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Person Organization Fit

Discuss about the Corporate Brand Perception of Employees.

Researchers on human resource have always argued about hiring a successful individual. A successful individual is required a union of skills, experience, technical knowledge, candidate’s ability etc. But it also depends upon a close suit of personal values of candidate and culture of organization. Currently, organizations are using the help of person job fit theory to hire a person by ignoring the fact of person organization fit. This study is conducted to know the impact of person organization fit on success of organization and employee both. Many factors influence the person organization fit of an individual or candidate (McCulloch and Turban, 2007).

The first task is revealing about the person organization fit that what is person-organization fit and how does it influence an employer to hire or reject an individual. Second task is describing about the organization phase that how person organization fit influence the organization and how it drives an organization on the path of success. Third task is explaining about Individual phase that how this fit is beneficial for an individual.

Fourth task is describing some ways through which person organization fit can be effectively managed by an organization and individual for their benefit which will help both the parties to drive on a path of success (Newstrom, 2010). Last task is defining about a personal reflection which is concluded by doing a research on Person Organization fit.

Person organization fit is defined as an attachment between employee and his organization. The attachment occurs when either organization or an individual share the same goals and try to achieve that. Person organization fit comes in existence for an individual when all the needs of employee are fulfilled by the organization, individual also try to use his skills and talent for organizations to achieve the goals. Needs is described in terms of goal, value, desire, preferences, interest, ability, experience and education of employees (Nikolaou, 2003).

Individual’s personality, values and goals are associated with organization’s goals, objective and strategy. Values of people are the main attribute to fit them in any organization. In work context, values are known as work values (O”Reilly and Pfeffer, 2000). Work values are defined as work security, work benefit and work success. There are 3 kinds of work values in an organization i.e. cognitive, affective and behavioural. Cognitive work values are related to belief system, affective work values are related to feeling, emotions and relationship at workplace and behavioural work values have a relation with behaviour of the individual.

Currently, all the organizations in the industry are struggling with competition globally. Major expenses of an organization are labour cost nowadays. Organizations must take a step towards reducing this cost (Carless, 2005). Reducing employee turnover and increase the productivity can be effective for the organization. Finding employees who fits perfectly in the culture of organization are quite difficult.

There is an essential dimension of fit in both the organization and the individual. Individual finds himself fit in such an organization where his unconscious idea of social relationship, leadership and authority fit. When an individual have a great fit feel in him-self towards the organization and its activities then performance of individual get enhance and employee turnover get less (Van, De Pater and Van, 2007). The importance of Person organization fit for an organization is indicated by a great relationship of organization and people and its turnover. Organization faces a changing and dynamic environment on a regular basis and hence, it required such employees who can change their task easily and feel comfortable to change the teams. It is essential that the personality of an individual fits with the organization culture rather than fit into a specific job (Westerman and Cyr, 2004).

Organizational Phase

Currently, all the individuals in the industry are struggling because they are not able to find a job where they can satisfy themselves totally and give their full of efficiency to complete that work (Silverthorne, 2004). Majorly, individual don’t fit themselves according to the culture of the organization. Organizations must take a step towards train the employees according to their culture and while hiring an individual they must analyse on his person organization fit. P-O fit can be effective for the individual. Finding an organization where an employee can totally fit himself is quite difficult.

If an individual finds himself comfortable in the organization then he will do work with full of his confidence and ability. There is an essential dimension of fit in both the organization and the individual. Individual finds himself fit in an organization where his unconscious idea of social relationship, leadership and authority fit when an individual have a great fit feel in him-self towards the organization and its activities then performance of individual get enhance (Robbins and Judge, 2009). The importance of Person organization fit for an Individual indicated by a great relationship of organization and people and regular promotion of individual, his satisfaction and confidence towards his job. An individual is facing a dynamic environment and thus they require an organization where they can complete their task easily and make themselves comfortable towards their work values and organization. So it is essential that the personality of an individual fits with the organization culture rather than fit into a specific job.

The main aspect of P-O is that how an individual and organization choose each other. Fit is important for organization when economic condition and market condition is reverse still employees retain in the organization and it is important for individual when organization is cutting the length of its employees still company don’t fire that individual (Allen,1985).

Hiring Process and employee selection:

While hiring a candidate, human resource team must ensure that the employees have such potential which he can use in fitting himself with organization (Autry and Wheeler, 2005). Whereas candidate must ensure that he can fit in this organization culture.

Communication while recruiting the employee:

From the starting of process of recruiting till the selection process, employer as well as employee must pay attention on communicating the work and organizational values. This will help to both the parties in sharing a fit at the time of work (Yaniv and Farkas, 2005).

Socialization:

This phase starts when candidate join the organization. This time he might interfere in the organization’s culture and value, thus organization must provide a proper training to individual. This will help the organization in reducing the labour cost and individual in satisfying himself.

Intervening Culture:

Sometimes people don’t fit in organization’s culture but they can use their talent and skills to fit in organization. Removal of misfit is necessary as this will help the employee to retain in the organization.

Comprehensive training:

A good training programme helps organization as well as employee to get a great success. If employee gets train perfectly, he will show his confidence towards his job and organization as well as an organization will get a loyal employer with efficient and effective working.

Individual Phase

“Ideal” and “actual” measurement of organization value and culture:

Ideal values are those values which an employee has about the organization and actual values are the real value of an organization. The difference between ideal and actual values shows a fit of person and organization (Kilmann, Saxton and Serpa, 1985).

Career planning of an employee is essential process for an individual. An employee is able to achieve his planned career path when he share a good fit with his organization. Many HR tools can be used by the organization to achieve person organization fit such as recruitment, selection and socialization process followed by career development (Judge and Krist, 2004). In next century, only those organizations will be able to survive who negotiates the careers of its employees.

Maintain diversity in organization:

Every organization is divided into many groups. Groups are divided in an organization according to job profile, work culture or department. Diversity impacts positively on person organization fit (Garavan, 2007). As employee feels better in the group where he can understand every work well and thus the labour turnover get reduce.

Role of a leader:

A leader is the one who lead his entire group member perfectly and motivate them to complete their task. An employee working under a leader feel more motivated, committed towards his work and organization. Leader makes an employee a loyal employee.

Focus on an employee’s work value and organization’s culture and value help both the parties in influencing each other. If both the values fit with each other, it becomes easier for the organization to train and retain the employee for a longer period and for the individual it becomes easy to settle down in that organization and work with full of his efficiency (Kilmann, 2001).

As both individual and employee share same values then it becomes easier for both of them to achieve the employee and organization goal (Castka,  Bamber, Sharp and Belohoubek, 2001). Every employee have some goals as well as organization, when both of them share some common goals and objectives, then their work, efforts become more efficient and effective and hence they can easily achieve the goal and objective.

After doing a study on this theory with the help of many journals, articles, published articles, newspaper and theories I can conclude that Person Organization fit is quite complex and important in today’s environment. Organizations and individuals are facing a changing and dynamic situation in environment globally. Where organizations require employees who can fit with any group or task as well as individual need an organization where they can use their ideas and energy with full of their efficiency and effectively (Li, 2006). For this I found that it is quite important that the personality of individual fit in the organization and organization culture can adopt new employees with some innovation and new ideas. The importance of Person organization fit for individual and organization indicated a significant relationship between both the parties. Person organization fit impacts on organization as well as individual (James, 2003).

Ways of managing P-O fit effectively

I found this study very useful for a person to understand the value of person organization fit in organization as well as individual point of view. Managing P-O fit effectively and efficiently through some HR technique like recruitment, selection, training, socialization etc drive a higher degree of P-O fit (Gibson And et al, 2003). This P-O fit helps an organization in future as a great relationship among organization and its employees.


While doing a study on an organization I found that a great cultural and training conducted by the trainer in an organization helps individual to get more attached with organization and its culture as this training helps him to understand the organization, its people, its working values, culture etc. The more attached life, an organization and an individual live, the more they become loyal to each other. Person organization fit is little bit complex as most of the organizations and employees don’t think much about it (Tepeci and Bartlett, 2002). They think that person job fit is more important than person organization fit because at the end they just have to focus on their task but if a person is not satisfied with his organization and its culture, then he can never perform well as well as organization also drives through a loss because employee turnover get increases.

Person organization fit is important for Employee because it helps him to achieve his personal and career growth and it is beneficial for organization because it helps an organization to retain the best employees and reduce the labour cost (Verquer, Beehr and Wagner, 2002). Person organization fit occurs only that time when individual shares the same values, goals and objective with organization. If employee is not sharing the same, organization must provide some training to him to attach with the culture.

A good fit of person and organization is significant for both the parties. It drives both the parties on a path of success. Person organization fit improves the significant level of organization as well as employee. Thus it can be concluded that person organization fit plays an essential role in organization and employee’s life.

References:

Allen, R.F. (1985), “Four Phases for Bringing About Cultural Change”, in Gaining Control of the Corporate Culture, eds. R.H. Kilmann, M.J. Saxton, R. Serpa and Associates, Jossey-Bass Inc., San Fransisco.

Autry, C.W. and Wheeler, A.R. (2005), “Post-hire Human Resource Management Practices and Person-organization Fit: A Study of Blue-collar Employees?, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol. 17. No.1, pp. 58-75

Carless, S.A. (2005), “Person–job fit versus person–organization fit as predictors of organizational attraction and job acceptance intentions: A longitudinal study”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology Vol. 78, pp.411-429

Castka, P., Bamber, C.J., Sharp, J.M and Belohoubek,P. (2001), “Factors affecting successful implementation of high performance teams”, Team performance Management: An International Journal, Vol. 7 No. 7/8, pp. 123-134.

Garavan, T.N, (2007),” Using assessment centre performance to predict subjective person-organization (P-O) fit: A longitudinal study of graduates”, Journal of Managerial Psychology Vol. 22 No. 2, 2007, pp. 150-167.

Gibson, J.L., Ivancevich, J.M., Donelly, J.H. and Konopaske, R. (2003), “Organizations: Behavior, Structure, Processes”, 11th ed., McHraw-Hill/Irwin, New York.

James, I.L. (2003), “Employees as stakeholders: an examination of person-organization fit and corporate social performance”, working paper, Claremont Graduate University.

Judge, T.A and Kristof-Brown,A. (2004), “Personality, Interactional Psychology, and Person-Organization Fit”, in Personality and Organizations, eds. B. Schneider and D.B. Smith, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey.

Kilmann, R.H., Saxton M.J. and Serpa R. (1985), “Five Key Issues in Understanding and Changing Culture”, in Gaining Control of the Corporate Culture, eds. R.H. Kilmann, M.J. Saxton, R. Serpa and Associates, JosseyBass Inc., San Fransisco.

Kilmann, R.J. (2001), “Quantum Organizations, a new paradigm for achieving Organizational Success and Personal Meaning”, Davies-Black Publishing, California.

Li, Ji (2006), 'The interactions between person-organization fit and leadership styles in Asian firms, an empirical testing', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 17 No. 10, pp. 1689 – 1706.

McCulloch, M.C and Turban, D.B. (2007), “Using Person–Organization Fit to Select Employees for HighTurnover Jobs”, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 63-71.

Newstrom, J.W. (2010). Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Wok. 13th Ed. McGraw-Hill Education (Asia). Singapore. 554p.

Nikolaou, I. (2003). “Fitting the person to the organization: examining the personality-job performance relationship from a new perspective”. Journal of Managerial Psychology Vol. 18 No. 7, 2003, pp. 639-648

 O”Reilly III, C.A. and Pfeffer, J. (2000), “Hidden Value: How Great Companies Achieve Extraordinary Results with Ordinary People”, Harvard Business School Press.

Robbins, S.P. and Judge, T.A. (2009). Organizational Behaviour. 13th Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 750ps.

Silverthorne, C. (2004), “The impact of organizational culture and person-organization fit on organizational commitment and job satisfaction in Taiwan” , The Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 25, No. 7, pp. 592-599.

Tepeci, M. and Bartlett, A. L.B. (2002), “The hospitality industry culture profile: a measure of individual values, organizational culture, and person–organization fit as predictors of job satisfaction and behavioral intentions”, Hospitality Management, Vol. 21. pp. 151-170.

Van Vianen, A.E.M., De Pater, I.E. and Van Dijk,F. (2007). “Work value fit and turnover intention: same-source or different-source fit”, Journal of Managerial Psychology,Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 188-202

Verquer, M.L., Beehr, T.A and Wagner, S.H. (2002), “A meta-analysis of relations between person–organization fit and work attitudes”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 63, pp. 473–489

Westerman, J.W. and Cyr, L.A. (2004), “An Integrative Analysis of Person–Organization Fit Theories”, International Journal of selection and assessment, Vol. 12, No.3, pp.252-261.

Yaniv, E. and Farkas, F. (2005) 'The impact of person-organization fit on the corporate brand perception of employees and of customers', Journal of Change Management, Vol. 5 No. 4, pp. 447 – 461.

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