect on the maintenance and use of a building (Jergeas & Put, 2011). They put forward the definition of buildability and constructability as “the extent to which decisions, made during the whole building procurement process, ultimately facilitate the ease of construction and the quality of the completed project.”

This description by BPRG had a slight difference from the CIRIA buildability concept in the following ways;

  • It did not equate buildability with the construction ease but also with also with an appropriateness of product completion.
  • Identifying the buildability life-cycle implications.
  • Recognizing the decisions and not the technical information as the buildability determinant.

The goals of constructability are determined by the content that the constructability is meant to cover. Past research has limited the scope to the relationship between construction and design. When considering system terms, the determination of a conceptual model scope is referred to as the system boundaries. The system boundaries of a CIRIA model is generally narrow and considers constructability an activity that is design-oriented. There are views that this type of approach has high restrictions and has led to the loss of some drive in the constructability uptake in the United Kingdom. Many researchers have considered the many challenges that arise when finding the suitable constructability model boundaries. In any case, the boundaries are too wide then there is an increased danger when applying a simple approach that likens constructability to a set of motherhood statements that have reduced prospect for practical implementation. On the other hand, in any case, an approach that is narrowly focused is chosen, it may not be able to achieve its full potential of the concept (O’Connor & Davis, 2008).

CIRIA Definition of Buildability and Constructability

A workable concept of constructability should have the ability to identify the many factors in a project that have an influence on the construction and design process, as well as the link that associates design and construction and the building maintenance. It is evident that only in the situation when the complex interaction of such factors is incorporated the constructability potential can be realized. The most important thing is the ability to accept the idea that buildability and constructability do not liken only to the construction ease but also is concerned with the ability to have appropriate completed product. This is evident in one of the definitions of constructability and buildability as the “extent to which decisions made through the whole building procurement process, in response to factors influencing the project and other project goals, ultimately facilitate the ease of constructability and the quality of the completed project.”

Each of the bodies that carried out research on buildability and constructability put their focus on reducing the gap that is between the phases of design and the construction phases of any given project. The capability to manipulate and control any given project is never easy when there are no set of guidelines that one can work from. There also are a number of factors that can also have an impact on the project during the two main phases of design and construction as well as making an attempt to ensure that the project is able to achieve the goals of the builder, the client as well as the exact goals of the project. Whenever these factors are managed appropriately, they can have severe effects on the project positively. This, therefore, entails that such factors can be used to develop a framework for the development of the project as well as assist in making a decision on the project before it actually begins (O’Connor & Miller, 2014).

Since the initial study formation and research on the concepts of constructability and buildability by the CII and CIRIA, several other research bodies have put into practice these ideologies and how they can be improved and expanded during the progression of construction management and technology systems. Noticeably is the BPRG study team in Newcastle Australia who based their focus on the principles of constructability as well as the incorporation of information technology (IT) in the assessment of reducing a lot of uncommunicated construction and design information. Such principles have undergone more developments presently but a lot more work still needs to be carried out in order to develop a global system of management.

CII Definition of Constructability

Besides the initial principles and guidelines developed by the CII and CIRIA study groups as well as several companies across the globe have designed other methods in order to help reduce the gap that exists between the design and construction phases. Such guidelines or principles include documents like contractual methods of risk sharing, design and build contracts and also risk sharing through the options of procurement such as alliancing or partnering in order to ensure equal concern over construction project processes. 

Buildability and constructability assessment as well the implementation of the measures that facilitate the constructability of any given project is more often able to result to the incidental happening of meeting and also reducing the risks that had earlier occurred in the project. The influence ability of a project, either the risk, design or cost will progressively become more difficult to modify. This can be seen from the influence curve below. An example is when the project is not assessed effectively for the risks and concerns on constructability, then there are increased chances that more issues that will still erupt later in the project have an increased risk of being solved or rectified and could cost the builder or the client greater fees in order to solve. Providentially, in any case, the suggestions and processes that are detailed in this handbook are strictly followed and put into practice, then the chances of occurrence of an issue will be minimized very significantly (O’Connor & Tucker, 2011).

Cost and project and managers have several duties to play in the contribution to the performance of constructability as well as the financial performance of any development project. Some of these roles include the following;

  • Keeping control of the circumstances as well as concerns at a timely early stage in the project phases. This is because in most cases, the occurrence of changes has always proved to be costly and also difficult to manage when it gets to the advanced stages of the project.
  • Providing assurance that having communication between the parties involved will create an effective change in design in order to ensure that the project achieves the expectations of buildability.
  • The management of plans, conditions and the objectives of the project.

The managers of the project have the main role of ensuring control of the managerial aspects required by the project. Some of the roles that they play include the following;

  • Communicating boundaries
  • Communicating objectives and scope
  • Observing the regulations as well as collected data
  • Assembling the appropriate parties in order to commence the necessary duties in the several stages of the project development.

The cost managers as well have specific duties different to the roles of the project managers in the constructability management of a project. They play a role in projecting and forecasting the cost and time changes in a project. The changes may be due to the following;

  • Variations in scope
  • Design issues
  • Project management inefficiency
  • Ineffective and improper designs at the primary stages of the project.
  • Management of costs achieving the predicted cost in the advancing project stages.
  • The concentration of the project management in relation to the time curve cost issues that are clarified in the sector before this. This forms the most important of the changes in the project.

The cost managers will have an influence on the buildability impact on the project given that they assist in keeping the project in within the constraints of time as well as the budget that is put up by the client. In order to achieve these roles, the project and cost managers have the duty to effectively collaborate in a bid to ensure that the stakeholders directly involved in the project are also able to achieve the objectives of the project. The project will, therefore, become more efficient and effective all through its life cycle (O’Connor et al 2016). 

CIIA's Adaptation of Constructability in Australia

“The principles of constructability always form the foundation of the system of constructability. These principles were designed from several pieces of research that carried out reviews in several situations where the input of construction into various projects would have resulted in savings in cost and time of carrying out the project. The study groups focused their research on several case studies that belonged to very discrete categories and this resulted to the development of the overriding principles or concepts. The constructability principles generally represent the existing good practices in buildability. The main purpose is to promote the project teams in the construction and engineering industry so that they are able to put them into practice in their projects and for their organizations as well. The constructability principles are as discussed below;

The primary step towards ensuring that the projects achieve the constructability requirements is to ensure that they are able to make the item their main focus. It has to be made an integral part of the project. Most important to the managers of the project within an institution is that the emphasis on buildability and constructability is well communicated and assimilated into each aspect and that a decision is made on their projects. It has also been realized that keeping focus on an item like buildability may assist the project managers in making beneficial and vital decisions that are related to financial movements, resource decisions, local community decisions, procurement styles etc. this, therefore, is the first role that has to be played by the project managers before any project commences (O’Connor et al 2012).

The procedures of constructability should at all times be made the integral part of the project plan. The preparation of project plans is always carried out with different degrees of formality and is done by the members of the project team. When constructability is put into practice, it may also mean that the cultures and procedures of most organizations will also be implementing change. In order for this change to occur, it has to be carefully planned and managed perfectly. The principle of integration is vital in all stages of the project and more specifically during the conceptual design and the feasibility stages.

The project has to involve the construction experience and knowledge actively. Having a solid understanding of the knowledge on construction is also a vital component in the development and in the bid to ensure that the project has the capability to achieve buildability. It is a general belief from the inception stages of the project that the knowledge on construction will be required in order to approve whether the project meets the eligibility criteria and whether it is able to work or to be achieved.  It should be noted that it is the responsibility of the project manager to ensure that they understand the fundamentals of the construction knowledge that is required and also look for clarification from several professionals within the industry. Once they ensure that they achieve this responsibility, they will be certain to reduce the unforeseen issues that are related to construction.  This is because the knowledge gaps are equally reducing across the construction team. Making as many members as possible to take part in the early stages of the project will create the ability for and heighten the team cohesion at advanced stages of the project (Pulaski & Harman, 2015).

Benefits on cost and time are able to be realized in any case the construction personnel is actively involved in the project team as well as in the planning phases of the project. It is worthy to note that the ability to have an influence on the cost tends to reduce during the progression of the project, it is, therefore, important to have the construction personnel fully included in the project from the first stage to the last. Particularly in the construction stage, having the construction personnel included in the project will prove vital since they will provide their knowledge in carrying out the following activities;

  • Choosing on the main  methods of construction
  • Developing the strategies of construction
  • Carrying site layout
  • Establishing the objectives of the project
  • Carrying out a determination of the assumptions on the programming and productivity
  • Preparing the estimates as well as the budgets
  • Providing information on the sources and information of equipment and materials.

This principle specifically involves the skills, experience and how the project team is composed should be relevant to the project at hand. Besides collecting and gathering information on the construction knowledge, it is also important to gather a rich project team that would be very effective throughout the all the phases of the project. There are a number of vital items that should be considered when building a project team. The factors should include the following;

  • Creating or choosing a procurement style that would be the most appropriate in order to facilitate easier communication among all the teams involved.
  • Promoting the need to have good communication between the project team members past their contractual bounds
  • Creating or choosing a procurement style that would be the most appropriate to enable the construction of the project.
  • Selecting or choosing the project team members on the basis of their experience, appropriate skill as well as the attitude they got towards the project.

It should also be realized that there is a high need to make these considerations in any point that the project team requires operating as a single unit in order to ensure that all the stages of the project are carried in an effective and efficient manner all through the project. Any occurrence of miscommunication or any wrong selection of the project team has high chances of causing greater problems to the project.”

The time and cost savings of any project team of professionals has the ability to make substantial concerns since they can identify the potential problems and restraints as well as the project opportunities. In order to achieve the full benefits from the selected project team, the team members are required to;

  • Have greater experience as well recent knowledge within the construction industry as well as the specific type of project that is being considered.
  • Have advanced communication and interpersonal skills that are considered essential for the members in order to make them work efficiently as a team or team leader. It also helps in understanding the requirements put forward by the client.
  • Show commitment to constructability concepts and also be able to appreciate the requirements put forward by the client that may have an influence on the efficiency of the construction.
  • Have the ability to exercise creative lateral thinking as well as provide information that is not biased.

Worth noting is that constructability will be successful if the contractual arrangements of the given project provide for the early and continuous participation of the same members of the team. It is therefore important that in any realistic project, the team members should be fully engaged from the first stage of feasibility all through to the last stage of the project. Such engagements will have noticeable influence and contribution to the whole team and more specifically to the contractor (Pulaski et al, 2014).

The creation of corporate objectives can be heightened when members of the project team acquire an understanding of the corporate and project objectives of the client. This principle outlines the issues that in most cases always have effects on constructability and how to improve constructability whenever the project team members are able to understand the corporate and the objectives of the project. Constructability will be achieved whenever the project team acquires an understanding of the corporate and project objectives of the client. The client should establish precise project objectives that will be compatible with the corporate objectives of the project. This can be achieved by engaging the services of an experienced and qualified project team that will help in carrying out investigations on the project requirements in order to put in place very realistic project objectives. Whenever the client and the project team are able to identify the opportunities, restraints and potential risks on the project at an early stage then the chances of achieving constructability will be enhanced (Russell et al, 2014).

This principle focuses on the importance of carrying out early engagement with the final project team as well as their continued involvement until the point that the project reaches its completion. The project team needs to have a better understanding of both the client and the business. The client should also be directly involved in working with the team so that they can establish the risks and opportunities which will result to considerable costs and savings on time. During the identification of the project objectives, the knowledge on construction will make a substantial contribution to the factors e.g. site layout, site selection etc. and the construction and design program for the project.

The project team has to carry out an assessment of the technology of the solution of design such that it has to be matched with the available resources and skills. This principle often bases its arguments on the fact that constructability is often influenced by factors that in most cases the project team have little or no control over. These are factors that the project team can only try to minimize in any case they are noticed at the very early stages of the project. The design solution technology has to be matched with the available skills and resources. The geographical location of the site, the conditions of the market under which the project should be constructed as well as the socio-political factors will at any point have an effect on the use and availability of resources. Such factors should be put into consideration when developing the solutions of design right from the feasibility stage to all the preceding stages. The input of construction will also help in ensuring that the optimum design solution is achieved, this will be enabled by offering information that entails the availability, skills and cost or resources.

It is important to note that several external factors always have an influence on the ability of the project to achieve the constructability concepts in any given project. Such external may have an effect on the overall cost as well as the program of the given project. This principle also tries to address those issues that could only be minimized in any case they are realized earlier enough because they are normally out of control by the project team or any other participant that is directly involved in the project (Tatum et al, 2010).

Factors that are related industrial relations, financial policies, conditions of the site, socio-political, political as well as environmental issues should be considered at all the stages of the project and also be carefully monitored constantly through all the design stages. Early negotiations with all the parties that are relevant to the project will help in accurately accessing whether the project is viable or not. The negotiations alone also have the potential of bringing the opportunities and the speculated risks and problems to the fore and also develop a bigger commitment sense to the project. The project team has the responsibility of carrying out assessments of all the aspects that have repercussions on the project and also determine the requirements of attaining a successful project.

In order to achieve constructability on any project, it is important that the general project program has to be genuine, sensitive to construction and should have the commitment from all the project team members. It gives an outline of the importance of putting into practice a realistic program that is construction sensitive and has been developed by as well as agreed upon by all members of the project team. The overall program has to be realistic and also have the commitment from the project team.

 In order to ensure that all the project objectives are accomplished and specifically considering the time, quality and cost, it is needful to have a program that is realistic and also the individual programs for procurement, design, and construction. The program should identify and address all parts of the project and also give a clear definition of the parties that are in charge of those areas. It is also important to strictly adhere to the project program that has been put forward since it forms the accountability and commitment of the project team. All the phases of the project development will be locked into the chosen overall program, the details that will give a reflection of the scale and complexity of the project, and also the constraints and parameters that are associated with it (Trigunarsyah, 2013).

The design of the project has to put into consideration the methodology for construction. This is in relation to issues that require integration into the final phases of the final design and also the documentation of the whole project. The methodology of construction that is finally settled on must include the optimization of the methods of construction as well as the materials require to achieve the project objectives. The main method of construction for the project will be identified during the feasibility and conceptual design stages. Once the construction method has been identified, it will then be refined during the detailed design stage.

The following factors should be put into consideration during any deliberation on constructability;

  • Simplicity
  • Standardization
  • Flexibility
  • Sequencing
  • Labour skill availability
  • modularization
  • pre-assembly

The external environment that the site will require to carry out their duties also has the likelihood of affecting the efficiency of construction. For this case, the design will assess the impact of the external environment and look for ways of reducing the impact on the cost of construction and program.

Enhancing accessibility of construction should be carried out at the construction and design phases of the project. This gives improve the chances of achieving constructability. This is in relation to issues that require integration into the final phases of the final design and also the documentation of the whole project. Having access to personnel, material, as well as the equipment, has to be considered at the design and construction stages of the project. In any case, there is difficulty in accessing these factors then the productivity of personnel will be reduced, unsafe working conditions created and also result to adverse effects on quality, program, and cost of the program of the project.

Effective access to personal and high volume materials is also important since it has an overall effect on the project as well as special studies on accessibility issues of the project that are required. Some of the issues that have an influence on the accessibility on site include the following;

  • restrictions on site that affect the layout and carnage
  • Location of the site that includes accessing restrictions from the adjacent roadways or sites.
  • The layout of the site that includes the location of both the temporary and permanent facilities.

During the studies of accessibility, the active participation of knowledgeable and experienced construction personnel can also lead to better understanding of the issues that are involved as well as provide for the best accessibility that is within the general project design (Uhlik & Lores, 2009).

Considering the construction efficiency in the development specification will help in improving the project constructability. This is the relation to issues that require integration into the final phases of the final design and also the documentation of the whole project.  The knowledge and experience can have a significant contribution on the generation of specifications that will result to the promotion of efficiency of construction operations. One main factor that affects the cost, efficiency, and quality of the construction is the character of the specification. The development of specification has to be undertaken as a distinct activity on the project that has early and full involvement of personnel with the most relevant knowledge on construction.

Enough time should also be allowed in order to allow for the development of concise and complete specifications. In most cases, master or corporate specifications are used as the foundation for project specification. The specification will define the documentation and design of the project as well as quantify the project for the constructor. The development of construction efficiency should be a major factor towards the design of specifications. It is also important to seek input from the personnel that has valuable expertise and knowledge on the construction techniques in order to maximize the potential.  Constructability will help yield specifications that are deemed accurate, complete and clear, and this will lead to facilitation of both construction and fabrication efficiencies.

The application of current innovative techniques in a project during the construction phase will also play a role in achieving constructability.  Issues that are related to the application od construction knowledge in order to make improvements on how effective the operations of a site will be are addressed by this principle. In any point that constructability is properly integrated into a project, then the best possible solution will be realized in the construction of the project. The good solution will also be able to be evaluated and finally documented. All this are made possible with the assistance of the contractor initially before the tender. Besides the fact that the ability to have an influence on the overall cost of the project considered to have little significance than in the stages of design and feasibility, making collective constructability savings at such specified time will be vital.

Achieving constructability in future similar or advanced projects will greatly depend on how efficient the post-construction analysis is carried out by the project team or any other relevant team. Carrying out in-depth analysis will help provide details on the factors that should be considered basing it on past project experiences as well what should be avoided when intending to achieve constructability. Obtaining feedback relates to the life cycle of a project concept as being a cyclical and cumulative process and not linear. It is a process where information is able to be used in future similar projects. It is also recommended to carry out two post construction interviews. The interviews will be specifically concerned with the issue of carrying out an evaluation on the effects of constructability as well as its decisions on the efficiency of construction as well as on the efficiency of operation of the project.

Feasibility stage of a project often begins when the client or owner identifies the purpose for the project and is completed when the client makes a commitment to carry on with more investigation on the project in order to develop a conceptual design. The evaluation of the project goals, costs and timeline are carried out in order to determine whether to proceed with the project or not.

Proper adoption of constructability concepts at this stage will address the following concerns/ have the following effects.

  • Improved sustainable development
  • Proper timing
  • Improved safety
  • Proper site waste management plans
  • Outlining the architectural, service and structural drawings
  • Highlighting the main risks that may be experienced during the project execution
  • A review on the overall costs and budgeting.
  • Briefing the client on the expectations from the project

At this stage, the project team develops and decides on the several project options in order to recognize the best-placed option that can fit the scope of the project.  The options can be several considerations of buildability, regulations, financial projects as well as time-based factors.

Several studies have identified many basic constructability concepts that are largely applicable during the conceptual design phase. These concepts have a number of influences to the project either positively or negatively. The concepts and their effects are as discussed below;

  • Project planning efficiently involves the knowledge on construction as well as the experience. Sufficient construction knowledge and experience on buildability and constructability will result to carrying out of construction projects that will meet the client requirements and specifications.
  • The schedules for the project will be construction driven
  • The basic design approached will put into consideration the main construction methods that are largely used in the construction industry.
  • The site layouts will promote effective construction and also better operation and maintenance of the project.
  • Programs on constructability will be made the foundation of the execution plans for the project.
  • The idea of early planning will be enhanced since it also involves the construction experience and knowledge.

This stage involves the project team developing and making a decision on the several procurement options in order to find one that will perfectly fit the scope of the project. The options may involve several considerations of buildability, regulations, financial decisions, time concerns as well as the general chosen concept design option reached in the initial stages of the project. The client first approves the schematic or conceptual design before giving the commitment for the project team to proceed with the construction.

The following buildability concepts and results are noticed during this stage of the project.

  • The designs and schedules for procurement will be construction driven
  • Constructability concepts often lead to standardization of the design elements.
  • The designs will promote accessibility of construction personnel, equipment, and material
  • Module designs are organized to allow for fabrication, installation, and transport.
  • The designs will also allow for construction under even very adverse weather conditions.
  • The designs will be configured to allow for efficient construction.
  • It puts into consideration the construction efficiency during the development of the specification.

After completion of the detailed design, the client or owner gives a commitment to proceed with the project. The project team that includes the contractors begins the construction of the project in relation to the design.

During this stage, constructability ensures that;

  • The chances of occurrence of delays are reduced in an effective way. This is achieved by increasing the engineering information that is currently available as well as its understandability.
  • The level of construction manpower required during the construction of the project is also reduced by making a simplification of the design, combining the elements of design as well as looking for the optimal techniques eg. Optimal construction systems, improved design details, and modularization. Extra efforts on engineering could also be needed.
  • The duration of carrying out construction activities are reduced. This can be achieved by looking for optimal construction techniques that are design-oriented

6.5 Post construction

This stage facilitates the continual optimization of adjustments as well as the modification of the systems of building in order to achieve the client requirements. Its main purpose is to maintain a building performance all through the life of the facility. This stage actively involves the commission team and the commission agent during the early operations of the facility in order to gauge its effectiveness. During this stage, it is important to put in place a constructability program that will have a concise commitment of the senior management as well as a focal point for the leadership of the project. An example of a typical constructability program involves the following

  • A company program- includes the corporate policy, training, self-assessment attributes etc.
  • Project level program considers the constructability efforts in order to align with the requirements of the project.

The following are the main roles played by a constructability program

  • An executive sponsor who champions for constructability as well as communicating the program commitment.
  • Constructability manager who acts as the constructability knowledge expert on behalf of the company.
  • Database custodian who keeps a database for the constructability lessons learned

The above personnel is clearly tasked with the duty of ensuring constructability is achieved at the end of the project and also that the project meets its requirements.

Lack of communication

This is one of the biggest risks in any project. Lack of effective communication between project team members will lead to no definition of each of the roles of the team members and thus the main purposes of the project will most likely not be met. It is highly felt during the feasibility stage since it can make a study be rendered useless when the objectives of feasibility assessment are not met. It could also lead to set up the project in the wrong direction as it moves forward towards the life cycle development.

In order to prevent this risk, the following activities should be carried out.

  • Carrying out an assessment of the main parties
  • Carrying out regular meetings that will give direction at each stage of project development
  • Providing all the stakeholders with an appropriate understanding of the existing expectations on contractual communication and rights

Not setting practical goals

Failure to appropriately set the practical goals at the earlier phases of the project will result to the varied understanding of the project scope. Setting up the project objectives will help convey the needs and requirements of the client. This helps in providing an indication to the project processes, the type of project that should be achieved at the end of the project as well as the end results.

The prevention of this risk can be done through the following means;

  • Linking the design of the project to the objectives in order to prevent any changes in the activities that are expected.
  • Communicating the goals to all the participants that are involved in order to ensure that they are all planning on the same focus.
  • Appropriately setting up goals for the client.

Time constraints understatement

This occurs when the time constraints are misunderstood by the project team. Such a situation would have a bigger influence on the project outcome. It is important to understand the value of the time I a project and that when it is balanced poorly with the wrong estimation of the time frame, the chances of upsetting the major components of the project will be increased.

To reduce the occurrence of this risk, the following practices should be carried out;

  • Providing a projection for the project in relation to the actual project data and the estimations from the professionals in the industry as well as gain a wide opinion on the process of construction that was put forward during the initialization of the main steps of the project life cycle.

Financial projections understatement

This is a risk that can result to increased levels of concerns with the funding of the project during the construction stage. It majorly arises when the valued cost of the project is understated and therefore lowly valued hence when the actual construction activities are carried out, there results to inadequacy hence need for more funding which may be difficult to acquire.

This risk can be controlled by;

  • Carrying out an assessment at the early stages of the expensive materials and complex designs
  • Acquiring actual world quotes where possible
  • Ensuring addition of extra costs on the complex items

No feedback from financial decisions made

This occurs when there is no feedback from the client and the project managers. This often results to severe effects on the effective projection of the project in relation to cost and timing management. Not all the parties will be able to understand the position of the project.

This risk can be reduced by ensuring that all involved parties have effective communication during all the stages in order to ensure that there is a continual response on the verdicts that are made.

Over-usage of cost cutting

Cost cutting is often used to achieve the best financial position and quality for the client. It is therefore important to make considerations regarding its control such that it is over-used. This risk can be controlled by ensuring that all the parties have effective communication in order to ensure proper flow of feedback on the decisions made. Any resultant issues will be identified earlier and a resolution made before it becomes costly.  

Conclusion 

Constructability has come a long way from the earlier researches done by several study groups and it has brought a lot of benefit to the construction industry in several countries. It is concerned with enabling a comprehensive method which helps improve the constructability of the projects. All the personalities that are involved in a project also have an equal responsibility to ensure that they understand the basic principles and requirements towards achieving constructability. The state of the art constructability and buildability concepts are well discussed in this handbook. It is also pointed out that the main theme that is involved in the several studies carried out by different study groups is the ability to provide methods, tools and ways of integrating the knowledge on construction as well information that is relevant during all the phases of construction i.e. planning, design, procurement, construction and use, of the project lifecycle so that it can fully achieve the prime goals of the project as well as the performance of the building.

The handbook focuses on developing a support system for decision for the designs that are buildable. Carrying out reviews on the guidelines and principles for the implementation of constructability will avail the theoretical basis for developing the management knowledge model for the buildable designs. Reviewing the management knowledge in buildability provides the methods for putting together the knowledge on buildability as well as management format information. Carrying out the review will also reveal the appropriate functions of the systems that are proposed.

Constructability has been a vital project management tool that has been constantly used in several construction projects. Its main purpose is to gauge and determine the collective experience and knowledge between the project designers, architects, contractors and the client in a bid to build on efficiency, reduce waste, and most importantly finish the projects within or ahead of schedule. Constructability in construction projects is beneficial since it facilitates for the ease with which the design for the building will allow for construction as it meets the required codes of construction. Constructability also allows for the integration of construction knowledge during the stage of design in order to define the most efficient method of construction making sure it achieves the goals of the design. Besides all those, team integration of the construction knowledge when carrying out the construction will help to ensure that the adverse impacts on the environment during construction will be reduced. It is therefore recommended to apply constructability and buildability concepts at all the stages of a project in order to achieve the best outcomes from the project.

References

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Arditi, D., Elhassan, A. and Toklu, Y.C., 2012. Constructability analysis in the design firm. Journal of construction engineering and management, 128(2), pp.117-126.

Dunston, P.S., and Williamson, C.E., 2009. Incorporating maintainability in constructability review process. Journal of Management in Engineering, 15(5), pp.56-60.

Fischer, M. and Tatum, C.B., 2008. Characteristics of design-relevant constructability knowledge. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 123(3), pp.253-260.

Glavinich, T.E., 2015. Improving constructability during the design phase. Journal of Architectural Engineering, 1(2), pp.73-76.

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Griffith, A. and Sidwell, T., 2010. Constructability in building and engineering projects (Vol. 16, pp. 57-59). London: Macmillan.

Hanlon, E.J., and Sanvido, V.E., 2013. Constructability information classification scheme. Journal of construction engineering and management, 121(4), pp.337-345.

Hartmann, T. and Fischer, M., 2008. Supporting the constructability review with 3D/4D models. Building Research & Information, 35(1), pp.70-80.

Jergeas, G. and Put, J.V.D., 2011. Benefits of constructability on construction projects. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 127(4), pp.281-290.

Lam, P.T., Wong, F.W. and Chan, A.P., 2012. Contributions of designers to improving buildability and constructability. Design Studies, 27(4), pp.457-479.

O'Connor, J.T., and Davis, V.S., 2008. Constructability improvement during field operations. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 114(4), pp.548-564.

O'Connor, J.T., and Miller, S.J., 2014. Barriers to constructability implementation. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 8(2), pp.110-128.

O'Connor, J.T., and Tucker, R.L., 2011. Industrial project constructability improvement. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 112(1), pp.69-82.

O'Connor, J.T., Larimore, M.A. and Tucker, R.L., 2016. Collecting constructability improvement ideas. Journal of construction engineering and management, 112(4), pp.463-475.

O'Connor, J.T., Rusch, S.E., and Schulz, M.J., 2012. Constructability concepts for engineering and procurement. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 113(2), pp.235-248.

Pulaski, M.H., and Horman, M.J., 2015. Organizing constructability knowledge for design. Journal of construction engineering and management, 131(8), pp.911-919.

Pulaski, M.H., Horman, M.J. and Riley, D.R., 2014. Constructability practices to manage sustainable building knowledge. Journal of Architectural Engineering, 12(2), pp.83-92.

Russell, J.S., Swiggum, K.E., Shapiro, J.M. and Alaydrus, A.F., 2014. Constructability related to TQM, value engineering, and cost/benefits. Journal of the performance of constructed facilities, 8(1), pp.31-45.

Tatum, C.B., Vanegas, J.A. and Williams, J.M.,2010. Constructability improvement using prefabrication, preassembly, and modularization. Austin, TX: Bureau of Engineering Research, the University of Texas at Austin.

Trigunarsyah, B., 2013. Constructability practices among construction contractors in Indonesia. Journal of construction engineering and management, 130(5), pp.656-669.

Uhlik, F.T., and Lores, G.V., 2009. Assessment of constructability practices among general contractors. Journal of Architectural Engineering, 4(3), pp.113-123.

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