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You are required to “Develop a preliminary Research Proposal”. This assignment will involve the use of the material of your tutorials with a further/deeper review of the literature and industry reports. You will also need to include a research design providing some details based on the material you have learnt and read during the latter part of the semester.

Approaches used by Australian Government and its Citizens to Combat Natural Disasters

More entirely, this examination aims at responding at particular questions intended to explore preparedness of the Australia government and its citizens to combat natural weather-induced disasters.

What are some of the approaches that Australia government and its citizens use to prepare in combating cases of natural weather-induced disasters?

  1. What are some of the Implementation patterns of disaster management in Australia?
  2. What are obstacles that arise while combating natural weather-induced disasters in Australia by government?
  3. What are some of the coordination set in place for provision of Australian government assistance in the event of natural weather-induced disaster in Australia?

These essential research inquiries will eventually assist in responding to crucial target of this mission. The enquiry for this proposal will be essential in enlightening basic justification for diverse ways that Australian government and its citizens used to prepare in combating instances of natural weather-induced disasters in the region (Kanyama 2014, p. 17). Therefore, results from these survey inquiries will remain useful in offering well options or approaches that the Australian government and its citizens can follow appropriately to combat natural weather-induced disasters in their daily operations.

Due to the perceived influence of changes in climate together with other geological processes around the entire global society and Australia in large, it appears that nations are becoming aware of frequent natural weather-induced hazards. Some of these natural weather-induced disasters that affect Australian community include hazards such as floods, hurricanes, hailstorms, bushfires, earthquakes, as well as tsunamis (Haimes 2012, p. 1456). Throughout Australian history, certain natural weather-induced disasters have served as the “focusing events” leading to the development of advanced policy, legislation, practice, and planning. The situation of natural weather-induced disaster is further complicated with the rise in instances of terrorism in Australia and other human-made disasters owing to technological hazards. Such instances have been an ever-increasing vulnerability of Australian population, and it has also forced the authority to pay extra attention to their emergency sector of management (Sadiq and Graham 2015, p. 1044). Moreover, Australia is exposed to natural weather-induced disasters as it experiences cases of bushfires, floods, tropical cyclones, and hailstorms in addition to the few earthquakes together with human-made hazards. Australia government and its citizen's experience in the management of emergencies has encouraged their operations to become innovative, committed, and progressive to offering safer, strong, along with more resilient communities across the nation prepared to manage any situation that is emergent. This research proposal reviews preparedness of the Australian government and its citizens to combat natural weather-induced disasters. The paper also presents some of existing literature under which the management of emergency sector in Australia develops and flourishes and historical review of major natural weather-induced disasters.

Some researchers in the region had reported that the incidents of natural weather-induced disasters in Australia are increasing possibly due to the effects of human activities that result in global warming and consequential changes in climate. The preparedness of the Australian government to combat cases of natural weather-induced disasters varies across the country for different reasons (Chhetri, Corcoran, Ahmad, and KC 2018, p. 12). One of the reasons in the variation is that the country’s large size as well as longitudinal range. The other reason is that the country is divided into federal structure of governance. The magnitude along with latitudinal spread results in some climatic zones from the tropical north through the sub-tropics to temperate southern regions and the arid central deserts.  The prone of the country to natural weather-induced disaster causes huge destructions of property and in some instances leads to loss of human and other animals’ lives. It is evident from various investigative works that natural weather-induced hazards like floods, bush-fires, and humid cyclones arise commonly across Australia (Howes et al., 2014, p. 761). Such disasters have caused over one point one billion US dollars damage every year to homes, business operations, together with infrastructure of nation and severe disruption to communities

History of Natural Disasters in Australia

In the event of occurrences of natural weather-induced disasters in Australia, they often lead to personal and financial hardship for people, government, and Australian community and can result in loss of ecosystem. All these effects that come as a result of natural weather-induced disasters have made the government support activities that prepare to control and combat such disasters from occurring (Cvetkovic 2016, p. 113). For instance, Australian Red Cross Organization that deals with emergency (REDiPlan) has outlined some of the steps to prepare for any form of emergency in industrial sector. They have ensured that people get to know risk that they might face when they continue with activities that induce natural disasters. They have ensured that community gets connected so that they can assist each other in the emergency and during process of recovery after occurrences of natural weather-induced disaster. The organisation by Red Cross help in ensuring that the community is organized as they think through what might occur during and after the emergency and take corrective action to protect the important things in their lives. Moreover, they help community to get packing by identifying every device that might help them to survive in the emergency and get back to normal operations as quickly as possible (Baek, Lee, and Koo 2018, p. 92). It is evident from records of Red Cross in Australia that in the past few years, the region has witnessed more cases of natural weather-induced disasters that cost billions of dollars to control.

It is evident from various research works that area that surrounds Australia is the most natural weather-induced disasters prone region in the global community. The region is highly vulnerable to instances of disaster such as floods, earthquake, drought, bush-fires, tsunamis, and other hazards (Teeuw, Leidig, Saunders, and Morris 2013, p. 118). However, Australian government together with its citizens has a lasting history towards responding to natural weather-induced disasters. The instances of response to these disasters can be pleased with the massive achievements that the authority and Australians have made towards management of natural disasters through mitigation processes. Therefore, Australia remains to be the key player in management of disaster and humanitarian assistance efforts in the region around Pacific Island (Huang 2012, p. 16). Over eighty-five per cent of individuals that have lost their lives or affected by natural weather-induced disasters has been from Indo-Asia-Pacific area. Natural weather-induced disasters are becoming more frequent and more severe. The influences of change in climate around Australia are expected to change the severity, frequency, and unpredictability of events that relate to weather-induced disasters across the region. Increase in the intensity of hazards has resulted in several effects that include influence to Australian stability, resources, health, as well as infrastructure (Vink and Takeuchi 2013, p. 67). These effects make Australia vulnerable to natural weather-induced disasters hence relying on external assistance for disaster aid.

Incidents of Natural Disasters in Australia

Australian government and its citizens have always aimed to combat natural weather-induced disasters by collaborating with several nations around the global community. Countries within Pacific Island are some of the nations that are essential for Australia’s partners (Forbes, O’Donnell, and Bryant 2016, p. 661). Moreover, during the preparation to combat these disasters, Australia always work to have interest in the stability and development of Pacific Island nations to focus on greater regional prosperity as well as reducing the development of threat from various hazards comprising of environmental vulnerability and changes that relate to climate. Moreover, Australian government has invested in the range of activities that aim at reducing risk at the bilateral, regional, and community level in over thirty nations. These activities that had been set in place by the Australian authority consist of: 

  • Idea of strengthening international leadership as well as collaboration - this includes support for international strategy set by United Nations for reduction of disasters. The program focuses on mainstreaming reduction of risk that result from natural weather-induced disaster in the area (Raggatt, Butterworth, and Morrissey 2013, p. 3).
  • Funding vital initiatives in the region – this initiative include the Asian centre for disaster preparedness, Asian network for reduction and response of disaster that respond to emergent cases of hazards.
  • Strengthening partnership with government agencies – Australian government has increased its operations ready to combat different disasters by including national offices for managing disasters to prepare for and mitigate disasters and technical agencies to map various dangers from such hazards like a volcanic eruption, typhoons, and earthquakes (Heazle et al., 2013, p. 167).

Supporting activities of community-based groups – Australian government has ensured that they support every operation that aims at combating natural weather-induced disasters organized by different groups through funds (Gruenwald 2014, p. 1649). The funds from government help these groups in improving their response and recovery to protect people against the loss of likelihoods and mitigating potential hazards in the region. 

Government of Australia derives its essential approaches to deal with occurrences of disasters from different guiding principles. These guiding principles help in directing the work priorities of different organizations and departments on decision-making processes. Moreover, these guiding principles have been vital as they assist leadership and promote coordination and cooperation for the achievement of shared national objectives (Hossain and Uddin 2012, p. 341). These principles that help Australian government and its citizens include:

  • Employment of collaborative and flexible approach to be used in combating disasters
  • Leverage diversity of culture together with operations of different organizations to ensure that cases of induced hazard are well handled.
  • Strengthening proactive multiagency engagement in ensuring that every operation work as per the set strategies
  • Promotion of common understanding among people in Australia to focus on improving lives of people to avoid instances of engagement in activities that might lead to natural weather-induced disasters in the region
  • Delivering of comprehensive results and committing to continuous improvement in supporting effective ways of operations that minimize influences that can lead to disasters.

Adherence to different principles as set by Australian government helps different people in the region to focus on maintaining unity of purpose and economy of effort. It also helps international partners to understand approaches that the government is using to prepare to combat occurrences of disasters (Fitzgerald and Rego 2017, p. 99). However, some challenges do occur while the government prepare to combat disaster since the civil and military forces are constantly needed to share the same humanitarian and physical space. Nevertheless, Australians and their government have produced several policies, arrangements, frameworks, and they have signed more bilateral and multilateral agreements with their partners and stakeholders in disaster response (Cavallo and Ireland 2014, p. 186). Such agreements have ensured the region to be ready to combat instances of natural weather-induced disasters.

Implementation patterns of disaster management in Australia

Australian government work on different implementation patterns that aim at eliminating cases of disaster occurrence or little harm to lives and property in case a disaster occurs in the region. All operations are controlled and planned by different agencies and departments of governments. Additionally, implementation of the chosen pattern needs appropriate planning, organization of events, mobilisation of resources, and completing stages. In case any person in lowest government level can handle implementation process, then they are offered the opportunity of showing their operation (Cvetkovic 2016, p. 59).  The key departments of Australian departments and agencies responsible for handling disaster and management include department of Prime Minister Cabinet, Department that deals with Defence, Department of Attorney-General, and the Federal Police of Australia.

Several structural issues affect process of implementation of different patterns that Australian government and citizens use to combat natural weather-induced disasters. Some of these issues that affect implementation include poor cross-agency along with coordination of departments, inadequate communication channels amongst different levels of authority, poor understanding, inadequate understanding and utilization of planned program that has to created and restructured (Baek, Lee, and Koo 2018, p. 91). The implementation aim at controlling cases of wind event known as cyclone disaster that is prone to the region followed by bushfire, torrential rains that in most cases lead to flooding and drought to heat waves in the region. From different data, below are some of the worst natural weather-induced disasters that had been experienced in Australia up to the current times. They include:

Cyclone Tracy that occurred in early days of 1974, earthquake of Newcastle that happened in 1989, Brisbane Floods in 1974, Victoria Bush-fires that happened in Black Saturday in 2009, Tasmania Fires in 1967, Black Friday Fires, Victoria that occurred in 1939 (Bruns and Liang 2012, p. 18). Other disasters in history of Australia include Queensland Floods that occurred between 2010 and 2011, Ash Wednesday Bush-fires that happened in 1983, and many more natural weather-induced disasters.

Obstacles to combating natural weather-induced disasters in Australia

Some of the known obstacles that affect disaster management by Australian government and its citizens are the need to mitigate different approaches. Mitigation of different programs tends to be expensive in line with prevention of different issues from occurring (Cavallo and Ireland 2014, p. 187). Other obstacles remain to be some of the existing cultural and social issues such as some of the native cultures around the globe also exist in Australia. Affected individuals also have diverse needs after disasters and understanding every need tends to be tough among the departments that offer such care. For instance, Aborigines found in Torres Strait Islanders posses the hue love towards piece of land that they reside in, in case Australian government need to move them away, it becomes tough and it might not o well making process of implementing different patterns to combat disaster to be hard to attain (Gruenwald 2014, p. 1650). Moreover, different management models set by Australian government and its people still need a lot of work on geographical setting because Australia has the lowest and driest parts regions in the world apart from Antarctica. Hence, government of Australia has the mandate to develop their plan for combating disaster by focusing at several needs of different areas while figuring out ideal approach to deal with such issues as they occur.

Primary objective of this investigation is to investigate the preparedness of the Australia government and its citizens to combat natural weather-induced disasters.  The primary objective that helps in designing of the survey is that the topic is more concerned with opinions of different government workers and Australians. The use of systematic along with purposive techniques of sampling will be utilized to gather vital data for the investigation (Filipovic 2017, p. 119). The data collection approaches that can be used include administration of well-structured questionnaires together with interview guides for different respondents. The research is vital as there have been several instances of natural disasters in Australia that affect wellbeing of society. These disasters include bushfires, floods, tsunamis, and tropical cyclones among other hazards (Cvetkovic 2016, p. 92). Al these disasters possess the potential of reaching catastrophic sections if they are huge enough, prolonged in occurrence, they can influence vulnerable or unprepared society and result in massive property damages. In this survey, model of cross-sectional survey adopted to find the aim of the work. The use of cross-sectional survey will focus on observational research kind that concentrates on analysis variable data gathered at any point across the sampled unit or the subset that have been pre-defined (Bruns and Liang 2012, p. 3). The investigation examines various works by different authors, case studies, and examines them with appropriate procedure of cross-sectional design of research. The use of various sources will assist in compilation of information concerning preparedness of Australian government for weather-induced disasters and responses to warnings of weather conditions through the use of administrative or survey information.

For the examination, data gathered during survey will be collected from organization s that deals with management of municipal emergency. These organization that will provide data remain to play vital function in implementation as well as preparing management plans for municipal emergency (Goswami, Chakraborty, Ghosh, Chakrabarti, and Chakraborty 2018, p. 362). Hence, they represent important source of data because this approach uses qualitative methods and to analyze. The study will use qualitative research approach in collection of data. Qualitative technique tends to be more transparent and flexible. The technique enables room for greater spontaneity and adaption of the interaction between the researcher and the target groups or participant. Besides, use of qualitative research method yield results that are more descriptive rather than predictive that offer clearer picture of entire situation. Moreover, qualitative research method will be utilized due to the fact that it can be utilized at stage of collecting and analyzing data of the project. The method also is vital as it offers highest, average, as well as lowest percentages of capability in the study (Cvetkovi? 2016, p. 57). Initially reports at preliminary level of disaster along with their reviews will be collected from vital personnel's found in municipalities, organizations dealing management of disaster and from survey reports that are officially documented. This examination ends with acknowledging advantages of management of natural weather-induced disaster and functions, together with responsibilities of each Australian stakeholder.

Red Cross Organization's Emergency Management Plan

Methods of collecting data

Process of gathering data for accessing preparedness of the Australia government and its citizens to combat natural weather-induced disasters vary on different factors. These factors of variation include nature of problem, time-frame, and budget of study. However, process of data collection in this study is vital as it helps in attaining the main target of the research (Shuckburgh, Mitchell, and Stott 2017, p. 354). This study will use different techniques of gathering data that include administration of well-structured questionnaires, case studies, accessing databases, observations by researchers, and interviewing of respondents (Berbegal?Mirabent 2013, p. 333). Moreover, major techniques vital in collection of data on preparedness of the Australia government and its citizens to combat natural weather-induced disasters are use of online surveys and administration of data. Technique of online survey was useful in gathering of data on the perceived risks of weather-related disasters, degree of preparedness of municipalities, value of warnings of weather and response to these warnings, among several issues.

List of References

Baek, I., Lee, M. and Koo, S. (2018). A Comparative Study of the Similar Systems with Disaster Implementation Evaluation for Functional Establishment. Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation, 18(3), pp.87-94.

Berbegal?Mirabent, J. (2013). Doing Research in Business and Management: An Essential Guide to Planning Your Project20131Mark Saunders and Philip Lewis. Doing Research in Business and Management: An Essential Guide to Planning Your Project. Harlow: Pearson Education 2012. 233 pp., ISBN: 978?0?273?72641?8 (paperback). Management Decision, 51(6), pp.1311-1316.

Bruns, A. and Liang, Y. (2012). Tools and methods for capturing Twitter data during natural disasters. First Monday, 17(4).

Cavallo, A. and Ireland, V. (2014). Preparing for complex interdependent risks: A System of Systems approach to building disaster resilience. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 9, pp.181-193.

Chhetri, P., Corcoran, J., Ahmad, S. and KC, K. (2018). Examining spatio-temporal patterns, drivers and trends of residential fires in South East Queensland, Australia. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal.

Cvetkovi?, V. (2016). Influence of employment status on citizen preparedness for response to natural disasters. Nauka, bezbednost, policija, 21(2), pp.49-94.

Cvetkovic, V. (2016). Influence of income level on citizen preparedness for response to natural disasters. Vojno delo, 68(4), pp.100-127.

Cvetkovic, V. (2016). Marital status of citizens and floods: Citizen preparedness for response to natural disasters. Vojno delo, 68(8), pp.89-116.

Filipovic, M. (2017). Preparedness for natural disasters caused by earthquakes: Literature review. Bezbednost, Beograd, 59(2), pp.114-129.

Fitzgerald, G. and Rego, J. (2017). National Standards for Higher Education Programs in Disaster Management in Australia. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 32(S1), p.S99.

Forbes, D., O’Donnell, M. and Bryant, R. (2016). Psychosocial recovery following community disasters: An international collaboration. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 51(7), pp.660-662.

Goswami, S., Chakraborty, S., Ghosh, S., Chakrabarti, A. and Chakraborty, B. (2018). A review on application of data mining techniques to combat natural disasters. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 9(3), pp.365-378.

Gruenwald, H. (2014). Global Challenge Disaster Logistics Lessons Learned from the 2004 Tsunami in Thailand. Advanced Materials Research, 931-932, pp.1647-1651.

Haimes, Y. (2012). Systems-Based Guiding Principles for Risk Modeling, Planning, Assessment, Management, and Communication. Risk Analysis, 32(9), pp.1451-1467.

Heazle, M., Tangney, P., Burton, P., Howes, M., Grant-Smith, D., Reis, K. and Bosomworth, K. (2013). Mainstreaming climate change adaptation: An incremental approach to disaster risk management in Australia. Environmental Science & Policy, 33, pp.162-170.

Hossain, L. and Uddin, S. (2012). Design patterns: coordination in complex and dynamic environments. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 21(3), pp.336-350.

Howes, M., Tangney, P., Reis, K., Grant-Smith, D., Heazle, M., Bosomworth, K. and Burton, P. (2014). Towards networked governance: improving interagency communication and collaboration for disaster risk management and climate change adaptation in Australia. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 58(5), pp.757-776.

Huang, J. (2012). Facing the Unpredictable Tropical Cyclone Induced Disasters. Journal of Geography & Natural Disasters, 02(04).

Kanyama, A. (2014). Evaluating the Local Climate Impacts Profile Tool for Assessing Local Impacts of Extreme Weather Events. Journal of Geography & Natural Disasters, 04(01).

Raggatt, P., Butterworth, E. and Morrissey, S. (2013). Issues in Natural Disaster Management: Community Response to the Threat of Tropical Cyclones in Australia. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 2(3).

Sadiq, A. and Graham, J. (2015). Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters. Risk Analysis, 36(5), pp.1040-1053.

Shuckburgh, E., Mitchell, D. and Stott, P. (2017). Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria: how natural were these ‘natural disasters’?. Weather, 72(11), pp.353-354.

Teeuw, R., Leidig, M., Saunders, C. and Morris, N. (2013). Free or low-cost geoinformatics for disaster management: Uses and availability issues. Environmental Hazards, 12(2), pp.112-131.

Vink, K. and Takeuchi, K. (2013). International comparison of measures taken for vulnerable people in disaster risk management laws. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 4, pp.63-70.

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