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Bio Ecological Theory Of Human Development

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Explain each of the four components of PPCT model. You can write a paragraph on each component.

Illustrate discussion with examples.

Propose strategies with the aim of promoting resilience.




Emotional attributes and psychological concern are two phenomenal traits of human being, because of which they are known as social creature. The interaction within the community structure, thereby plays crucial role in supplementing learning, adoption and realization with respect to all aspects of life. Likewise, the learning process in human being are conferred with respect to the exposure, experience and emotion across the time-period. Consider a simple example of cultural diversity in terms of lifestyle and health aspects. Two families are considered in this hypothetical case, among which both of the families are settled in United States from last 20 years. One family have native origin from Bangladesh and another have native origin of Costa Rica. Based on the cultural, ethical, spiritual and language difference, it is easy to assume that the food habits, the timing of all related routine work, interaction among the family members, copying with the environment, friend circle, comfort zone and other aspects of life will be different. Based on these differences, it is common to assume that the prospect of health management, health restoration and health maintenance is different for both the families. These traits and the contrasting features among both the family members, is a reflection of the learning since early childhood period, which was translational from persons of family, social interaction and apparent learning with time. in scientific term, this relative trend of human development and learning is referred to as Bio-ecological Theory of Human Development. The said theory was put forward by Bronfenbrenner, which explains the proximal process of learning and development based on the empirical activity and characteristics of family and relationship.

Scope of the present report

As discussed in the above section, a glimpse of the pattern of learning and development in human being is reflected. Considering the same theme, the scope of present report is based on the illustration of Bio-ecological Theory of Human Development, where the PPCT model will be discussed with relevant support. Furthermore, with the help of applicable evidence the pattern, which has the potential to influence the outcomes of child and youth was discussed in this report. Such evidences are important as because they can put forward the example of facts and experiences in early childhood settings that are crucial for the deciding and governing of health and wellbeing of the state. It is noteworthy to mention that the importance of such research lies in context with the elucidation of the information and application of the same in terms of building strategies that are suitable for the promotion of resilience factor in all major and minor activity, perception and consequences of human life.

Four components of P-P-C-T model

Bio-ecological Theory of Human Development is based on the P-P-C-T model, Process-Person-Context-Time. Notably, the wholesome process of development depends on the interlinking concept of these four notation.

  • Process

This concept plays a crucial role in the learning, where it is related to various courses and procedures. The example can be taken from the study of Swick et al, based on the activities in early childhood settings (Swick & Williams, 2011, p.371). Playing, group activity, reading aloud for the class, learning new skills, identification of objects and solitary play can be considered within the scope of this concept. It would not be inappropriate to state that process plays a role of engine, where individuals are engages in their activities and interaction, thereby they can identify their world and makes them fit into their understanding.

  • Person

The said concept is related to biological and genetic aspects of individual. For every individual, some of the characteristics and habits are put forward with the help of genetic constitution, whereas the others imbibed with respect to the interaction phenomenon. To be more specific, these aspects can be termed as (i) demand, (ii) resource and (iii) force, which motivates and enforces to learn. Consider a simple example from the work of Holt et al, where it was demonstrated that the motivation and support by the parents are crucial in children for bringing the competitive spirit (Holt, 2008, p.663). Such motivation not only ensures the facilitation of resources, but also provides the psychological urge to move forward, adopt more skills and to represent with active brain capacity.

  • Context

Context is referred to the environment where the individual use to invest a good time of engagement in conjunction to activities and relationship. The example of context are, home, school or peer groups. In other words, this context can also be referred to as macro-system, since the individual invest a substantial amount of time duration in this environment. Other than this there are some micro-system also which are not lengthy in terms of time, but have crucial impact over the learning and development, such as friend circle, events and relatives. More relevant example for the same can be obtained from review of Swick, in this it was detailed how to provide the micro- and macro system for the children, who are homeless or have high risk parents and families (Swick, 2008, p.149). Since there is a continuous engagement of interaction and learning, thus context plays a crucial umbrella-like effect over the development.

  • Time

The final element of the model is time, which plays a crucial role in the whole scenario. Time can be correlated with learning and incidences, which helps in recognizing, identifying and applying logic with respect to any outcome. According to the work of Mäntylä et al, the time phase of individual is crucial for learning. This is evidenced as language learning, adaptation is more rapid, and rigorous in small child of 3-4 years old compared to a youth of 20 years old. The impact on cognition and memories at early stage is more rigid, and hence the erudition of any particular trait is likely intensified.

Illustration of the examples

Learning is an integral part of human life. The reflection of a good learning for any habit can be obtained with the concurrent state of mind and corresponding activities. A person developed in a family where gender biasness is always prevailed in daily routine life, will have a similar perception for men and women throughout life. The reason being the occupancy of the thoughts, thinking and perception, which has been imbibed since the early childhood learning. The learning is thus based on the process, where child is watching related behavior (gender biasness) within in the context of person to person interaction. With the progress of time, the learning and the impact of these experiences will be absorbed in the thought and believe. It is hence the same output in the later stage of life is obvious to observe. Notably the context in this scenario also plays a role in identifying the individual’s self-role. The psychological believe thus will correlate the same assumptions with respect to relationships, emotional attributes, mental status, physical identification, desire and derivations. Considering another example, where a child born and bought up in Korea, will have more fluency in Korean language compared to any other language (Kim, 2011, p.316). The P-P-C-T model is applicable in terms of the hearing and identification of the phonetics and associated phonology. Thus, the particular frequency of the combination of words can be thus perceived and understood by the child, which aids in learning of a particular language.


The environment cum context plays important role as because most probably all the members in the family and locality will be speaking in same language. Next to the learning, the time factor is also important, which is linked with the growth and increase in brain perception of the individual. It is hence, with time and experience; the individual will be adapted with respect to appropriate usage of the words and phonology.

Strength during childhood that influence health and wellbeing

The learning from the childhood settings have a rigid framework on the routine life style and interaction with the other members in the community. The same is also responsible for the outlook, behavior, emotional state in the community. According to World Health Organization (WHO) the exact definition of healthy state is mere not just the absence of any disease or disorder, but is a good and positive state of physical, mental and social wellbeing. The learning and perception imbibed in any individual is referred to other words as the cultural, ethnical and other diverse factors. These factors are important as they are linked with the personal belief and psychology of the individual. Since the heritage and culture of people differ with respect to the each other, it is hence the source and the root of health issues are different among the individuals. The strength and weekness of the childhood learning can be made explained with the help of a hypothetical condition. In this condition, there are three children from diverse culture and background, (i) One from India, (ii) another from Guyana, and last form (iii) Puerto Rico (Moran, 2014, p.435). In Indian family, the cultural and custom belief of the family is not rigid for the adaptation of modern system of treatment and medicines regarding health restoration. For the health restoration, the family uses traditional medicine system, such as Ayurveda, unani, siddha, acupuncture, hemoeopathy and naturopathy along with traditional western medicines. In Guyana, the occurrence and prevalence of infection such as HIV/AIDS, TB, filariasis and sexually transmitted diseases are higher among the native population. Majority of the population have home in the coastal range and hence the rate of occurrence of tropical infectious diseases are higher. Owing to the higher rate of illiteracy, the routine health checkups are also not being followed in such family. The family members can be found to be poor in terms of hygienic condition and maintaining cleanliness, which might affect their health. For the last family of Puerto Rico, the people are mostly affected with tropical diseases and parasitic infection, which leads to high mortality rate and lower life expectancy rate. The individual members of these families are not conscious about health maintenance approach, but are careful regarding any concerned diseases or disorder. Use of protection such as condom and contraceptive pills is not preferred in these families, which confers that sexual health protection is not appropriate.

Strategies where P-P-C-T model provide resilience for Australian children and youth

With the help of above illustrations, it can be understood that the early childhood learning and development paves important part is the life prospects. Applying the P-P-C-T model in appropriate manner have the opportunity to overcome the ill and negative effects over the community. Illustration of these strategies are (Macklem, 2014, p.1; Lewton, 2012, p.689):

    • Setting the development and building centers for early childhood learning – These include the center, which can act as context for the early childhood and can deliever good information related to social interaction, communication skills, and hygiene management.
    • Framing public policy – Inclusion of essential modules in the public policy will help in providing effective guidelines for the benefit and wellbeing of society.
    • Training and education – This is related to the educators of early childhood settings, school, college and health care settings, which will help in providing effective output for the services of community, which are in need.
    • Conference and socialization – These events will be helpful for delivering effective knowledge to youth, related to sex education, addiction, violence and prosperity.


  • Education and learning center for parents and elderly people – This is important as because parents and elder member of the society are effective for the development of initial learning and morale development of young individuals. More importantly, this will also include the concept of effective parenting and counseling.
  • Establishment of health care settings – This is important for the maintenance of health care standards and healthy prospect of the society. Focusing on the infrastructure such as hospital beds, instrument and competencies of health care professionals are the main concern in this regard. Notably, the healthy state can help in maintaining wellbeing of the society.
  • Amendment in the ethical and legislative drawbacks – The necessary changes in the ethical and legislative framework for local and national settings are important to be amended with time. This is helpful for the development and cooperative functioning of individual rights of the society. With the state of good being, the future generation will also be learning good things.


HOLT, N. L., TAMMINEN, K. A., BLACK, D. E., SEHN, Z. L., & WALL, M. P. (2008). Parental involvement in competitive youth sport settings. Psychology of sport and exercise, 9(5), p.663-685.

KIM, M., & STOEL-GAMMON, C. (2011). Phonological development of word-initial Korean obstruents in young Korean children. Journal of child language, 38(02), p.316-340.

Lewton, A. R., & Nievar, M. A. (2012). Strengthening Families Through Volunteerism: Integrating Family Volunteerism and Family Life Education. Marriage & Family Review, 48(7), p.689-710.

MACKLEM, G. L. (2014). Providing Preventive Services in Schools. In Preventive Mental Health at School (p. 1-18). Springer New York.

MÄNTYLÄ, T., MISSIER, F. D., & NILSSON, L. G. (2009). Age differences in multiple outcome measures of time-based prospective memory. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 16(6), p.708-720.

MORAN, R. T., ABRAMSON, N. R., & MORAN, S. V. (2014). Managing cultural differences. Routledge. p. 435-450


SWICK, K. J. (2008). Empowering the parent–child relationship in homeless and other high-risk parents and families. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(2), p.149-153.

SWICK, K. J., & WILLIAMS, R. D. (2006). An analysis of Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological perspective for early childhood educators: Implications for working with families experiencing stress. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(5), p.371-378.



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