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Replacing hubs with switches

Discuss about the Data Deduplication for Data Optimization.

The solution proposed by the junior team member of configuring some of the network switch with half duplex can solve the current situation of running out of buffer is invalid. This is because the half duplex connection uses a single pair of cable for transmission of data and thus the speed of transmission is much slow compared to the full duplex connection. This would thus does not solve the problem of running out of buffer and increase the congestion in the network.

The replacement of the hubs with switch can resolve the issue of buffer overflow and the Ethernet switches can be used for bridging Ethernet frames.

This would be an upgrade of the network because the hubs are obsolete and in the hubs the same data packets are broadcasted to the connected host and thus it increases the congestion in the network. The deployment of the switch reduces the congestion in the network and the ports that are not in use can be disabled for reducing the amount of traffic generated from the system.

  1. The mechanism that is implemented for the high layer protocol for creation of a reliable delivery and policy and determine their use for removal of the congestion in the network are as follows:
  • Application of Leaky Bucket algorithm and
  • Application of Token bucket algorithm
  • The Network Address Translation (NAT) is the procedure where a system gadget, more often than not a firewall, allots an open deliver to a PC (or gathering of PCs) inside a private system. The fundamental utilization of NAT is to restrain the quantity of open IP tends to an association or organization must use, for both economy and security purposes. The two problems caused by the approach are as follows:

The most widely recognized type of system interpretation includes an extensive private system utilizing addresses in a private range (10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255, 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255, or 192.168.0 0 to 192.168.255.255). The private tending to plot functions admirably for PCs that lone need to get to assets inside the system, similar to workstations requiring access to document servers and printers. Switches inside the private system can course activity between private locations with no inconvenience. Notwithstanding, to get to assets outside the system, similar to the Internet, these PCs need to have an open address with the end goal for reactions to their solicitations to come back to them. This is the place NAT becomes possibly the most important factor.

It requires special access for the accessing the outside network and a special access is required for accessing the external IP address using the network address translation. A firewall can act as the intermediary and can be used for controlling the session in both direction.

i. The distance vector routing and the linked state routing is used in a network depending on the type of the network. The two routing protocols differs from each other and in case of the distance vector routing the routing table of the router is shared with the neighboring router such that the neighboring router have all the information of the neighbor. In case of the linked state routing protocol the routing table is shared with all the routers connected in the network such that for sending a data packet the shortest path is chosen. The distance vector routing can be easily applied in the network because it is easy to implement and EIGRP, RIP protocol is used for configuring the router with distance vector router while the link state routing uses the OSPF and ISIS protocol for configuration. The distance vector routing and slow for adoption of change in the network because the addition of a new router required configuration of the old router and the neighbor information is required to be added. The link state routing can be applied in the network but more memory and processing power is required for it. It reduces the problem associated with the distance vector routing and adopt the change in the network efficiently. Thus for the scenario where the links are growing up and down the link state routing is required to be applied for the management of the network.

Using NAT

For a smaller network the distance vector routing is ideal and because it does not require much computational power or memory of the router to process the request and can be applied easily in the router. It helps in faster convergence and adds less load in the network because the broadcasting of the router table is limited to the next node and there is no need to pass the routing table to the whole network. No extra traffic is created in the network and reduces the risk of congestion.

The DHCP can be used for addition of the IP address automatically to the nodes connected in the network. The DHCPv4 is used for allocation of the IPv4 address in the network but there is limit of 4.3 Billion IP address and DHCPv6 can also be used for allocation of the IPv6 address in the network and reduce the limit of accommodation of the nodes connected in the network. 300 trillion address can be provided to the nodes and it is a simplistic asset for management of the network resources. The two advantage of the DHCP feature is that it helps in IP address management and it also helps to maintain a centralized network.

The DHCP is useful for implementation of DHCpv6 on the server and it can be used for allocation of IPv6 address to the nodes connected in the network. A dual stack network can be configured with the implementation of the DHCPv6 on the server. The network that uses the IPv6 can thus communicate with the old devices for transferring of the data packets in the network.

The ARP Address resolution protocol is used as a crucial component in the IP networking for any of the operating system. The ARP is used for linking the Ethernet address with the hardware address and without the ARP the communication cannot be done between the nodes connected in the network. The ARP entries are used for collection of the ARP cache and is created during resolving the hostname. The cache entries remains in the system until the entry timeouts and issuing bad entries can cause problem for establishment of the internet connection and loading of the webpage management.

Address:   92.168.75.14          01011100.10101000.01 001011.00001110

Netmask:   255.255.192.0 = 18    11111111.11111111.11 000000.00000000

Wildcard:  0.0.63.255            00000000.00000000.00 111111.11111111

=>

Network:   92.168.64.0/18        01011100.10101000.01 000000.00000000 (Class A)

Broadcast: 92.168.127.255        01011100.10101000.01 111111.11111111

HostMin:   92.168.64.1           01011100.10101000.01 000000.00000001

HostMax:   92.168.127.254        01011100.10101000.01 111111.11111110

DHCP for IP address allocation

Hosts/Net: 16382    

PC B  

Address:   192.168.58.43         11000000.10101000.0 0111010.00101011

Netmask:   255.255.128.0 = 17    11111111.11111111.1 0000000.00000000

Wildcard:  0.0.127.255           00000000.00000000.0 1111111.11111111

=>

Network:   192.168.0.0/17        11000000.10101000.0 0000000.00000000 (Class C)

Broadcast: 192.168.127.255       11000000.10101000.0 1111111.11111111

HostMin:   192.168.0.1           11000000.10101000.0 0000000.00000001

HostMax:   192.168.127.254       11000000.10101000.0 1111111.11111110

Hosts/Net: 32766                 (Private Internet)

Both the PCs A and B are connected in different network

If both the PCs are configured with a default gateway of 192.168.127.254 then PC A will be able to ping PC B and vice versa. An Echo request is sent to PC B from PC A and the PC A uses the ARP table of the router to find the Ethernet or the MAC address of the PC and respond to the request for receiving the Echo and broadcast the Ethernet address in the network. The Ethernet address of PC B is thus added to the ARP table and it receives a reply from the PC B.

i. After completion of RIP configuration on two routers and configuring a loopback address in the router it is found that the R3 ping 172.16.1.1 path would be taken by the router for generating five echo request and five echo response.

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'Nerd techy',. (2016). Best Cable Modem WiFi Router Combo Reviews 2016 - Nerd Techy. Nerd Techy. Retrieved 17 September 2016, from https://nerdtechy.com/best-cable-modem-wifi-router-combo-reviews-2016

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[Accessed 17 July 2024].

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