The construction industry requires some order to make sure that all the parties and activities are taken according to certain order. This ensures that the industry is safe for all the personnel working on it. In Australia, the constitution does not mention anything concerning the building control or regulation and therefore these laws fall under the state or territory matters. The hierarchy of these regulations fall under three main umbrellas which involve the Building Act 1993 at the top, followed by the Building Regulation 2006 and lastly the Technical Provision also known as the Building Code of Australia (BCA), Australian Standard (Almeida, McKan, & Peter, 2008).
The materials delivered on construction sites therefore have to pass the regulation tests and therefore be allowed to be used on the sites. In addition, building methods has to meet some specific standards in order to be used in the industry. In Victoria, the BCA regulations are applied in direction with the Building Act 1993 and Building Regulation 2006. The regulations are provided for a duration of ten years where they are then allowed to be reviewed and updated. The laws enhance the monitoring and evaluating the systems through which the building methods are conducted and the materials delivery on sites. All the states and territories in Australia are able to use the three levels of laws since the constitution, which is the governing arm does not provide any direction on the same.
2. explain the system of “Building Control”, and the role of the Building Surveyor, when assessing building materials used in construction.
The building control is simply set of rules which are able to specify the standard for which the construction materials and methods have to meet. In Australia, the Building Code of Australia (BCA) and National Construction Code, (NCC) are able to enhance the building rules in construction industry. Under the rules, the NCC is able to provide the set of technical requirements for the designs and construction of the buildings and other structures. The rules have to align with the relevant legislation in the different states in Australia (Almeida, McKan, & Peter, 2008).
On the other hand, BCA is able to contain the technical provisions for the designs and construction of the buildings where it covers all matters concerning the structures, fire resistance, services and equipment, the access and energy efficiency. This legislation is able to set the minimum level of standard which the building has to meet.
The building surveyors are well conversant with the building codes, acts and regulations and therefore are able to play a key role in the kind of material delivered on site. In addition, the building surveyors are qualified building inspectors and therefore are able to play a key roles in the inspection of the materials being used on site. Moreover, the building surveyors are able to certify the plans and structures in accordance with the relevant legislation and therefore determine the materials to be used.
3. Assessment Methods under the NCC used to determine compliance of D-T-S, and Performance Solutions.
There are four key assessment methods, which are used by the NCC. These methods can either be used individually or combined together in order to bring out the performance requirement which is needed in the construction industry. The four major assessment methods include the evidence of sustainability, verification methods, comparison with the DTS provisions and Expert judgement. The performance solution is unique at each individual stage and achievement of the performance solution is critical using these methods.
The innovative design and technology in combination with one or more of these methods are mostly encouraged by the NCC to enhance compliance with the DTS. The Deemed-to-Satisfy Solution is a unique process which has to be followed at particular times in doing activities. The NCC recommends the above process to enhance the compliance with material quality, its components, design factors as well as the construction methods.
4. describe what is a building classification with respect to building compliance in accordance with the NCC, which is to be illustrated by examples.
The building classification according to NCC is able to define the safety of new and existing buildings in Australia. The classification is able to range from Class 1 to Class 10. The functions and use of the buildings are in most cases used to define the classification under the NCC rules. In addition, the classification of the buildings is done to represent the national perspective and not the state or territorial one. A class 1 building consists of houses which are residential in nature and represent the personal dwellings.
Terrace houses and townhouses are some of the major examples of class 1 buildings. Class 2 on the other hand represents the apartment buildings. Multi-storey buildings and sometimes-single storey buildings where people are able to. Live above others are classified under this category. Class 3 consists of other residential houses, which are not classified, in class 1 and 2. Examples of these houses include guest houses, boarding houses and hostels. Class 4 consists of a part of a building, which is a dwelling and it is within a building, which is non-residential in nature. Example of these includes caretaker's rooms. Class 5 consists of offices used for commercial and professional purposes. These include houses for lawyers, architects and governmental agencies.
2.0 Geographic conditions
2.0.1 Climate Zones, and how it affects the Energy Efficiency depending on materials
The climate zones have become a key element in provision of energy considering the presence of green energy in the world. The NCC under BCA is therefore concerned with the maintaining of the sustainability of the energy efficiency and therefore enhancing the green energy. The climatic zone in Australia is able to enhance the driving of energy efficiency through the measures such as solar energy, wind and other renewable sources. In addition, the uses of Energy Sustainable Designs on energy are highly used in courtesy of NCC.
This ensures that different people are able to comply with different rules which focus on energy efficiency through the use of user friendly and climate friendly measures. In addition, mostly in Victoria, the energy measures are designed to ensure that they are able to reduce the carbon emissions and therefore increasing the energy efficiency (Brannigan, F. L., & Corbett, 2009). The NCC requires the energy efficiency in order to reduce the demand of heating and cooling. The NCC have recommended the use of the solar energy as part of the building industry.
2.0.2 Wind Regions, discussing wind ratings, and effects on buildings
Wind has been a key element when it comes to building and it must be considered well to ensure that their designs are perfect. The winds on different locations in Australia have to be classified according to their shape, scale and vibration characteristics. Strong winds do happen in Australia and therefore the compliance to minimize their effects is key. The building structures must therefore be strong enough in order to be counter the effects of these winds (Al Tithecott, 2003). The horizontal winds are major types of winds which have greater impacts in the buildings and therefore can lead to the failure of the buildings.
The wind pressure distribution on the buildings must be considered and therefore enhance the improvement of the building safety. The NCC is critical and key in ensuring that these measures are able to meet the different requirements of the wind. Moreover, the NCC also has provisions on the referencing height and velocity pressure which the wind is able to flow at the different buildings (Australian Building Codes Board, 2005). Higher wind ratings are able to enhance high designs to ensure that the buildings are able to withstand the pressures and the forces. The high rating is able to show an increase in the loading which is likely to lead to the failure. NCC has the recommendations for proper designs, which have to be followed, and the types of structures are able to dictate the wind factor to be considered.
The earthquake is able to affect the ground conditions for the building by either displacing or tilting their initial positions. This is able to affect the transferred of loadings on the buildings. Change of the topographic conditions is therefore key and therefore NCC is able to define proper designs in which the earthquake factor is taken care of. The considerations are able to ensure that the changes whenever the earthquake occur are taken care and the failure does not happen.
Moreover, among the states in Australia, the earthquake factors is able to vary (Australian Building Codes Board, 2005). This means that the different factors have to be considered independently to ensure that safety and economical factors are adhered to. The NCC standard always requires that every building must have the earthquake element and this ensures that the safety of the people is enhanced.
2.0.4 Termite Risk Management
The NCC (formerly the BCA) has regulated termite risk management through Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions since 1990, and through the structural Performance Requirements since BCA 1996. Prior to 1990 termite management was regulated individually by each state and territory (Al Tithecott, 2003). The termite risk management provisions are located in NCC Volume One, Part B Structure, and Volume 2, Part 3.1.3 Termite Risk Management. Deemed-to-Satisfy Provisions are available for termite risk management; however, the requirements in both Volumes are heavily reliant on the application of AS 3660.1.
There are also a number of termite management systems that have been accredited under the CodeMark Certification Scheme. In 2012, concerns were raised by industry regarding the use of the term “termite barrier” in AS 3660.1 and the NCC. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of certification of termite systems due to an absence of performance criteria in AS 3660.3.
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