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1.Describe these major social and cultural institutions in Australian society and what kinds of effects do they have on communities, families and individuals:
aged care system
education system
health system
legal system
political systems

2.Describe the influence the below global institutions have on Australian society:
labour market
religious systems

3.What factors can affect the general health and well-being of clients in community services?
What kinds of frameworks and influences currently underpin social policy? Some are Federal Government, some State Government, and some come from private organizations (mainly non-profits).

Overview of Australian Society

1. There are several social and cultural institutions in Australian society that work for the society and community and leave an impact on the communities, families, and individuals. Constant political, economic and social changes reform the system of education and social environment. There is complex professional stress experienced when constructing a multi-layered context of cultural, social and educational diversity (Alifanovien?, Šapelyt?, & Kryukova, 2016). Australian society is made of somewhat overlapping social groupings and cosmopolitan human values. There are different types of ’cosmopolitanness’ in Australian society such as consumptive, economic cosmopolitanism and globalization (Jakubowicz, 2011). Cosmopolitan practices like long-distance conversations and travel overseas, and friends outside of Australia, internet, and SBS television are widening the cosmopolitan outlook. The democratic civility and cultural integrity of Australian society would not exist if multicultural norms were not asserted.

What concerns the health-care professionals most are the increasing shortage of health-care professionals and the growing needs of older people. Properly trained and regulated health-care assistants are must support the aged care system in any country. The unregistered health-care workers comprise 60% of the aged care system workforce in Australia (Smith & Stevens,2013). There is a proliferation of courses to qualify as a Personal carer, Assistant in nursing and Support worker in Australia. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency does not control aged care workers who are not listed as asserted by Smith & Stevens (2013).Australian aged care systems provide various options to meet the needs of each individual and older population. More than sixty thousand people entered permanent residential aged care in the preceding years, and Home and Community Care (HACC) was the most common pathway used (AIHW,2018). Australian governments and non-government organizations fund the aged care services in Australia.  However, the majority of spending comes from the Australian Government, and the Government disbursed around $17 billion on aged care in 2016–17. Government expenditure on aged care services has increased every year (AIHW,2018). Australian aged care services provide care as home support and in the community for people living at home. Residential aged care services offer residential facilities for permanent and short-term respite stays (AIHW,2018).

Australia offers a wide range of study opportunities for its native and international students. One can explore thousands of institutions and courses at all levels of education. Australia’s laws work towards promoting quality education. The Education Services for Overseas Students (ESOS) Act 2000 and the National Code of Practice provides support for education and training for international students (Study in Australia, 2018). Regulatory and quality assurance organizations are accountable for the registration of college institutions and accreditation. The Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) recognized in 1995, is a national policy that covers qualifications from the tertiary education segment (Study in Australia, 2018). The primary purposes of Australian higher education are to develop capable and efficient individuals who can be a productive part of society.
Australian family system

Healthcare System in Australia

The size of Australian households and families has changed over the years based on the increasing and aging population. About three-quarters of homes are family households, open quarter a single person and rest are group households (Qu and Weston,2018). The most common are couple-only families and couple families. This special Australian Institute of Families (AIFS) Facts Sheet reflects how the concept of family and its boundaries is changing. Families are affected by mental illness, drug-related problems, abuse or violent crime and even problem gambling (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2018). The Australian government ensures that the Australian families remain stable and provide a loving, caring environment to its members. Services offered include Maternal Child Health Nurse, community health centers, Child FIRST and family services, The Orange Door and Early parenting services (Victoria State Government, 2018). Support services are available for the families if they face difficulties in parenting, development of vulnerable children or when dealing with family violence. The government provides specialist support, education, advice, and counseling services.
Australian health system

Health care in Australia is taken care of both government and private organizations. The Australian Government is responsible for the national health policy. Medicare is the subsidized health care system for every Australian citizen (Australia Government, 2018). The states and territories carry the main accountability for public hospitals and public health as well as, ambulance, mental health programs and public dental services. The Australian and state and territory governments are both responsible for the health system. They are responsible for Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS), Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and backing public hospitals jointly (The Australia health system, 2018). The aim is to provide quality and effective primary health care. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare is responsible for developing health and welfare information. Australian Government has a budget of more than 87 billion on health and aged care in Australia (The Australia health system, 2018).
ustralian legal system

Australia has a federal government system and Commonwealth government, State/territory government and Local government are involved in the Australian legal system. Council of Australian Governments (COAG) monitors and reforms policies of national significance and lower the regulatory burden (The State Library of NSW, 2018). The Commonwealth Trade Practices Act 1974 is responsible for Consumer protection in Australia. The Australian Consumer Law (ACL) provides protection to Australian consumers wherever they are in Australia (The State Library of NSW, 2018). Criminal law; civil law; and administrative laws deal with different cases within the legal system
Australian political system

Education Opportunities in Australia

The Australian Constitution of 1901 recognized a federal government system where the powers are dispersed between a national government and the six States (Parliament of Australia,2018). Parliament is the core of the Australian national government. The level of trust in the Government and the politicians is an important topic that matters. The legitimacy of political systems relies on trust in government. The Australian Election Study records a decline in trust between 2007 and 2012 (Parliament of Australia, 2014). The majority prefer a democratic form of government. Maximum confidence is observed in public schools, hospitals, police followed by the legal system. The and political parties were the lowest ranks (Parliament of Australia, 2014).

2. The global economy is made up of both national and international economic institutions. International capital markets and labor movements shape the economic institutions within a country. Industrialized economies have enjoyed freedom in Australia, and because of GATT, there has been a steady rise in volume in trade (Harcourt, 2012). Australian labor market institutions are made of stronger wage fixing institutions and stronger unions. Workers fulfill the supply of labor with the required skills. There have been noteworthy changes in Australian society that have left an impact on the number and kind of jobs available (Harcourt, 2012). Technological and economic changes have made Australian business more competitive. The influence of trade union movements has declined over the years. It is observed that there has been insufficient demand for labor in recent decades and unemployment levels have risen. A higher number of married women are entering the workforce, and an increasing number of younger generation is attaining higher education (Harcourt, 2012). Part-time work has become an essential segment of the labor market. The labor market has not achieved the status of full employment for several decades. Slower economic activity and higher unemployment rate make it more challenging (Mowbray, Rozenbes, Wheatley and Yuen, 2009).
The religious systems

The nature of religion has changed intensely in Australia during the past five decades. Religion has not gone away as predicted and the subject is forever alive in politics and news. Australia seems to have become more religious as well as less religious. Religion is vital for some as they feel that it motivates them in their lives. A recent National Church Life Survey (NCLS) shows that about 14% of Australians assert the importance of religion (The Conversation,2017). The religions include many varieties of Christians as well as Muslim, Hindus, Sikh, Buddhist, Jewish, and others. About 36% of Australians claim that religion was not necessary to them while another 25% hold religion of little importance (The Conversation,2017). Intrareligious relations can be complicated in Australia because of the increased diversity within the religions and people claiming the same religious identity.
The media

Family Systems in Australia

The media technologies have advanced at a fast pace in the last couple of decades and have changed the way we get or share information. The digital media age encourages the use of social media networks, watching online television, free-to-air television. It is the younger generation that is savvier with the web technologies as compared to the older generation (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2018). As a result, certain stereotypes are developing for the older generation portraying them in a negative manner. Earlier, the Australian media was defined by government licensing and for its broadcasting services (Oxford University Press, n.d.). However, with the expansion of public, commercial and community broadcasters, these organizations have extended their online activities. The Australian public media sector is made of services delivered by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) and Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) (Oxford University Press, n.d.). Community media broadcasters contribute to a cohesive and culturally-diverse Australian community and serve specific community interests for arts and music.

3. The social, economic and cultural environment in which people live has a direct impact on their life and health. Australian healthcare system aims to provide reasonable and responsible health services regardless of socioeconomic and social circumstances. Many public health policies, supportive environments, reorienting health services and strengthening of community action work in this direction (Aspire Training and Consulting, 2018). As employment supports access to better housing and education and housing, it is an example as to how the employment factor can affect people’s lives. Thus, better education can lead to better chances of employment. In Australia, the government has set up laws that ensure good working conditions for workers and regulate trade. Contemporary political frameworks in Australia are democratic in nature, and social policies involve citizens and their social concerns. Australia as a parliamentary democracy works at federal, state and local level to work in the best interests of its citizens (Aspire Training and Consulting, 2018). Education is an essential factor for any society, and there is a strong link between educational achievement and positive social outcomes. Thus it is not just a few factors that control the health and well-being of clients in the community, but a sum of all. The social factors, community factors, and family factors impact the community members directly. The current social issues, community issues and families’ system leave an impact on the community. Community factors comprise of how people tend to behave towards each other based on race, gender, and social class. Family factors like parent-child relationships, freedom of choice and independence can help build healthier emotional connections within the family and alter the community.
What kinds of frameworks and influences currently underpin social policy?

Legal System in Australia

 The social policies are shaped and influenced by different frameworks and within the broader economic and social conditions. It is essential to assess the government’s goals and its specific policies and if the benefited the society (Lupton, 2013). The key institutional components of contemporary social policy and the human service work that takes place within the social policy allow a better understanding of social policy frameworks. With the modern world becoming globalized, new economies are developing along with political challenges. It is only through active and successful collaborations among governments, corporations, and society that one can see some positive steps taken towards social responsibilities (Bloomquist, 2018). Social policies with relevant information can disseminate information to target audiences with the help of integrated marketing communication.

The federal exercises power over the provincial jurisdiction and social policy areas. The spending power, the intergovernmental relations can impact how the federal government shapes the social policies and programs. How the federal exercises leadership in social policy has evolved over the years, and the objective is to share beneficial practices that support the citizens (Telford, Graef, and Banting, 2018). The federal and state government plays an important role in promoting and supporting social responsibility. The social responsibility is not just the responsibility of the corporate business sector but should include other key stakeholders like federal, state, and local governments.  The federal, state and local governments carry an important responsibility and can play a significant role in reinforcing social policies that can help solve the most pressing issues of the society. Those social policies connect the common public with the federal and corporate initiatives to achieve successful behavior change (Bloomquist, 2018). Establishing more partnerships and increasing cross-sector social responsibility can promote this kind of engagement that is required to contribute to social policies and responsibility.

Apart from the government, the private sector is the primary stakeholder in the urban and economic development of a country. In the developing world, the private sector creates about 90% of employment in both formal and informal jobs (Kulenovic & Cech, 2015). The private sector makes an essential contribution to capital flow and tax revenues and can strengthen social policies to curb conflicts such as instability and unemployment in urban areas. Interactive planning and decision-making processes with federal and local support plus participation with municipalities can strengthen urban governance and policies (Kulenovic & Cech, 2015). The private sector and companies can build relations with local and international private sector for a broader vision for the society, community and the cities that go beyond short-term interests. There might need to encourage a formalized partnership with organized business. In many countries, it is observed that the main provider of services to the poor and deprived is the informal sector (Kulenovic & Cech, 2015).

Political System in Australia

NGOs and private organizations too can help strengthen those social policies. NGOs can especially play an essential role in improving healthcare, especially in poor and developing countries. However, their efforts need to be synergistic and collective as well as rooted in community mobilization, so that it can reduce the barriers to care. Still, the NGOs often face unrealistic expectations and should work closely with the population so that its services remain affixed in the community (Biermann, Eckhardt, Carlfjord, Falk & Forsberg, 2016). Non -governmental Organizations do not work for any monetary gains and are an important part of a democratic society.  Their scope of work includes social, medical, educational, financial and psychological services (Piotrowiczand Cianciara 2013).  It is through a combination of individual and social actions plus the support of political commitment that allow the NGOs to achieve their objectives. They need social policy support and social acceptance for a particular goal or program.
Social segmentation
What is social stratification?

Society is made of people, and those people can get layers based on their characteristics. Social stratification develops when society gets divided based on factors like race, education, wealth and power. Although everyone expects to be treated equally, there are prejudicial treatments based on societal values that demarcate the society.
How do stereotypes develop and what kind of impact do they have?

Stereotypes develop when a particular race or people are connected with specific characteristics and abilities. The processing of mind changes the way we think about them and hence develop a stereotyped view on them. Most of the stereotypes tend to carry a negative impression, and those stereotypes may not be true at all. Racial stereotyping about different ethnicities show how one group thinks about the others. For example, the white Americans picture other ethnic groups differently (McLeod, 2008). For example, Japanese as shrewd, the Jews are mercenary while the Blacks are lazy. The Americans look at themselves as happy-go-lucky and industrious. Stereotypes can develop as a stereotype threat when one is identified with a negative stereotype in a given situation.
Impacts of social and cultural issues

Unemployment means being jobless and means earning no money. Needless to say, unemployment leaves a direct negative impact on an individual, his family, and society and economy. It is not just the family who suffers but the nation too. The higher the unemployment, the higher is the pressure on the government to pay benefits to the unemployed. The unemployed individual suffers not only a loss of income but low self-esteem. The spending power of the family lowers and which in turn affects the economy adversely. The communities with most unemployed are looked down upon and shunned by society. Unemployment brings instability and unhappiness and can impact the physical and mental health of the community.

Religious Practices in Australia

3. Social inequality means the rise of unequal opportunities within a group or society. As asserted by Blackburn (2008), social inequality develops because of the differences among individual members of society. The equality and inequality are not opposites, but the equality is the starting point in the infinite range of inequality. The differences may be due to gender, ethnicity, health, and education. Those individual difference lead to unequal opportunities in society. During the 21st century, the gap between the poor and the rich has only widened (Jarman, 2016). While the rich are getting unbearably rich, the poor are getting miserably poor, and the middle class remains under pressure, sandwiched between the two. Health and education are becoming more expensive and affordable only for a decreasing percentage of the populations. Distinctions are being made between the native and the foreign-born, the skin color and the ethnicity. Those social inequalities are manifesting in every sphere and possible directions. Every member of the society is getting impacted at an individual, family and community level. The individual and their family members can stand to lose or gain because of the social inequalities. Communities are buckling under the strain and placing a string on the social and economic system


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