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BUACC5931 Research And Statistical Methods Population

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  • Course Code: BUACC5931
  • University: Federation University
  • Country: Australia

Question:

The sample size for this study is fifteen thousand employees selected from a total of 69,000 bank employees (about 21% of the employees). Is a sample of this size necessary?

What is the current method of sampling? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current sampling method?

Give your comments on the reliability and validity of measures of the variables.

The purpose of this research is to find the associations between quantitative and qualitative job insecurity and well-being. However, data on variables such as gender, age, education level, extra income were also collected. What is the purpose of collecting data on variables such as gender, age, educational level etc.?

What research design is used for current research? What are the positive and negative side of the current research design?
 

Answer:

Introduction

When developing a representative sample size of a given population, it is important to note that the degree of accuracy solely depends on the size of the sample participants of the total population. the bigger/ higher the sample size of the population, the more reflective or representative the results of the findings are. This implies that when a small sample is picked from a bigger population under investigation, the level of divergence from the real representation of the population considerably increases. In other words, a population is well represented when a bigger sample is taken for survey or research. When a bigger sample is taken, the information results gathered solely represents the population (Lewis, 2015, p. 475)

 It is however important to note that there are some factors that should be considered when determining the appropriate sample size of a population. These include but not limited to the following;

 


The population size; when the population of the research study is small, it is imperative and substantial to have a bigger sample size in order to have a more reliable and representative finding of the research (Östlund, Kidd, Wengström, & Rowa, 2011, p.383). For example, a study involving a population of 40 students, it is much ethical to have over 50% as the sample size. On the other hand however, if the population is big, it is more typical to have a considerably smaller percentage of the population. A case in point, a population of 69000 may have 20% as an appropriate size for the population sample. This is based on the fact that a bigger population may be, the much costly and time consuming it is, in conducting the research study (Palinkas et l., 2015, p. 533).

Other factors that a researcher must consider also includes the expected/ preferred margin of error also referred to as the confidence interval. This refers to the extent of error that a researcher is will to have within the research study. In most cases, this has always been used as . The confidence level for the study is yet another factor that should be considered when conducting a research study (Fetters Curry & Creswell, 2013, p.2156).

From the preceding insight, we can typically say that the sample size of the study is necessary and applicable for the population. This is because of the large number for the population size and also considering the cost and time needed to conduct the research study.

  • The sampling method;

In reference to the research study, the method used for conducting the research was a survey method of data collection. There are finitely many data collection methods that can be used when conducting a research study (Yilmaz 2013, p.325). The many techniques that can be used include but not limited to; survey method, observation method, inter. All have been recommended by different scholars and researchers from different fields and yet on the other hand, they have also been criticized by other scholars. This implies that the choice of data collection techniques is solely dependent on the type of research study. Some data collection methods are most appropriate and applicable n some fields and yet not good for other arenas. In other words, some are most convenient for qualitative research and others are good for quantitative research studies (Turner 2010, p. 760)

The research study in this case used survey method of data collection while making usage of a questionnaire. Survey method of data collection is a research data collection method that employs the use of questionnaire containing well formulated questions to be answered by research respondents (Östlund, Kidd, Wengström, & Rowa, 2011, p.383). It is the questions answered in the questionnaire that are used for statistical analysis for the case of quantitative methodology and descriptive analysis for qualitative research approach. Further understanding survey method, it encompasses procedures in which one or more questions are asked and can either be answered by the respondents or not (Östlund, Kidd, Wengström, & Rowa, 2011, p.383). Since time immemorial, survey method has been used as a core data collection method due to its reliability in form of information storage for references (McCusker, & Gunaydin, 2015, p.542)

 


It is however important to note that survey as a data collection method has a considerably high concern in form of ethical issues. The respondents of a particular research study are always conscious about their confidentiality and privacy. The research team has to put emphasis in assuring the respondents how the information they provide will solely be used for the particular research study and not any personal related interest. As noted earlier, all research data collection methods have their weakness and strengths (O’reilly & Parker, 2013, p.197). In this insight, the advantages of survey method as a data collection technique include but not limited to the following;

  • Big sample size coverage; among the many primary data collection techniques in research studies, scholars have highly recommended survey as the most appropriate for bigger populations with large sample sizes. Critically evaluating and analysing to other data collection methods like interview, focus groups and observations among others, only a few numbers is needed for the sample as it may need direct presence of the researcher to interact with the respondents. This is imperatively impossible for large samples like our current case study (Gioia, Corley, & Hamilton, 2013, p.30).
  • Ease in Data collection; while using survey method, the collection of raw information is mad very simple. Only easy to read short questions are given to respondents, either through paper or online. The data is collected with minimal hustle and make the analysis simple as it can always be referred to at any time. This is based on the fact that the method involves convenient documentation of raw data (McCusker, & Gunaydin, 2015, p.542)
  • Candid responses; when using survey method as a data collection technique, the questionnaires are made in identical ways and thus the individual respondents cannot be easily singled out unlike in interview and observation where the respondents and their answers are known to the researcher (Gioia, Corley, & Hamilton, 2013, p.30). With this advantage, survey method of data collection reduces the level of biasness of the information collected. Survey method therefore ensures a more reliable and dependable results as compared to other primary data collection methods.
  • Cost effective; when survey method is adopted through an online portal, the amount spent is far less than what may be needed in other methods. However, when printed materials are to be used, then the reverse holds as it requires a lot of materials (Gioia, Corley, & Hamilton, 2013, p.30).

On the other hand, survey as a data collection technique also encompasses the following demerits/ weaknesses.

High level of rigidity; only short specific questions are designed for the respondents and thus does not give chance for the research respondents or participants to further explain in the details their answers or views. This absolutely limits the effectiveness of the data collected (Mason, 2010)

Costly; based on the type of research conducted De Witte et al. (2010), there are many financial demands as well as more time. A lot was used in printing materials and the total time taken to deliver all the questionnaires to the respective respondents is considerably long. The total amount of funds needed/ spent on printing over 2oooo questionnaires is significantly big and this makes this method not appropriate for budget if the researcher is planning to use hard copy questionnaire (Wisdom, Cavaleri, Onwuegbuzie, & Green, 2012, p. 721)

 


In addition, the method does not favour the illiterate people who are unable to read and write. This method requires a respondent to respond to the questions in written way after reading and assimilating.

  • Measurement of the variables;

Although the research seems good, it is typical and substantial that the results of the study will not have high levels of reliability. This is because there are considerably many gaps identified in the study (Gioia, Corley, & Hamilton, 2013, p.30). First and foremost, the sample population needed further grouping in order to come up with a more reliable and dependable research findings. Earlier research findings have persistently reported that the women significantly vary from men. This implies that the way men perceive the qualitative and quantitative level of job security may differ from the way women do. In other words, the survey needed to have a balanced gender, educational status, age and income levels. However, the assignment of measurement for the variables is appropriate (Venkatesh, Brown, & Bala, 2013, p.5)

In this incite, the measurements of the variables may have a minimal level of representativeness of the study population due to an irregular balancing of the variables. This will subsequently affect the validity, reliability and dependability of the research variables

  • Collection of data on social demographics

In research studies, social demographics refer to the specific features of a population under study. various demographic examples may include age, health status, the marital status, religion, education levels and social economic class in the society among many others. In other words, social demographics helps in the compilation of raw facts about the respondents and helps in the determination of whether the respondents are representative sample of the population under study (Brannen, 2017, p. 37)

In reference to the research study conducted by De Witte et al. (2010), it encompassed the collection of both males and females, different ages, the educational level, and the income levels. These surely covers all the necessary data needed for the representation of the total population

However, it can be noticed that the study paid less attention in having balanced demographic respondents for the study. This is because the researcher used absolutely a random method of sample selection. The selection did not give attention in ensuring that the respondents are demographically balanced. The study involved 58.5% men in the banking sector which is far much more than the ladies who participated in the study, who just 41.5 %. Furthermore, study ignored striking an equilibrium in the age and the educational status (Hanington, & Martin, 2012).

 


With the prior understanding, the study may be limited and applicable to only the specific research problem and ignores other diversities.

  • The research design;

firstly, a research design can be primarily be understood as the series of logical procedures and methods used for the collection, evaluation and analysis of specified variables in the research problem (Palinkas, Aarons, Horwitz, Chamberlain, Hurlburt, & Landsverk, 2011, p.44). It is also important to note that different research design description have been done by many different researchers and have a series of distinction from each other, that is to say, significantly varying ideologies have been used. Nevertheless, it is additionally vital to note that the mode of a research design is the core determinant of the study type/ design being conducted for example descriptive, experimental, correlational or/ and semi-experimental (Mertens, 2014, p. 34). The reseach design used by a given study is mostly determine by the type of research to be conducted. Experimental research is most applicable for scientific studies and yet descriptive best aoolies for social research studies. Nevertheless, research designs can be integrated or combined so as to have a more efficient and effective data collection.

Basing on the available research insight, the study used a descriptive research design along with experimental research design in carrying out the research on quantitative and qualitative job security in the banking sector. This is because the study is using quantitation of the results in the interpretation of the results. The experimental design makes use of quantitation while descriptive makes use of qualitative analysis.

The advantages of experimental research design include;

  • It is most appropriate for single studies as it provides the highest level of evidence
  • Permits the researcher to identify the cause- effect relationship between the variables

The major disadvantage of experimental research design includes but not limited to;

  • The design hardly permits the generalization of the results to the real-world context
  • Experimental research design is extensive affected by technicalities and ethical issues
  • The research design is also expensive more especially where special equipment are required.
 

References

Brannen, J. (2017). Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches: an overview. In Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research (pp. 3-37). Routledge.

Fetters, M. D., Curry, L. A., & Creswell, J. W. (2013). Achieving integration in mixed methods designs—principles and practices. Health services research, 48(6pt2), 2134-2156.

Gioia, D. A., Corley, K. G., & Hamilton, A. L. (2013). Seeking qualitative rigor in inductive research: Notes on the Gioia methodology. Organizational research methods, 16(1), 15-31.

Hanington, B., & Martin, B. (2012). Universal methods of design: 100 ways to research complex problems, develop innovative ideas, and design effective solutions. Rockport Publishers.

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), 473-475.

Mason, M. (2010, August). Sample size and saturation in PhD studies using qualitative interviews. In Forum qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: qualitative social research (Vol. 11, No. 3).

McCusker, K., & Gunaydin, S. (2015). Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion, 30(7), 537-542.

Mertens, D. M. (2014). Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Sage publications 67

O’reilly, M., & Parker, N. (2013). ‘Unsatisfactory Saturation’: a critical exploration of the notion of saturated sample sizes in qualitative research. Qualitative research, 13(2), 190-197.

Östlund, U., Kidd, L., Wengström, Y., & Rowa-Dewar, N. (2011). Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: a methodological review. International journal of nursing studies, 48(3), 369-383.

Palinkas, L. A., Aarons, G. A., Horwitz, S., Chamberlain, P., Hurlburt, M., & Landsverk, J. (2011). Mixed method designs in implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(1), 44-53.

Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533-544.

Turner III, D. W. (2010). Qualitative interview design: A practical guide for novice investigators. The qualitative report, 15(3), 754-760.

Venkatesh, V., Brown, S. A., & Bala, H. (2013). Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Guidelines for conducting mixed methods research in information systems. MIS quarterly, 37(1).

Wisdom, J. P., Cavaleri, M. A., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Green, C. A. (2012). Methodological reporting in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods health services research articles. Health services research, 47(2), 721-745.

Yilmaz, K. (2013). Comparison of quantitative and qualitative research traditions: Epistemological, theoretical, and methodological differences. European Journal of Education, 48(2), 311-325.

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