Estimate the impact of the project on the local economy during the construction phase. This should focus on the direct, indirect and induced effects of the works on: Gross Domestic Product, Employment, Income, and Imports. Use the Input-Output Tables for Scotland provided for the basic estimate making any adjustments deemed necessary. The negative impacts of the construction including traffic disrution should be considered. Please state any assumptions made.
Impact of tram extension on the local during the construction phase
This paper discusses the extension of Edinburgh tram from York place to Newhaven and the impact caused to the residents. The Edinburgh normally operates between the Edinburgh Airport and a temporary terminus at York Place and the Edinburgh tram distance between York Place to Newhaven is about 4.6 km and the project is estimated that $ 1 spent will provide a return of $ 1.64. There were reasons why the extension of tram was required from New York to Newhaven were;
- Support the local economy by improving accessibility.
- Reduction in traffic congestion.
- To ensure the transport sector is safer and more secure.
- Provision of social benefits
The extension of tram has numerous effects on the local economy during the construction phase as discussed below
The changing the road pattern directly and indirectly will affect the quality of air which will be caused by the construction operations taking place during the extension of the tram from New York to Newhaven. The tram itself will not be causing air pollution but during the construction of tram system, the vehicles being used in transportation of materials needed during the construction will also contribute heavily in air pollution thus causing climate change due too much emission of carbon dioxide (Cairney, 2012, p. 189)
During construction of the tram, numerous heavy vehicles are used in the transportation of construction materials to the working site. Both the cyclist and pedestrians will be affected as a result of the congestion caused in the road. These will have impact on those using road such as foot-travelers as well as cyclists therefore, there is need of ensuring that pedestrian needs are considered every time. During the construction, certain pathway and footway. The construction will also affect the cycleway and footway along the Rose burn Railway Corridor giving rise to alternative routes within the city. (Thomas, 2013, p. 87).
The parking area as well as properties needs to be maintained to deal with issue affecting the flow of traffic on those using the road to travel to different areas within the city. All the road congestion need to be eliminated and this can be done by ensuring that redesigning and testing of the road junction is done (Brailsford, 2016, p. 189).
This traffic problem affecting the residents living in the city will decrease as people tries to cope up with operation of tram. To do away with conflict between trams and cyclist, the lanes will be marked to ensure the cyclist are given their own path to use when travelling around (Lindsay, 2011, p. 551).
There are some alterations that will take place in land during the construction of tram thus changing the routes, however, there will be numerous change in routes since most of them exist along the road. The principal impacts are:
- Most of the public houses will be demolished together with various houses belonging to the local to allow the tram construction to take place.
- Unused bridges will be demolished to allow the extension of the tram.
- Widening of roads will take place to allow enough space for tram extension.
Adoption of appropriate construction procedures will help in mitigating the pollution caused to the environment and this is upon the contractor to ensure proper processes are put in place. The effects of soil disaggregation and compaction are seen during the construction phase. The heavy vehicles used during the construction participate heavily in land contamination thus there is need of carrying out site evaluation to ensure that the activities associated with land contamination are mitigated (Alm, 2006, p. 128).
The construction of tram system alters the physical appearance of land thus affecting the townscape and the landscape. The tram erection will be permitted by re-laying the street surfaces along the route, but it will be accomplished to match the current surface. Interfering with the landscape to allow the construction of tram will interfere with the road junctions showing a bad picture of the city. Trees and shrubs which contribute in making Edinburg green will also be interfered with and this will make the city scarce from vegetation since many of them will be destroyed to give space for tram to pass through. (Anderson, 2014, p. 231)
Ensuring Edinburgh which appear nicely is perceived as one national cultural assets in Britain and as the utmost extremely cherished Scottish townscapes, they are need of ensuring that high quality design is used in the tram system and the people in charge of tram design are devoted to a high quality design in all areas. This will be attained by subsequent necessities detailed in a Design Manual, which has been ordered and is presently established in discussion with the City of Edinburgh Council, Historic Scotland and the World Heritage Trust (Roomy, 2013, p. 273).
There is visual environment adored by the extension of the tram from New York to Newhaven by those visiting, staying and operating in the area. People will not be allowed to use certain routes due to the built up of the location and the waterfront from Grafton to Leith. (Mekie, 2014, p. 230).
The overhead wiring will cause visual impacts from houses, flats and tourist locations along much of the tram route, wherever the proposed development is clearly noticeable. This will be most significant in the New Town. The necessities in Design Manual as well as cautious engineering will help in minimizing the visual impact through the city, but there will be an important outstanding effect (Morrison, 2018, p. 564). Along the Rose burn corridor, replacement planting and screen hedges will be introduced to help screen views opened up by necessary clearance of existing planting.
The widening of footway along the seawall at Star Bank Road will be experienced during the extension of tram and it will be affecting the Firth of Forth and a special area for Wild Birds directly. The birds’ habitat will be interfered with as a result of the construction despite the birds’ contribution in the outlook of the city. There is need of ensuring that the methods being employed during construction does not interfere in any way or the other with the stay of birds since they make the city looks beautiful. The suitable construction method that will be used by the contractor in charge will mitigate the disruption to birds as well as doing away with pollution of the high-water mark during erection. Providing birds roosts in new structure will be reduced by the effect of widening the footway permanently (Morrison, 2018, p. 228).
Most of matured vegetation which makes the city beautiful will be interfered with during the construction of tram along the Rose burn Railway Corridor therefore, affecting the Urban Wildlife Site along the corridor. Habitats identified in action plan for Lothian Biodiversity will be affected as a result of tram extension to Newhaven. (Brailsford, 2016, p. 337).
The extension of Edinburgh tram system will cause noise disturbance in various ways:
- through erection;
- right through tram operation preceding households.
- indirectly through the Line One effect road patterns in traffic movement.
Noise pollution is normally caused by the vehicles transporting the construction materials, the machines used in the construction process and this affects the workers carrying out the operations and also the local community carrying out their operations within the construction site. Noise pollution leads to health problems such as hearing problems. Issue relating to noise should be mitigated by ensuring the contractor employ a suitable method that minimise noise. (Chen, 2017, p. 432).
Tram operations also cause vibrations which interferes with buildings and local people around and as a result of vibration, numerous may experience hearing problem and shaking also the temporary structures built around by the residents for carrying out their businesses. The vibration also interferes also interferes with learning program especially to those students in school due to lack of concentration (McCloskey, 2008, p. 97).
The construction of tram system contributes to water pollution. The quality of water can be interfered with as a result of construction operations. There is oil spillage and digging of land during site preparation which makes the water dirty due to dust. The preparation of land during the extension also interferes with the drainage system in the area, bursting of water pipes thus making the water harmful for human consumption (Gillon, 2014, p. 160).
Some of the historical, cultural and archaeological sites identified along the route add up to 86 in total. The extension of Edinburgh has a great impact on the cultural heritage thus making the city or the country to lose its culture due to the construction taking place for example demolition of Scheduled Ancient Monument and Caledonian Ale House (John, 2013, p. 332). There are mitigations that needs to be put in place to ensure these particular cultural sites are protected from distractions. Most of these particular cultural sites are good for children who are growing up or even those visitors who wants to no more concerning the culture of those people living in this particular city (Menga, 2014, p. 88).
Once the tram starts carrying out its operation, there are certain benefits that will accrue as a result of its usage making it beneficial to residents. The extension of the tram greatly affect employment, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and income positively as explained below.
The extension of tram line will provide employment to the local people. Direct employment will be provided to citizens such that the residents will be employed in Edinburgh tram to carry out the operations. The residents will also be employed indirectly since they will be selling their products, goods and also food stuff to the passengers who bordered the tram in the station. Induced effect of employment will be greatly realized when the people employed in the tram spend their income in the community.
As a result of tram construction there are some sectors has greater effect in employment both directly and indirectly and from the table it can be seen construction activities highly affect employment in Edinburgh followed by manufacturing sector, hotel and catering sectors, mining and quarrying sector and the table is closed with the least sector contributing less to employment which is Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing.
Use of Land
The extension of tram to Newhaven will contribute greatly to high income since most of the income from this project will be gotten from the tram fares paid by passengers and this will enable growth in economy thus increasing per capita income.
From the table above, all construction activities have a bigger influence on the income generated by the country. Hotel and catering sector takes the second position followed by the transport department. The least sector having minimal impact on income generated is the water and waste sector.
As a result of this tram, the employment of residents will increase which in turn will increase peoples living standard. Due to high living standard, the gross domestic product of the country will increase (Veitch, 2009, p. 98).
During the construction phase, the construction of the Tram from New York to Newhaven causes negative impacts to the local community and this include, contamination of water and air, traffic disruption as well land scape interference.
The extension of the tram system will have brought socio economic impact and this may include opportunities for direct employment and indirect opportunity by enhancing accessibility of other jobs. The number of unemployed residents in the area will reduce and in case of indirect employment, many businesses around the tram areas will boom since the passengers will be in a position of buying goods from the traders thus increasing the economy of a country. (Dabrowski, 2008, p. 567).
Thirty job opportunities per annum can be filled as a result of the tram extension as a result of countless approachability to job opportunities in North Edinburgh. Employment opportunities will also increase in areas along the tram route for example Leith, Newhaven and Granton. (Marvin, 2008, p. 543).
As a result of construction of tram, there are certain positive impacts that have been realized as shown in the Scotland table above.
The project capital cost is estimated to be 165.2m dollars including the inflation as well as the risk through the project completion. The city of Edinburgh is a key employment hub which attracts a workforce from both within the city and areas surrounding. The shortlisted bidders who will invited to tender for the contract are Dragados, Farrans, Neopul and Colas.
The same project team who delivered the tram successfully to York Place has worked closely with the market over the past 1 year developing a contract strategy that meets market expectation and the requirements of the council. The contract entails the design and construction of all tracks, overhead line, road infrastructure, tram stops, system infrastructure and public realm between York Place and Newhaven. If the project the go-ahead, it is anticipated that the contract will be signed in the late 2018 with the new line start operating in
Assumptions in Edinburgh tram extension
- It assumed that the project will cost 165.2m dollars including risk and inflation through to project completion.
- The overall construction programme will take approximately 3 years plus 4 months for testing and commissioning.
- From this project, 1 dollar spent will provide 1.64 dollars in return.
During the construction of tram system, there were numerous impacts it caused to the residents for example the contamination of air and water, traffic congestion and interfering with the landscape but later after the completion, certain benefits such as creation of employment, increase in income and GDP will be realized as a result of tram extension from York place to Newhaven.
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