The scientific and biological techniques of stem cell therapy in regenerative medicine
This paper shed light on the effectivenes of stem cell therapies in the future of restorative therapy and regenerative medicine. It examines the scientific and biological techniques of stem cell therapy in regenerative medicine. It evaluates the effectiveness of stem cell therapy to recover damaged cells. Stem cell therapy is an advanced treatment method in present times. The study on human embryonic stem cells is politically and ethically controversial as it engages in the destruction of the embryos of humans. In simple words, stem cells are the integrated form of advanced technology and biological engineering, which brings a revolution in the medical industry. In these circumstances, the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine and restorative therapy with the future aspects is one of the vital topics to cover. It is one of the leading causes of choosing this topic to research. This paper focused on all concepts, including regenerative medicine and restorative therapy, to overview these medical technologies. It gives a broad picture of the advantages and disadvantages of using stem cell therapy in regenerative medicine. It has concluded about the future of regenerative medicine and restorative therapies after using stem cell therapy.
Regenerative medicine refers to the process of replacement or regeneration of human tissues, cells or organs which were damaged by trauma disease to restore normal function. It is the branch of medicine that improves the procedure of regrowth or repair of damaged tissues, organs or any cell. It involves the use and generation of therapeutic stem cells and the production of artificial cells. Additionally, regenerative medicines mainly apply life science principles and engineering principles for promoting regeneration. It can potentially restore the whole organs and injured tissues. Regenerative medicine has the objective to help the body to form new tissues for replacing the defective ones. Regenerative medicine consists of different strategies involving materials (Mao and Mooney 2015). In simple words, new tissue takes the place of missing tissue and mainly replaces it functionally and structurally. It contributes to the healing of cells and tissues. Regenerative medicine and the engineering of tissue have emerged in recent years. A considerable number of therapies are used in this regenerative medicine. In these therapies, the cells are mainly allogeneic and autologous.
Figure 1: Concept of regenerative medicine
(Source: Oswald and Baranov 2018)
These cells are different cells that can maintain the capacity of proliferative. Regenerative medicine is getting more famous for researching stem cells and the procedures such as skin grafting. The main aim of this regenerative medicine is to replace or reboot the damaged tissues or organs because of the injury, disease, medication. This regeneration occurs in three levels, including molecular, tissue and cellular. It involves the small molecules, which are the building type blocks for the body. In cellular regeneration, it includes cell structures such as axons of neurons that are involved in reproduction and cell growth in the body. In tissue regeneration, the muscle, skin and bone are regenerated (Frese, Dijkman and Hoerstrup 2016). Regenerative medicine is mainly used for type 1 diabetes, repair of cardiovascular tissues, repair of tissues in brain injury, cell therapy, transplantation of organs and certain types of cancers. There are different types of regenerative medicines such as biomaterials and tissue engineering, treatments of cellular, artificial organs and medical devices.
Advantages and disadvantages of using stem cell therapy in regenerative medicine
Therapy of restorative helps to balance physical abilities for performing the activities of regular life. It is one of the therapies that help improve physical wellness by using the tools. Therapy of restorative is designed to increase the mobility of daily life, such as repositioning. Restorative treatment helps to sit down, stand up, make walking and make it easier of placing one place to next (Mao and Mooney 2015). It allows the residents to balance the physical abilities that increase their healthy lifestyle and independence. It provides residents with the scope to improve safety practices and customize physical activity regularly. The examination guides it that the therapists make. It aims to increase the level of function for the resident and raise participation in the activities of everyday living.
Program of restorative therapy may involve ambulation, particular type of exercise, standing and usage of a wheelchair (Miana and González 2018). It can support decreasing chronic pain by keeping the joints and muscles limber, reducing the stiffness of the joints and improving mobility. While mobility develops, it becomes easier to complete restorative therapy.
It enables people to move from one place to another without any support or assistance from others. Patients can do their regular activities such as brushing, bathing, dressing. It helps increase the sense of pride dignity and develops the quality of life (Oswald and Baranov 2018).
Figure 2: Restorative therapy
(Source: self-created, influenced by Naderi et al. 2017)
Pain, total dependence, and immobility can bring depression and negatively affect the quality of life. It is ultimately developing the quality of life for the residents and patients.
Restorative therapy is developed to raise mobility or repositioning, increase walking, standing up and other works. It might be much easier to work along with the time such that the patient can get around the home, room and apartment safely. Additionally, it can remove the side effects of ulcers and other diseases (Cuevas, Parmar and Sowden 2019).
Stem cells have the ability and capability for the purpose of self-renewal. It is the raw material of body from which different types of specialized cells are formed. It needs the proper condition to divide into more cells known as daughter cells. It can distinguish various cell lineages. Additionally, these cells are divided into the embryonic category and non-embryonic category. Embryonic stem cells are the kind of pluripotent and can be differentiated into the layers of germ. The non-embryonic stem cells are the multipotent (Zakrzewski et al. 2019). The stem cells may be developed into many other cells in the body. These cells are used as the repair system for the body. These are specialized; they cannot do any other particular functions in the body. These are mainly blood cells, muscle or brain cells. However, stem cells originate from two key sources, including embryos and body tissues. These stem cells are embryonic type, tissue-related, mesenchymal and induced pluripotent. Stem cell treatments work by triggering damaged organs, tissues or cells in the body for repairing themselves. Except for the stem cell, there is no other cell that can generate new cells.
Different types of regenerative medicines and therapies
Totipotent stem cells are enabled to classify and can categorize into the cells of the entire organism. The totipotency cells have the potential in highest level of differentiation, and it allows the cells to develop extra embryonic and embryo structures (Singh et al. 2018). For example, a totipotent cell refers to the zygote that can be developed after the sperm fertilizes an egg.
Pluripotent type of stem cells (PSCs) can form the cells which have the layers of germ but not the structures of extraembryonic. The embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are one of it. It can be said that the embryonic stem cells are one of these cells which are extracted from the inner level compartment of the preimplantation of embryos. The induced pluripotency stem cells (iPSCs) are another example of this stem cell which is removed from the layer of epiblast of the implanted embryos.
Multipotent categories in stem cells contain a different perspective of categorization than the pluripotent cells. It is specialized in the discrete cells of the lineages of specific cells. For instance, a haematopoietic stem cell is formed into different categories of blood cells. Post differentiation, this cell is changed into the oligopotent (Do?an 2018). The ability to differentiate this cell is restricted to the lineage cells. Exceptionally, some multipotent type of cells can convert into the unrelated cells.
Figure 3: Types of stem cells
(Source: Singh et al. 2018)
Oligopotent types in stem cells can categorize into different types of cells. For example, myeloid stem cells are one of this division that could separate into white blood cells.
Unipotent stem cells can be featured by the small classification abilities and have the unique property to divide in repeated manner. For this feature, this stem cell can be used in regenerative medicine as an application of therapy. These cells can mainly form a kind of cell, such as dermatocytes.
The division of the stem cells can divide into two categories as Somatic stem cells and embryonic stem cells (Naderi et al. 2017). Somatic type of stem cell is capable of growth, healing and replacement of the cells which can lost every day. Somatic stem cells have a bounded range of the categorization options such as -
Mesenchymal stem cells: These types of cells are present in the various tissues. These cells mainly differentiate into fat cells, the bone and cartilage in the bone marrow. The stem cells may be an exception as they can specialize and act as the pluripotent in the all cells of any kind layer of germ.
Neural cells: Neural cells provide rise to the nerve cells and their supporting type of cells, including astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
Haematopoietic stem cells can form blood cells, including platelets, white and red.
Skin stem cells: This cell can form a layer which can protect the skin.
Stem cell use in medicine
Figure 4: Application of stem cell
(Source: Han et al. 2019)
Stem cell therapy is called regenerative medicine. It helps to response for repair the disease, effected tissue or dysfunction using the stem cells or the derivatives. Many researchers investigate stem cells and grow the stem cells in their laboratory. These stem cells manipulate for being specialized into particular types of cells. These specialized cells might be implanted into the body of a human. For instance, if a person has cardiovascular disease, the specialized cells are injected into the muscle of heart. This cell can improve the defective power of nature. Some researchers have already presented that cells of bone marrow can repair tissues of the heart in people. Stem cells effectively change the standard of medicine (Duscher et al. 2016).
The role of stem cell therapy in restorative therapy
Figure 5: Stem cells in regenerative medicine
(Source: Timothy Samyuktha and Brundha 2019)
Additionally, they work a key role in therapeutic medicine. Early studies have revealed the incidents that works during the development of human. The distinction between the differentiated cell and stem cell may identify in the all types of cells in DNA. Generally, the DNA is organized loosely after the entrance of the signals into the cell, the differentiation process has begun, and the genes need to be active in the specialized function (Singh et al. 2018). This process needs to be reversed, and it is noticed that the interaction in the gene sequences can meet the pluripotency. Different medical severe issues can be occurred due to improper differentiation. For these types of medical conditions, stem cell therapies are used to treat spinal cord injury, failure of heart, degeneration of retinal and macular and in treatment of diabetes type 1.
Haematopoietic stem cells are vital as they are categorized in tissue-specific stem cells. Transplantation of multipotent haematopoietic stem cells is getting popularity. The specified cells are extracted from the umbilical cord of blood peripheral blood. Even the process can be allogeneic where the stem cells come from the donor or autologous, where the patients' cells are used. The syngeneic cells came from the identical win. This transplantation can solve many problems developed by improper working process of the haematopoietic procedure, such as anaemia and leukaemia. This transplantation needs to be reversed for patients with fatal type diseases as it has the multifactorial features and may be a complex process (Timothy Samyuktha and Brundha 2019). iPSC application is vital in this process. The application of the unspecialized type of somatic cells of patient can give the greatest compatibility of immunology and vitality raises the success of the procedure.
From an experiment, it has been found that the iPSC is capable of forming sperm and can deliver healthy infants. Many cancer patients are at the risk of losing the spermatogonial stem cells. They can get the benefit from testicular tissue auto-transplantation and cryopreservation.
Regenerative medicine is one of the advanced branches of medical science that works with the different functional restoration of the tissues for the patients who are suffering from deep injuries or chronic types of diseases (Morsczeck and Reichert 2018). This regenerative medicine involves the biomaterials, cells and molecules to make structure fix in the body that could not function properly due to the specific injury or disease. It promises to redefine the treatment in medicine by putting the stem cells and materials biocompatible at the centre stage in the revolution.
ESC originated from the ICM gastrula that has promise in regenerative medicine. This cell has the capability to categorize into over 200 types of the various cells, which represent three layers of germ. Cultural conditions promised that the ESCs might be converted into the cells of retinal ganglion, chondrocytes, cone cells, cells of pacemaker, hepatocytes and sperms, which can be applied in the generation of the tissue and cure of the disease in a tissue-specific approach. On the other hand, the stem cells that are tissue-specific and the cells which are progenitor have the effectiveness of classifying into other cells of the tissue. It can be said that the stem cells of the inner ear might be transformed into the auditory type of hair cells, stem cells of the dental pulp can be transformed into the serotonin cells (Han et al. 2019). However, the skin progenitors can be converted into the smooth muscle cells of the vascular mesoangioblasts converted into the muscles of tibialis anterior. The 3D type of culture in tissue-specific stem cells give rise to the tissue organoids such as intestinal tissues, organoids from the progenitor type cells of intestinal, the fallopian tube can be organoids from the epithelial cells of the fallopian tube and the pancreatic organoids from the progenitor of pancreatic (Jarrige et al. 2021).
Overview of regenerative medicine and restorative therapy
According to Mahla (2016), transplantation of the tissue specific stem cells may regenerate target tissues. For example, regeneration of the tibialis muscles from the mesoangioblasts and tissues of the heart from the AdSCs. Even the corneal tissue is regenerated from the limbal stem cells (Trohatou and Roubelakis 2017). Transformation and Cell growth contains the factors by the TSPSCs that can modify cells into other cell types. coculture of SSCs with the prostate, skin and mesenchyme of intestine can transform these type cells from the mesenchymal divisional stem cells into the epithelial cells.
The mesenchymal stem cells consist another name for stromal cells. It includes CD73+, CD79a-, CD90+ and others. These mesenchymal stem cells represented do not relate to the bone marrow and umbilical cord of mesenchymal stem cells (Tatullo et al. 2017). In transdifferentiation and transplantation, the MSCs can regenerate into the muscle tissue, bones and the cartilage. These cells can cure liver cirrhosis and heart attack. ECM coating has provided the niche circumstance for the MSCs to form into the follicle of hair and stimulate the growth of hair.
Umbilical cord is the reliable origin of the stem cells that can be combined as the futuristic origin for their personalized therapy of stem cells (Campanella 2018). The transplantation of UCSCs in the patients of the disease of Krabbe's can regenerate the myelin tissue and might be able to recover the neuroblastoma patients by restoration of tissue homoeostasis (Chalisserry et al. 2017). The organoids of UCSCs are available sources of tissue for the cure of neurodegenerative disease. Fibrosis of the peritoneal caused by the dialysis, which is for long term degeneration of tendon type tissue and desert hyaline the cartilage may be revive by the UCSCs (Gong et al. 2016). The inoculation of UCSCs intravenously enables cure of the spinal myelitis, diabetes and treatment of congenital neuropathies. The banking of cord type blood stem cells available as a long-lasting origin of the stem cells for regenerative medicine and personalized type of therapy.
Bone marrow is the sponge type tissue of bone that contains the hematopoietic, mesenchymal stromal and progenitor categorized stem cells. It is accounted for the formation of blood. Even the halo-HLA in conjunction with the BMSCs, can treat different diseases and revive tissue (Gong et al. 2016). The BMSCs can regenerate the tissues of the liver, tissues of craniofacial, tissues of the brain, tissues of diaphragm. It can restore the erectile working process and regenerate the monocytes of transdifferentiation. These type stem cells of multipotent categories can treat the originate from the infection of HIV and cancer (Han et al. 2019).
Using the iPSCs technique in regenerative medicine to transform the adult tissues, skin fibroblasts into the cells of ESCs. Matured cells can convert into the cells of severe type lineages that are passing the stage of the pluripotency (Campanella 2018). The complexation of ECM with the iPSCs can generate the tissue or cell organoids for the brain, kidney, lung and other cells or organs of the human body. Similarly, iPSC and ESCs is converted into the cells that are displaying three layers of germs such as serotonin cells and pacemaker cells. Autologous based therapies can deal to limit the immune rejection through limiting the impairments in different populations. The adipose tissue that is extracted stem cells is able to regenerate the bone, reconstruction of the fat and can regenerate the pancreatic (Frese, Dijkman and Hoerstrup 2016). There are many applications of stem cells are present that can change the regenerative medicine and therapy of restorative. Stem cell is the main element of regenerative medicine to heal tissues, cells or any organ in the body.
Applications of regenerative medicine in different medical fields
Neural stem cell therapy can cure the stroke by using the restorative approach. In restorative therapy NSCs have the multimodal therapeutic characterization after transplantation and it is able to protect the neural cells which are at risk and promote the endogenous proliferation of NSC. In the models of preclinical stroke, NSCs can modulate inflammation, foster neural reorganization and be used in cellular replacement by categorizing into the mature neural cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can stimulate the production of the proteins which are anti-inflammatory and growth factors. MSCs are considered safe and can develop pain and the work in arthritic joints. In order to cure Parkinson's disease, cell replacement can be used. In restorative therapy of PD the transplantation of stem cells are most effective (Rosenthal and Badylak 2016). In recent years, the non-regenerative ability of the injured adult brain of the people is getting more challenging in the recent years (Jarrige et al. 2021). The neural plasticity has been monitored in focal brain ischemia in the models of animals. Functional type of recovery may occur in the small brain injury using the rehabilitation measures. Although the restoration may need new connections of synaptic within the damaged tissue. For these reasons there is a need to repair the neuron system. Cell transplantation seems to be the unique and more promising approach for repair and restoration of the brain. The main goal of this therapeutic strategy is to effectively restore normal function.
Most of the time the implication of stem cells in regenerative medical facing issues of lack of stem cells, GMP compliant and tolerant of immunology. According to Miana and González (2018), the key issue for the implementation of these type cells in the future therapies of cell transplantation or replacement is to capable in controlling the categorization in the specific tissues. However, in this market some multitude type of cultivation techniques that are strategies of reprogramming, epigenetic type modulation, manipulation of genetic aspects (Nurkovic et al. 2016). These are directing the stem cells to the areas where they may require. In regenerative medicine, the derivation of embryonic stem cells from the differentiated tissues can face some ethical challenges. The modalities to the circumvent basic issues while developing the system of delivery of stem cell mediated of target that are explained as the future prospect in application the approach for the implementation of regenerative medicine. There is a chance of delivering the required supplement for the growth or the agents which are modulating together with the different population of cell for the therapy of cell or for the engineering of tissue.
The issues of the intensity of the magnetic industry, a gap from the selected organ, risk of the cell agglutination within the stream of blood needs to be identify to control the risks. As per Labusca, Herea and Mashayekhi (2018), serious challenge is the complexity of NP drugs which are associated with enzymatic or degradation of hydrolytic drug, cell membrane within the environment of biology. Even the relevant models need to be employed for the testing purpose with the testing of blood stream (Zhang et al. 2020). There are several factors are involved in the manufacturing process such as instability of genetics which refers to scarcity or lack of genetic stability in the stem cells. Another issue is the cost of using stem cell therapy as the developing countries have no sufficient fund to apply the advanced technology in the regenerative medicine (globenewswire.com, 2022). People have no knowledge about the implication of stem cell therapy in the restorative approach of treatment of healthcare. Another issue is the collection of the stem cells and distribution of the stem cells in transplantation of the stem cells in regenerative medicine
The global market size of translational regenerative has been estimated at USD 2,169.90 million and in 2021 it is 2,449.43 million. It is expected that the regenerative market is going to increase by 11.28% by 2026. The present market for the therapies of stem cells is growing at 37% each year and will rapidly explore as a treatment for the non-transmissible disease. The funding of this disease is flowing into the sector from the large companies and venture capitalists (Baker et al. 2019). Scientists, physicians and a talent pool may be able to develop stem cell science to treat challenging diseases.
At present the stem cell therapy is limited due to lack of availability. In the future the stem cells can bring a number of potential therapies for type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. In future doctors will more prefer the adjuvant therapy that is combined with stem cells with the new bioengineering technique, pharmacology and the gene therapy (Mukherjee, Yadav and Kumar 2021). It is going to be the standard protocol for producing clinical intervention for specific needs of the individual patient. Researchers are getting more interested in exploring combinatorial approaches and the treatment procedure is moving toward the clinical therapy which is going to be the direction for future. Another important future option is the application of iPSC sources. On the other hand, researchers give more focus on the establishing efficiency and safety of pluripotency in the cells from the diseased and aged patients under the clinical period that will need extensive research. In future the stem cells can be obtained from healthy young donors.
The future of stem cells is going to be bright for the older and young people. In the next few years, the protocols of stem cell therapy are going to be the standard of care for stroke, type 1 diabetes and cardiac patients (Trubiani et al. 2019). However, there is a need to maximize the effectiveness of therapy of stem cell for the patients which will take 10 years to prepare. In the current situation, many researchers and scientists are researching the implication of stem cells in regenerative medicine and restorative therapies in different ways. In order to get a more extensive outcome of the using of stem cells there is need a decade to research on the implementation of the therapy of stem cell in cardiac or other recoveries. Therapies of stem cell have the remarkable effectiveness to change the future of medicine. In future stem cell therapy facilitates the repair of tissue and regeneration through a combination of the immunomodulatory and properties of anti-inflammatory.
In future the companies are getting interest as they are also driving innovation and wide resources. The prevalence of these kinds of noncontagious diseases are increasing including diabetes, heart failure. As funding is flowing into this healthcare sector the scientists give more emphasis on the innovation of new R&D models. The funding companies are VC funds, Regenerative Medicine of California and the science programme of stem cells (Young et al. 2020). There are some casual investors who are ready to invest on the regenerative medicine index. There is no doubt that therapies which are stem cell depend have the capability to change the future of medicine. In order to make sure the safety of these cutting edges on the cutting corner of the regenerative medicine focused research. Researchers intend to develop therapies of stem cells for the future of the medicine with the caution, support and demand of the common public. The clinical trials of therapies of stem cell proves that they have potential impact on saving lives. The use of micro CT and 3D imaging tools can utilize the X-rays to show mineralized tissue.
It can be concluded that using of stem cell gives a new path for the medical industry. Having several decades of the experiments, therapy of stem cell is going to be a vital game changer for the medicine. This regenerative medicine can stand ready for creation of the next wave for the revolution of biotechnology. It is a new field that can bring chemistry, biology and medical science in together. Therapy of stem cell can develop the expectations in future. The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and in the therapies of restorative could give the cells in clinical reliable numbers and with the complete biologic standard. With each type of tests it can be identify that the stem cells have an extensive influence in regenerative medicine and the transplantoogy is immensive. Currently, untreatable diseases which are neurodegenerative type have the possibility to treat with the therapy of stem cell. Induced pluriopotenc has the ability to use the cells of the patients. The banks of tissue are going to be increase in future according to the popularity. Therefore, they can gather the cells which are the vital source of the regenerative medicine in the fight of survive against the present diseases and for the future. With the therapy of stem cells and benefits of the regenerative medicine can make feel better to prolong the human life than the past times.
Researchers hoping that the studies on stem cell therapy helps to increase the understanding of the way or path that how the diseases happened. Through watching the stem cells developed into the cells of bones, muscle of heart, nerves and another tissues or organs, scientists have better to be understand the condition of the disease. However, there is also a disadvantage may be noticed as they are pre specialized. The scientists and researchers denoted that therapy of stem cell is going to be the one which treatment procedure can cure the all type of non-communicable diseases and medical conditions. The doctors and researchers have denoted that the stem cell treatment has the effectiveness and success rate up to 80%. It is a kind of a modern type treatment in regenerative medical that can use a unique component of biology. Regenerative medicine has the effectiveness to impact the entire spectrum of the healthcare. It includes diabetes, emphysema. It employs different combitions of the tissues, grown cells and laboratory made elements to replace the natural process of healing. Stem cell can make the regenerative medicine steady. However, stem cell is going to give a bright future in healthcare through implementation in regenerative medicine and restorative therapy.
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