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Institutions for the Management of the Biodiversity

Discuss about the Conservation of Bio Diversity.

Bio diversity is a term that is widely used all our life and demands our special attention. It is very important to conserve the bio diversity. Australia is a country that has unique biodiversity by over 80 millions. It means that there are many animals and plants that are endemic. There are many animals and plants that are in sharp decline. There were many approaches to the conservation of the nature and various national parks were created along with various public reserves that were considered to be important for the conservation of biodiversity, soils and water. Managing the biodiversity is not an easy task rather it is a very complex task. The biodiversity pervades our daily life. There are different services provided by the biodiversity that are not associated with the natural world in a close manner that includes the medicines and the other high technologies. There are various processes that often threaten the processes of the biodiversity so it is very important to distinguish among the main or actual  processes that threatens the biodiversity and the activities that are associated with the use of the land. There are various challenges that are being faced for the conservation of the biodiversity. Some of the challenges for the conservation of the biodiversity are:

  • The recognition of the functional role and its accountability for providing the ecosystem services that is responsible for supporting use of the land that ranges from the production of the agriculture to the conservation of the nature.
  • Engagement of the private landlords in successful way and the coastal environments where there are various locations of the fragmented and vulnerable ecosystem.
  • The roles of the different tiers of the government shall be clarified along with the management of the different scales.
  • The biodiversity shall be integrated across various land tenures and the objectives of the management shall be integrated that includes weed catchment, pest catchment and management of the catchment.

By institutions it is meant the ways in which we the humans are responsible for organizing ourselves.  The institutions are basically made up of the formal constraints that includes the laws, rules and the constitutions, the informal constraints that includes the conventions, the norms of the behavior and the self imposed code of the conduct that further includes the enforcement characteristics. The institutions are further responsible for shaping the incentives in the human exchange no matter whether they are political, economical or social. There are different institutions like the property rights under which the people are responsible for controlling their use of environment and the behavior towards each other. There are various institutions available for the conservation of the biodiversity along with different options that can be implemented from time to time.  There is a profound effect of the institutions on the ways in which there is the management of the native vegetation. (Cent J M. C., 2013)Some of the policy options that are available for the conservation of the conservation of the biodiversity are:

For the proper coordination of the responses of the management to the conservation of the biodiversity there is an adoption of the framework of the conservation management network. (Cent J, 2007)Under this option there are various tasks that are being undertaken some of the tasks included under this option are:

Policy Option 1: Integration of the Approaches for the Conservation of the Biodiversity

The various policies are put in to place so that it is made sure that there is integration of the biodiversity values and the management of the natural resources.

Various regional data bases are included so that the status and the conservation efforts that exist are recorded for managing the ecosystems that are of prime importance.

Various linkages are made so that it is made sure that different conservation priorities are developed on the scientific basis. (Bell S, 2011) 

There is a clear responsibility that is given to the regional councils for planning the conservation of the biodiversity in a strategic manner. This approach requires the increased commitment from the various spheres of the government over the 3-5 years. (Australian Government, 2007)

It is required on the urgent basis that the capacity of the regions is build successfully for the integration of the management of the biodiversity in to the existing objectives of the natural resources.

The land clearing rates shall be monitored by the central government across the country so that it helps in guiding the future policy development in the area.

There are various incentives that help in building the institutional capacity  that are required for giving the access to the regional and the district council for building the full suite of the tools that are required for achieving the various outcomes that are established in the strategy of the biodiversity.

Key stakeholders in the various sectors that are responsible for the management of the issue of the conservation of the biodiversity. (Australin Governemnt, 2001)

The approaches for the management of the natural resources can be better categorized according to the kind of the stakeholders. (Daley SS, 2004) The ownership of the stakeholders can be made according to the below mentioned points:

Private property

The property of the state

The property that has open access or is a non property

The hybrid property

The property that is the common property

Of the nonprofit organization that was established in the United States for the conservation of the biodiversity is the Nature Conservancy. (ANZECC, 2000)There are various nontraditional market based solutions that are being used by the Nature Conservancy so that it can protect the land that has the high conservation value. The main mission of the Nature Conservancy is to the preservation of the animals, plants and the natural communities that are responsible for the representation of the diversity of the life on the earth by protecting the water and the land that is needed for the survival. There is more than 9 million acres of land that is protected by the Nature Conservancy. The primary importance under the Nature Conservancy is given on the development of the partnerships with the various landlords, academic institutions, businesses and the government. (Binning, 2000)

Policy Option 2: Clarification of the Roles and Responsibilities

The biodiversity strategy of the Australia and the Bio-What report has been addressing the strategic issues that are required to be addressed for the improvement of the biodiversity management. (Binning C. E., 2000)Though the key gaps remains in the documentation of the tools that are available for the implementation that helps in engaging the broader community in the biodiversity conservation and the landlords.

There are basically three categories in which the toolbox is divided in. The three categories include:

  • People – these are basically those tools that are used for motivating and retaining the  landholders’ support for the programmes of the vegetation (Daily, 2000)
  • Security – these are the voluntary , legal and regulatory instruments that are used in the property rights for providing secure and adaptive management of the vegetation; and
  • Finance – these are basically those incentives that are provided for sharing the costs of managing vegetation. This process is mirrored in policy design where there is considerable evidence that policy that harness the synergies between: educational (people), regulatory (security) and economic incentives (finance). These are likely to be more effective both in terms of cost and environmental outcome (Farrier, 1995; (De Snoo GR, 2013) Young et.al, 1996; OECD, 1996, Binning and Young, 1997a). (Commission, 2013)For example, lawyers and planners tend to prefer regulation and land-use planning, economists incentive instruments, and social scientists education and participatory processes. A critical management issue in developing successful implementation strategies is to bring these differing perspectives together and to seek out complementarily. (Farmer JR, 2011)

There has been various approaches in the past by the nature conservation that has main focus on the management and the creation of the national parks and various other public reserves for he protection of the different areas of land, soil, water and biodiversity conservation. The conservation of the bio diversity demands more from the various sectors of the community. Some of the challenges that are identifies includes the following:

The recognition of the accounting and the functional roles of the biodiversity for providing the services of the ecosystem.

The clarification of the different tiers of the government and the management across the various scales.

The successful engagement of the private landlords.

All these key challenges were acknowledged in the Bio Diversity strategy of Australia. Though there are various new approaches that can also be adopted. There were various views taken from different officials and it was at last concluded that the protection is necessary but it is not sufficient. So it is required that there are on ground programmes that has the main target on rewarding the land managers who are involved in managing the indigenous biodiversity in an active manner. 

For the successful conservation of the biodiversity the coordinated efforts is required from all the scales of the management. There are various broad objectives that are set and defined at the national scale. These broad objectives are interpreted at the regional and the local scale The regional planning has to manage and the balance the need for the scientific assessment . however there are a number of key challenges that often remain:

Coordination across the spheres of the government: It is very difficult to develop a single model that is responsible for the clarification of the clarification of the responsibilities and the roles of the tiers of the government.

Engagement of the non government sector: it is very difficult to engage the non government sector there are various landlords and non land lords that are being engaged by the QEII trust.

Policy Option 3: Building of the Various Institutional Capacity

Clarification of regulations: The responsibilities of the landlords are very uncertain in the protection and the conservation of the.  It is required that there shall be a careful balance between the voluntary partnership of the landlords and the regulation of the landlords. 

The recommendations for the successful management of the key management issues are as follows:

Providing the development co-operation support for the improvement of the natural resource management

There shall be support for the sound development of the regulation and effective institutions that helps in ensuring poor people land rights to the natural resources.

The strategic environmental assessments shall be promoted

The poor shall be empowered by increasing the access of the information and the transparency of the poor and strengthening the accountability along with this the local organizational capacity shall be supported.

The policy coherence shall be enhanced for the development

The pro-poor multilateral environmental agreements shall be negotiated

Conclusion

At last it can be concluded that the conservation of the biodiversity is of crucial importance and there shall be steps taken by the various institutions from time to time for the same. Though there are various challenges that are being faced up by the institutions while conserving the biodiversity but proper steps shall be taken to overcome those challenges and making the conservation of the biodiversity easy.

ANZECC. (2000). National Framework for the Management and Monitoring of Australia’s. Environment Australia .

Australian Government. (2007, Feburary). Industry.gov.on. Retrieved September 30, 2016, from https://www.industry.gov.au/resource/Documents/LPSDP/LPSDP-BiodiversityHandbook.pdf

Australin Governemnt. (2001). Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Biological Diversity Advisory Committee.

Bell S, R. H.-J. (2011). Volunteers on the political anvil: citizenship and volunteer biodiversity monitoring in three post-communist countries. Environ Plan , C 29:170–185.

Binning, C. E. (2000). Decision Points for Biodiversity: Partnerships and options for implementing the Lower Hunter and Central Coast Regional BiodiversityStrategy. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology .

Binning, C. E. (2014). Mondaq.com. Retrieved september 30, 2016, from https://www.treasury.govt.nz/publications/research-policy/wp/2000/00-26/twp00-26.pdf

Binning, C. E. (2000). The role of Non-Government Sector in Landscape. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology Working Paper .

Cent J, K. H.-J. (2007). Who is responsible for Natura 2000 in Poland? A potential role of NGOs in establishing the program me. 6:422–435.

Cent J, M. C. (2013). Roles and impacts of NGOs in Natura 2000 implementation in Hungary and Poland. Environ Conserv , 40(2):119–128.

Commission, E. (2013). Natura 2000 network. Retrieved September 30, 2016, from IOP European Commission: Environment.: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/

Daily, G. a. (2000). Seeking the great transition.

Daley SS, C. D. (2004). Landowner attitudes regarding wildlife management on private land in North Carolina. Wildl Soc B , 32(1):209–219.

De Snoo GR, H. I. (2013). Towards effective nature conservation on farmland: making farmers matter. . Conserv Lett 6:66–72.

Farmer JR, K. D. (2011). Motivations influencing the adoption of conservation easements. Conserv Biol , 25(4):827–834.

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