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Emerging issues and challenges

Discuss about the Decoding Cultural and Regional Planning.

The planning systems in the use of the urban land have emerged in numerous forms around the world. Some basic procedures and elements are common within the countries, in an organized system for the development and regulation of the land use through the legal statue.  The process of the organized planning can be coordinated differently, but the complementary potential objectives are associated with the process of development, such as the necessity to make available the new infrastructure and housing, and the necessity to look after the environment (Hedgcock, & Pidalà, 2014).

The regional and urban planning in Australia plays a vital role to ensure the prospect sustainability of the cities in Australia. Australia is the highly urbanized society in the globe. The continued growth in the population has resulted in an increasing pressure on the Australian city's infrastructure, such as the roadways, energy, public transport, water and air systems surrounded by the urban environment (Hedgcock, & Pidalà, 2014).

The  urban and the regional planning  system in Australia is based on the exclusive grouping of the institutional planning that offers  for; the simple and strong legislation ; the centralised legislative provincial planning, facilitation and control of the subdivisional in local planning ; financial support for improvements in the metropolitan cities; the  legislative authority  for exercise powers, to assign resources and also to endow with the advice that is based on the professional support of department  State Government (Krueger, & Buckingham, 2012).

The changes in the Demographics and the growing population: The growth in the population and changes in the demographic are one of the key considerations in the regional and urban planning of Australia. The data collected indicates that around 75 percent of the Australians lives in 17 different cities with exceeding the population size of more than 100,000. Five different largest cities Melbourne, Sydney, Perth, Adelaide, and Perth consist of the majority population of the urban Australians (Hedgcock, & Pidalà, 2014). Changes in the demographic such as the rise in the smaller households, population ageing resulted into the increased demand of the housing in the urban planning (de Vries, 2010). The few metropolitan areas are also experiencing shortages in housing, predominantly refer to the terms of reasonable or within means accommodation. Pressure is also placed on the affordability of the housing with only single income. The cities are efficiently connecting with the people, business, knowledge, and the markets, and how efficiently the human capital and the economic is being utilized have a direct impact on the regional and urban areas economic performance also on the ability to contribute to the productive growth nationwide (Krueger, & Buckingham, 2012).

Frameworks for territorial and state planning policies and legislation in Australia

Issues related to the environmental sustainability and to engage the individuals from the household scale up to the world level.  The growing trends of population, energy usage ,  waste management, transport emissions, rainfall patterns urban development, and tremendous weather events like heat waves, droughts, bushfires, severe storms and extensive flooding highlights the requirement for the increased focus on the sustainability in the areas of Australia (Krueger, & Buckingham, 2012). The global concerns regarding the ecological impact of urbanization and the connected pattern of consumerism, ranges from a loss of biodiversity through the changes in the climate, fortify calls for the effective and the stronger planning related to use of land in the urban growth. The rapid growth in the urban population results into an increased pressure on the environment through an increased demand for the natural resources and results in an increased production of the waste materials and pollution (de Vries, 2010). Hence, there should be a plan to reduce the emission of the carbon pollution generated by different resources consumed by the individuals and to adapt the process which is environmentally beneficial and to become resilient for the future schools, including the impacts of the changes in the climate (de Vries, 2010).

Systems related to the plan-making, planning appeals, and development assessment in the Australian territories and states (Miller, 2012). The undeviating contribution of the governments in the regional and the urban development is repeatedly characterized as the positive planning form in distinction with the passive role connected with the adaptable expansion sponsored by private segment (Zimmer, 2010). Nevertheless, the preponderance growth and change in the urban occurs ahead of the public segment, managing and regulating such processes for achieving the community outcomes that are positive and involves the active form of the development control (Miller, 2012).

Expansion of nationalized urban policy towards the City Strategy, desires to save or protect the sustainable, liveable and the productive prospect of the Australia. The Government and council of the Planning Ministers’ authorized the issue, purpose and system principles documented as the National Planning System Principles (Miller, 2012). Such declarations related to the urban and regional planning were joined and merged with the statement on the integrated land use and the transport planning. The urban and regional planning designing in a large way contributes to the wellbeing and the health of the community by sustaining the active living and reflexive opportunities of recreation,  social connectivity and public transport (Thompson, 2009).

Conclusion

Australia lacks the nationwide approach to regional and urban planning.The territories and state have evolved their personal eccentric planning systems, legislation, policies, and approaches. The frameworks help in developing the comparative overview of such systems and highlight the key differences and similarities (Thompson, 2009). To understand the various functioning system related to the planning in the Australian cities assists in transferring the better practices and knowledge between the jurisdictions. Such framework is based on the development of the broader policies and to establish a national agenda for the environmental planning and to promote the specific priorities, such as housing affordability or the ecologically sustainable growth (Thompson, 2009). The federal system of the Australian governance and the two territories and six states are having their own planning procedures and laws that results in the separate planning system and management related to the land use that includes the different departments of the administration that regulates and oversee the land use and the planning activities (Bohnet, & Smith, 2007). In Australia, there are numerous planning systems that independently operate with each other along the state based lines. The Australian government system and processes deal in a poor way with the interfacing and the interrelated issues that are in a great affect the operation and the development of the nation towns, cities, and regions (Zimmer, 2010). This also includes the regional and the urban economic planning and development, the supply of land for the urban expansion, housing provision, labour markets, and affordability. It also includes the smart and the strategic infrastructure, transportation, environmental resources, climate change management and financing (Zimmer, 2010).

Conclusion:

Urban and regional land use planning of Australia: weaknesses, strengths, and reform priorities. The Government of Australia is loyal to strengthen the Australia’s city's advantages and also to respond towards the emerging infrastructure, social changes and the environment. In the first release of the National Urban Policy, the government of Australia  established d the comprehensive framework related to the objectives, principles and goals which are committed and to apply the same in determining the future actions for the major cities of Australia that is the cities having population of more than 100,000 (de Vries, 2010). The Australian Government is devoted to making the constructive difference in the cities.

The strategic planning system of the regional and the urban planning of the Australian cities must focus on to provide the sequence, evidence-based and planned land release for meeting the housing requirements of the growing population and to keep the home affordable for the middle-class population. The planning system for the proper development needs balancing in the greenfield and infill development. Implementation of the credible plans for the reduction of the greenhouses gas emission through several initiatives such as the energy efficient measures, town planning changes, improvements in the infrastructure of the public transport building reform regulations and codes (Bohnet, & Smith, 2007).

The planning strengths are to adapt towards the climate change risk which is the inundation of the coastal and the other extreme events of the weather. Emphasize on the selected designs of the world in association with the architectural integrity. To upgrade the significant national infrastructure such as the intermodal connections, transport corridors, utility networks and communications (Bohnet, & Smith, 2007). Having the advice of the experts towards the implementation and objectives related to the planning system.

The Australian regional and Urban Planning helps in understanding the chronological origins of the development and nature miscellaneous current changes that both threatened and reshaped its creative purposes. The planning is presented as one form of the urban governance where the spatial guideline reflects such challenging claims as the social justice, worldwide economic transformation, economic growth, and the ecological sustainability (Bohnet, & Smith, 2007). 

References

Bohnet, I., & Smith, D. (2007). Planning future landscapes in the Wet Tropics of Australia: A social–ecological framework. Landscape And Urban Planning, 80(1-2), 137-152.

de Vries, J. (2010). Planning Cultures in Europe: Decoding Cultural Phenomena in Urban and Regional Planning. Regional Studies, 44(3), 386-387.

Hedgcock, D., & Pidalà, A. (2014). Education, practice and professionalism: a comparative history of the development of urban and regional planning in Italy and Australia. Planning Perspectives, 29(4), 527-542.

Krueger, r., & buckingham, S. (2012). Towards a ‘Consensual’ Urban Politics? Creative Planning, Urban Sustainability and Regional Development. International Journal Of Urban And Regional Research, 36(3), 486-503.

Miller, C. (2012). Planning Australia: An Overview of Urban and Regional Planning (Second Edition). Urban Policy And Research, 30(4), 463-465.

Thompson, S. (2009). Planning Australia An overview of urban and regional planning. Australian Planner, 46(1), 60-60.

Zimmer, A. (2010). Urban Political Ecology. Theoretical concepts, challenges, and suggested future directions. ERDKUNDE, 64(4), 343-354.

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