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Introduction to Wireless Networking and Computing

Discuss about the Concept of Wireless Networking and Computing.

The concept of Wireless Networking, Wireless Computing and Wireless Access Point may be known to people but what is exactly these Wireless Technologies depict. Network exists so that the data could be send from one to another place is what the basic concept of data communication stands for. With this kind of connection, all of these devices will be able to be controlled remotely and easily (Liang & Yu, 2015). Our TV, refrigerator, Air Conditioner, even for some other things such as windows and door, will be able to be controlled via our personal device.  Wireless network utilizes some specific equipment such as NICs Routers in place of wires like optical and copper (Hu & Qian, 2014). Transmissions of data using electromagnetic waves in open space, carrying the information send/ received over a well defined frequency band channesls.  Here, we are going to discuss the use of Wireless technologies and the way they enhances our daily life (De Judicibus et al., 2013). Explaining further the data communication components, possible wireless technologies used in various places.


Data communications can be achieved through a process called network. For more cost saving and mobility wireless technologies were implemented. Wireless communication/Wireless networks have been used since 1876, and  has been rapidly and widely used to develop wireless network computers (Sutaria et al., 2014). Wireless refers to the method of transferring information between computing devices such as PDA (Personal Data Assistant) and data sources like an agency database  server without having a physical connection or wires.  Wireless Technology transmits information generally by using radio waves without using cables or wiring. Data Standards of wireless communications include Bluetooth, WiMax and DECT (Chen et al., 2015). Examples of devices that are generally used as wireless technologies are RFID, Bluetooth, WirelessHD/WiGig, Satellites, Cellular, Wi-Fi based wireless LANs and WMAN. Implementation of applications of radio wireless technologies are GPS units, wireless computers, keyboards, headsets, headphones, television broadcasts, etc. There are many advantages of using wireless technology for computer networks: 1. Mobility and 2, Cost-savings. Freely moving within home, office, business or city, maintaining a proper connection to other computers on the same network systems (Jiang et al., 2015) all these can be sorted by using a wireless network. Sometimes cabling can be expensive and long distance coverage gets tough, in difficult level terrains or in well established organization so it may save some considerable amount for using a wireless network instead in a suitable environment that is provided. Wide Area Networks (WANs) using wireless technology means one have to pay access to the existing telecommunications infrastructure. The radio spectrum is therefore divided into sub-bands which are based on each frequency range, suitable for the given sets of application. Suitability of the band can be determines the given frequencies by the functional process of the atmospheric propagation characteristics, as well as system aspects, like the required antenna size and power limitations. This Increases number of mobile radio communication systems used in our daily life. Door openers in garage, cordless telephones, remote controllers for home entertainment equipment, pagers, walkie-talkies, and mobile phones are all examples of mobile radio communication systems (Chen, 2013). However, the complexity, cost, performance and types of services offered by mobile systems are decreasing.  

Advantages of Wireless Technology for Computer Networks

Wi-Fi- Networks use the Radio Technologies to transmit and receive data at a high speed: IEEE 802.1lb, IEEE 802.1la and IEEE 802.1.lg Typical uses of wireless technologies include:

  • Wireless access point for a home or small business to the internet for more than one desktops, tablets, mobile phone and laptops.
  • Physically separate buildings such as mobile sites, farm buildings, business premises are linked via wireless networks.
  • Public places Hotspots for restaurants, parks, hotels etc (Pathan, 2016).
  • Wireless ISP infrastructure.
  • Remote access to equipments like device controllers or remote sensors such as irrigation systems, self closing doors, temperature sensors, CCTV.

RFID-  Electromagnetic fields to identify and track tags attached to objects automatically by using Radio-frequency identification (RFID).  RFID are attached to an object and are used to track and manage assets, people, electronic devices etc (Tan & Wu, 2013). These are usually affixed over cars, computers, mobiles etc. Used in various other applications such as: Access management, Tracking of goods, Tracking of person and animals, Contactless payment, Airport Baggage tracking logistics, Tracking bills and processes, Human Identification, Institutions and Complement to barcode.

Bluetooth- It is a kind of wireless technology that exchanges data over short distances by use of short-wavelengths from fixed or mobile devices building Personal Area Network (PAN) from wave length of 2.4 to 2.485 GHz. It is packet based protocol used in phones, laptops, tablets or any digital wireless device using the radio technology. Master BR/EDR Bluetooth devices can communicate with almost seven devices at a time. It is easy to access and user friendly.

WirelessHD/WiGig- The Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig) was a trade association that develops and promotes the adoption of multi-gigabit per second. Speeds up the wireless communication technology operating on unlicensed frequency band. This is used for wireless transmission of high-definition video content for consumer electronic products. The founder initially intended to use this technology for Consumer Electronic devices, PCs and portable devices (Khan & Pathan, 2013).

Satellite- Satellite wireless communication is artificial satellite relaying and amplifying radio telecommunication signals via transponders, creating communication channel within the different locations on the Earth by source transmitter and receiver. Telephonic application, televisions, Radio broadcasting, Radio transmission, Internet access and military access, some of the highly confidential information are transmitted using the satellite device for protection against hacking (Pathan, 2016).

Cellular- Cellular network or mobile networks are commonly used communication network system. The network is then distributed over land areas knows as cells, each served by at least one transceiver that is fixed in location or base stations. This station provides network coverage which is used for transmission of voice data and other information. Cellular network offers some desirable features like: larger capacity the single transmitter, mobile devices uses less power and larger coverage area than single terrestrial transmitter.

Wi-Fi-based wireless LAN- This links two or more devices within limited area like school, computer labs, office or at home.  This makes flexible for users to roam around within the local area coverage and still be connected to the wider internet. There are four types of wireless LANs: Infrastructure, Peer-to-Peer, Wireless Distribution system and Bridge.

Possible Wireless Technologies Used in Various Places

WMAN- This is a wireless broadband used in wider areas like stations, airport, railway stations, giving access with identified security pass codes of the mobile (Stallings, & Tahiliani, 2014).

  • Computer- First need is devices and wireless-capable computers like wireless access points or routers. By the use of dedicated hardware we can build our own access point or router.
  • Wireless card- Wireless expansion cards or wireless adapters can handle the processing of the data, which may be transmitted or received over some wireless networks. These card supports one or more of the 802.11 standards therefore has unusual characteristics regarding the used chipset, maximum output power, receive sensitivity, speed, etc.
  • Antenna- Wireless computers can use the antennas to improve reception and transmission quality. Each antenna has radiation of descriptive pattern, with Omni-directional (360°) which are commonly used. Antennas are directional or sectaries, with transmission and reception occurring in a narrower and more specific direction. Determination of the output power (EIRP) of a wireless device is by gain of an antenna with combination with output power of wireless cards (Jiang et al., 2015).
  • Pigtail- Pigtail is necessary to connect wireless card to an antenna. Some pigtails can connect directly to the antenna by the wireless card, while some others connect from another pigtail to the antenna, allowing distant placement of the antenna from the given wireless card. 
  • Software- Software helps in running the wireless hardware. Some drivers are needed for wireless cards and a network-capable operating system. Finding a link to the driver for wireless cards and various other operating systems.


Disadvantages of wireless communication are there still remains a safety issue regarding wireless devices since data loss is common during the transmission. Even the security of the data access is under attack by various unauthorized malicious cyber hackers and websites. And since there are no evidence regarding the health risk associated of using wireless devices in our daily life, it is wiser to be always aware of the concern and consequences that may cause damage (Pathan, 2016).

The advantages of Wireless network system hence provide Mobility, Ease of installation, Flexibility, Costing, Security, Reliability, Roaming and Speed. Since the simplicity and the cost effective way that connects to internet without the requirement of wire, the wireless connection has grown wide and hence its impacts in our daily life. Freedom of users is hence prior to any industry or organization for the development and well being of the population (Tan & Wu, 2013). So we conclude that use of wireless communication and some suitable protocols, installation and maintenance cost can be collectively reduced without degenerating the performance of the network system. And it provides the flexibility in the factory automation restructuring and planning.

As in recommendation the best way for higher development in this wireless network system is to bring 5G wireless network system in use and reassure the security and safety for the public. The drawbacks can be overcome by the wireless 5G network which enhances the speed and security of the network system. 5G technology is trending in availability in the market on 2020 at affordable cost and with more facilities. The security of the network system has to be better. The encryption technology has to be larger as compared to 3G or $G technology because. Now a day cyber attack and hacking is major issue and because of this transmission gets tough as there is always a chance of data loss in the process of transmission.

References

Chen, L. (2013). Wireless network security. New York, Higher Educational Press.

Chen, M., Zhang, Y., Hu, L., Taleb, T., & Sheng, Z. (2015). Cloud-based wireless network: Virtualized, reconfigurable, smart wireless network to enable 5G technologies. Mobile Networks and Applications, 20(6), 704-712.

De Judicibus, D., Leopardi, S., Modeo, L., & Pergola, N. (2013). U.S. Patent No. 8,352,360. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Hu, R. Q., & Qian, Y. (2014). An energy efficient and spectrum efficient wireless heterogeneous network framework for 5G systems. IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(5), 94-101.

Jiang, D., Xu, Z., Li, W., & Chen, Z. (2015). Network coding-based energy-efficient multicast routing algorithm for multi-hop wireless networks. Journal of Systems and Software, 104, 152-165.

Khan, S., & Pathan, A. K. (2013). Wireless networks and security. Berlin: Springer.

Liang, C., & Yu, F. R. (2015). Wireless network virtualization: A survey, some research issues and challenges. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 17(1), 358-380.

Pathan, A. S. K. (Ed.). (2016). Security of self-organizing networks: MANET, WSN, WMN, VANET. CRC press.

Pathan, A. S. K. (Ed.). (2016). Security of self-organizing networks: MANET, WSN, WMN, VANET. CRC press.

Stallings, W., & Tahiliani, M. P. (2014). Cryptography and network security: principles and practice (Vol. 6). London: Pearson.

Sutaria, J., Nanjundeswaran, S., Gustafson, B., & Van Gent, R. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 8,831,561. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Tan, C. C., & Wu, J. (2013). Security in RFID networks and communications. In Wireless Network Security (pp. 247-267). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

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