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## Blaise Pascal

1. You are a code breaker in the Second World War and you’ve just intercepted the following Enigma message:

C I.IV.VII ABC AAA AZ BY CP DF HI JW

BFHK RESW TIOD BPMN ICJM RVBN KRDS JSPV FABM QQXE OVF

You have advance information that this message contains three names of suspects. Luckily you also have a time machine that allows you move to 2015 and access the Internet to break this code. So you go to https://enigma.louisedade.co.uk/enigma.html to use an Enigma emulator.

The first line is the settings for Enigma, the first 3 letters on the second line are the daily settings, and the rest of the second line is the message.

On the first line you can tell from the I.IV.VII part that this is an M3 Enigma (only 3 wheels). For the rest

• The C means we set the Umkehrwalze (reflector wheel) to C.

• I.IV.VII means we set the Walzenlage (wheel order) to wheel I, IV, and VII

• We set the Ringstellung (ring setting) to ABC

• We set the Grundstellung (start position) to AAA

• On the plugboard (Steckerbrett) to match A to Z (type Z in the box under A), B to Y, C to P, D to F, H to I and finally J to W.

Once you’ve done this, you type in the first 3 letters of the second line into the Type Letter box.

Check the Out box to see what it encodes to and use these 3 letters to replace the contents of the Grundstellung (start position). Now we can decode the message.

Click where it says Block of Text and copy and paste the second line of the code from above (you don’t need the first 3 letters). Click Encipher/Decipher Text and you should see the deciphered message in the Out Box. The names are separated by X’s since there is not a space character in Enigma.

a) Once you have the names, write a half a page description for each person stating who they are, what their contribution to Computer Science was, and why it was significant. Please include at least 2 references for each person. If you cannot break the code, choose any 3 pioneers in computing and write the descriptions.

b) Also the head code breaker wants to check your work so he wants you to use the same Enigma settings as in the intercepted message to code his name, ProfessorxHircock, and submit the ciphered code as part of the assignment (you only need to submit the ciphered name, not the settings).

2. Encryption and decryption played a large role in the outcome of the Second World War. After the war and for the next few decades, encryption played little or no role in the life of the average person. What about now? Discuss how encryption and decryption impacts upon our lives today. Describe two examples of encryption that people interact with most every day. Please provide references.

3. Computers have had a very large effect on society. Their use has helped us in many ways and also hurt us in many ways. Select and describe the 2 most positive impacts of computing and the 2 most negative impacts of computing. Justify your selections. Please provide references.

1.

The names are:

BLAISE X PASCAL

X ADA X LOVELACE

X GRACE X HOPPER X

1 a. Blaise Pascal, a French numerical virtuoso, at 19 years old imagined a machine, which he called the Pascaline that could do expansion and subtraction to help his dad, who was likewise a mathematician. Pascal's machine comprised of a progression of apparatuses with 10 teeth each one, speaking to the numbers 0 to 9. As each one rigging made one turn it would trip the following apparatus up to make 1/10 of an upheaval. This standard remained the establishment of all mechanical calculators for quite a long time after his demise. The Pascal programming dialect was named in his honor.

Of the eight Pascalines known to have survived, four are held by the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris and one all the more by the Zwinger historical center in Dresden, Germany, show two of his unique mechanical mini-computers. Despite the fact that these machines are spearheading precursors to a further 400 years of improvement of mechanical routines for figuring, and it might be said to the later field of machine building, the number cruncher neglected to be an incredible business achievement. Mostly on the grounds that it was still truly awkward to use by and by, yet most likely basically in light of the fact that it was uncommonly lavish the Pascaline got to be minimal more than a toy, and grown-up toy, for the extremely rich both in France and somewhere else in Europe. Pascal kept on making enhancements to his outline through the following decade and he alludes to nearly 50 machines that were assembled to his configuration.

Ada Lovelace portrayed her approach as "poetical science" and herself as an "Investigator (& Metaphysician)". As an adolescent grown-up, her numerical abilities drove her to a progressing working relationship and companionship with individual British mathematician Charles Babbage, and specifically Babbage's work on the Analytical Engine. Somewhere around 1842 and 1843, she deciphered an article by Italian military architect Luigi Menabrea on the motor, which she supplemented with an extensive set of notes she could call her own, basically called Notes. These notes contain what numerous consider to be the first machine program—that is, a calculation intended to be completed by a machine. Lovelace's notes are critical in the early history of machines. She likewise built up a dream on the ability of machines to go past negligible computing or number-crunching, while others, including Babbage himself, concentrated just on those capacities. Her brain set of "poetical science" drove her to make inquiries about the Analytical Engine (as demonstrated in her notes) looking at how people and society identify with innovation as a synergistic instruments.

Grace Murray Hopper, a PC researcher from America, is a pioneer in her field and was one of Harvard Mark I PC's first developers. She is likewise in charge of adding to the first ever compiler utilized for PC programming dialect. Aside from being the brains behind COBOL which is one of the first few present day programming dialects, Grace Hopper is additionally an United States Navy Rear Admiral. In view of her accomplishments and commitments in the field of software engineering and the naval force, she is now and again affectionately called "Astonishing Grace."

1b. ProfessorxHircock encrypted name: M ABQA ORYB BAEM UGZP

## Grace Murray Hopper

2. Computerized security in the 21st century is more essential than at any other time. The abundance of individual and budgetary data that is conveyed over mobile phones, email, and record exchanges could, in the wrong hands, ruin anybody and any organization. Progressively, the privilege to protection is subject to the privilege to cryptography. Late authoritative and legal activities demonstrate that, for both great and childish propositions, the United States is not ready to permit computerized protection.

The privilege of the individuals to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and impacts, against un sensible pursuits and seizures, might not be damaged, and no Warrants should issue, yet upon reasonable justification, upheld by Oath or insistence, and especially depicting the spot to be looked, and the persons or things to be seize

The power, characterized beforehand as the legislature and companies, appreciate the security of solid figures yet regularly don't need people likewise to utilize solid figures. Through administrative and legal measures, the administration has attempted to point of confinement the singular's right to gain entrance to cryptography, actually encroaching on free discourse, trial, and security rights.

Key revelation laws require, under specific conditions, that people surrender cryptographic keys to law authorization. In the United States, no law in fact exists yet key exposure is built under case law through the 2007 United States v. Boucher.

Cryptography has its establishes in the military and will dependably be a critical military resource. Alongside the Enigma figure, Allied cryptanalysts likewise effectively assaulted the Lorenz figure, utilized among German High Command, and JN-25, utilized by the Japanese Imperial Navy.

In the present-day, past the undeniable need to keep military requests mystery, government-supported digital war implies cryptography is a national security concern. Stuxnet, an extensive machine worm found in 2010, overrode pace controls in Iranian axes and set back their atomic project.

The proof focuses towards the Israeli government, who have affirmed that "digital fighting is presently among the mainstays of its protection doctrine*… +." The 2010, the Pentagon set up the Cyber Command to protect its machine systems from outside assault. It is a late reaction to a war that the US is by all accounts losing, as there are a few affirmed effective assaults on high-esteem military system.

3. Positive Impact of Computers on society

Numerous organizations are utilizing PC for keeping the records of their clients. Banks are utilizing computers for keeping up records and overseeing monetary exchanges. The banks are likewise giving the office of internet managing an account. The clients can check their record adjust by utilizing Internet. They can likewise make money related exchange on the web. The exchanges are taken care of effectively and rapidly with automated frameworks.

Individuals are utilizing computers for paying their bills. They are getting data from the Internet. They are additionally utilizing computers to deal with their home plan and so forth.

PC can be utilized as a part of instruction field to enhance showing and learning procedure. PC is utilized as a part of universities to give the techniques for educating in diverse ways. It is utilized to instruct the understudies viably. Numerous PC based instructive projects are accessible. The understudies can figure out how to peruse, to tally, and to talk a remote dialect. Numerous instructive diversions are getting to be mainstream in the understudies.

-A dreary work can be completed with the utilization of computers rapidly and precisely.

-Instead utilizing paper records and involving substantial spaces, more data can be put away in little space electronically that can be gotten to as needed.

-Computers have multitasking and multiprocessing capacities which offices multifold operation on information.

-Since the information are put away in electronic gadgets, they can be effectively gotten to.

-Computers comply with the guidelines and they handle the information absence of prejudice amid result handling.

-Documents can be kept mystery with exceptional login name and secret key assurance.

- Safeguarding the Citizen: Computerized framework give different shielding frameworks.

*Personal information store by the police.

*Personal information put away by the nearby authoritative bodies.

*Information about climate figure.

*Information about common catastrophes, for example, seismic tremor.

*Information about late occasions of activity ,road,etc.

-Social Effects(ATM,Visa card,MasterCard):People can utilize computerized teller machine cards for withdrawing cash saved with the assistance of ATM card ,Visa card or Master card.

Wastage of Time & Energy: Many individuals use computers without positive reason. They play amusements and talk for long time. It causes wastage of time and vitality.

Information Security: The information put away on PC can be gotten to by unapproved persons through systems. It has made genuine issues to information security.

PC Crime: People use PC for contrary exercises. They hacks the Mastercard quantities of the individuals and utilization them for shopping.

-The computers are exceptionally extravagant and they aren't moderate for general individuals.

-There are a few systems individuals can privateer information for abuse.

-Since a PC can do meets expectations much quicker ,less number for representatives can accomplish more work and it prompts expanded unemployment.

-Due to glitch of the PC ,colossal information and data can be lost.

-Computer innovation is quick changing innovation and we need to upgrade in like manner which may get to be troublesome for little firms and schools.

-Due to the trouble of information transmission we fall flat in giving fitting administrations.

-Data Integrity and information Security.

References

Csakany, A. and Vajda, F. (1977). The Impact of Computer Availability on Engineering Education in Hungary. IEEE Trans. Educ., 20(1), pp.2-6.

History-computer.com, (2015). History of Computers and Computing, Mechanical calculators, Pioneers, Blaise Pascal. [online] Available at: https://history-computer.com/MechanicalCalculators/Pioneers/Pascal.html [Accessed 9 Feb. 2015].

Rehman, J., Rehman, J., Rehman, J., Rehman, J., Rehman, J. and Rehman, J. (2014). Positive and Negative Impacts of Computer on Society | Pak. [online] Pak Tech Pro. Available at: https://www.paktechpro.com/positive-negative-impacts-computer-society [Accessed 9 Feb. 2015].

Sdsc.edu, (2015). Ada Lovelace: Founder of Scientific Computing. [online] Available at: https://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/lovelace.html [Accessed 9 Feb. 2015].

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250 words