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Program and Curriculum: Definitions and Applications

Discuss about the Understand The Difference Between Program And Curriculum.

In most cases majority fail to understand the difference between program and curriculum. As a result, people tend to perceive that curriculum and program have the same meaning, which is not correct. The relationship that exist between curriculum and program makes it difficult for distinguish between the two concepts. Consequently, many times people use program in place of curriculum or the reverse, thus, giving new meaning of each term. In the same context, it is advisable that people should get clear meaning of both curriculum and program (Ozoli?š, 2013). For that reason, it will be easy for them to employ such terms in the right context. From this setting, it is detailed that both program and curriculum are used hand in conjunction to portray the intended meaning in the right way (Platz and Arellano, 2011). However, when the words are used individually in a single statement it is possible to use either the term in place of the other (Kellett. 2011). Therefore, this paper is tailored to discuss in detail the difference between program and curriculum and clarify the right context to use them by use of some examples

By looking at the definition and application of the two concepts, it is evidenced that curriculum and program have different meaning and applications. First, curriculum is detailed as the content offered to a student by the program (Epstein, 2016). The content that a program has to offer is determined externally by a department or body in charge and has the mandate to offer the program to students. For a program to evolve successfully without any form of glitches, it has to adapt to changes of curriculum brought about by the variation of demand and supply (PSC National Alliance. (2012). some curriculums are driven by the industry. Therefore, it implies that such content is designed not only for the knowledge gain but also for training professionals. Additionally, to bring up industry and ready students, a curriculum should be flexible, and accommodate the changes whenever they arise. Curriculum not only implies the hard copy materials that knowledge can be elicited but also how this knowledge is delivered to the learners (Sund and Wickman, 2011). Further, it shows how they are able to consume the knowledge. Basically, it is recommendable to state curriculum as a system that involves a collection of many courses assigned to serve a sole purpose. This system would have features, such as calendar and events.

Types of Curriculum Approach in Programs


On the other hand, a program is defined as a formality designed to deliver the training process within a prolonged period incorporating numerous ways of how learning is delivered such as online, custom texts or documents (Wyse, et al., 2014). A program can be used to accomplish either a fixed schedule or that which has been self-placed. Moreover, study programs are usually the threshold of a lucrative job with all the essential materials that come along with platform. According to the research conducted by Sund & Wickman (2011) it is proven that, in todays’ world, programs are just as much as the available opportunities in the market. However, the programs are fluid in the sense that the content they bear has to be modified to fit market requirements. Furthermore, in consideration of the regulation’s notion on program and curriculum, The National Regulation, often use the word program while Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) mostly applies curriculum.

Based on the discussion, it is easy to depict the differences between curriculum and program. Briefly in summary, a program is the various degree and diplomas available for study. Curriculum however is the way these particular programs are delivered as well as the content administered during the program period (Kellett. 2011). Correspondingly, it is arguably proven that a number of programs have been introduced in various learning institutions over the recent past years (Ikegami & Seyram Agbenyega, 2014). In the same viewpoint, curriculum on the existing programs has also been changed and new curriculums have also been established into the various programs. Therefore, having distinguished between the two notions, it is advisable to use each idea at its right context rather than applying the terms in place of the other.

Moreover, with the clear clarification of the differences between curriculum and program, the paper narrows down to discuss the program and various types of curriculum involved (Kellett. 2011). To fulfill the ascending need of a dynamic society, a comprehensive plan has to be put into place to accomplish the training program (?enay ?lik & Sar?, 2017). As it is already known, the plan is the curriculum, and it comes in different approaches and orientation to be discussed in this article. Any program could include a curriculum that is oriented as child-centered, knowledge oriented, and societal.


Furthermore, curriculum approach could be idealism whereby only ideas have any reality. Platz and Arellano (2011) argue that knowledge as a whole begins as a perception of categorized phenomena. Further, knowledge in itself is the system of ideas or wisdom of the past heroes. When a child is born, he or she learns from the environment around, but still go to school to sharpen the mind and become intellectually enlightened (Kluczniok, Anders, Sechtig & Rossbach, 2016). Another approach of curriculum among many others is realism. Correspondingly, it bases its arguments on the reality of the observation. On realism, it is believed that goodness is found in the laws of nature.

Learning Strategies and Enhancements in Programs

Services that are provided to the children during a program must employ accepted learning strategies. Such erudition schemes should ensure that knowledge and skills delivered through ways that appreciate learning context (Dockett and Einarsdottir. 2010). When children are growing, they develop needs and interests that should be addressed during learning program (Dee & Heineman (2016). In addition, a program should take into consideration individual difference. The Educational instructor is required to develop a program that reflects on the developing stages of a child.

To supplement, a curriculum should integrate the events that are experienced by the children in the learning environment. By doing so, the children’s education will be improved through interaction with environment (Sund & Wickman, 2011). To clarify, knowledge should not only mean transmission of facts but also construction of such validities. A structured education program fosters the learning outcomes. Therefore, it is believed that a well panned program enhances participation of pupils which in turn helps in learning new skill (Claessens & Garrett (2014). Similarly, it is necessary to pay attention to children and provide diverse opportunities to enable them to share their ideas. The objective of curriculum is to keep records of children’s experience and learning result (Wyse, et al., 2014).

The similarity between a program and a curriculum is that both use social interaction to establish the children’s knowledge. The learning program demands an educator to assist the learners to develop problem-solving skills in their daily activities (Sund and Wickman, 2011). The base of student’s interest guides the development of a program as a social ackground that brings participants together to share their experiences. According to Ozoli?š (2013), it is agreed that involvement of a teacher in a learning progresses, leads to optimistic results at the end of a learning program. In the same platform, socio-cultural diversity impacts curriculum development. The social constructivism theory postulates that for a positive learning outcome to be achieved, examination and discovery should be applied in a program. For that reason, learners should be taught to solve problems by use of trial and error strategy as proven by Wyse, Hayward, Livingston & Higgins (2014). Moreover, students should be allowed to present their ideas rather than averring facts. Since a learning program, involve the act of delivering content (Wyse, et al., 2014).


While implementing a program, teachers should embrace the idea of shared control. For instance, the content of the curriculum is effective when adults take part in playing (O’Connor, Blewitt, Nolan & Skouteris (2018). Additionally, it is necessary for an instructor to take part in conversation on the child’s activities. As a result, it will enable the child to create ideas and share them with confidence. The curriculum requires instructors to use statements that tend to encourage students to employ descriptive language. Supplementary, it enables the learners to reflect on their daily activities (PSC National Alliance, 2012). A program should allow children to learn from the experience of other learners through interaction (Hedefalk, Almqvist & Östman, 2015). The use of intentional teaching fosters student learning outcome. Curriculum should generate a conducive set up that provides sufficient learning materials.

Conclusion

In addition, the learning environment should create opportunities that enable children to make their own choices, creative thinking and apply problem solving strategies (Mihyeon, Cross, & Cross, 2017). Students should be given an opportunity to ask questions and be provided with models to enhance problem solving. A variety of activities can be involved in a program such as, singing, modelling, painting and use of technology that assists children in new knowledge development. Before a curriculum is established, instructors should understand how children interpret information (Almqvist & Östman, 2015). Reinforcement of strategies should be employed to encourage a particular behavior. Group learning is part of a curriculum. The participants in curriculum development negotiate the content to be included in a program.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is evident that a curriculum involves the content required by a program to deliver to students. It is clear that a peripheral body that is permitted to develop a program for students in an institution develops a curriculum. Consequently, curriculum is not an independent body but constitute of the program. Moreover, it is evident that the curriculum is the plan and deliverables that make up the program. The various approaches applied to programs are considerably changing with advancement in the applicable industries. Therefore, it would be wise to have an acceptance plan of the newly introduced programs. New opportunities are developed with the changing curriculums and consistently the programs. Curriculum involves the interactions, experiences, routines and events in an environment developed to assist in learning. Children program for instance, has been noted to be the knowledge delivered to children before the first grade of school.

References

Claessens, A., & Garrett, R. (2014). The Role of Early Childhood Settings For 4–5-Year-Old Children in Early Academic Skills and Later Achievement in Australia. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 550-561.

Dee, J. R., & Heineman, W. A. (2016). Understanding the Organizational Context of Academic Program Development. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2015(168), 9-35.

Dockett. S., & Einarsdottir. J., (2010). Researching with Children. Every Child, 16(4), 34-35.

Epstein, A. S. (2016). All about HighScope – FAQs [Online]. Available at https://secure.highscope.org/Content.asp?ContentId=291 [accessed 30 May 2018]

Hedefalk, M., Almqvist, J., & Östman, L. (2015). Education for Sustainable Development in Early Childhood Education: A Review of The Research Literature. Environmental Education Research, 21(7), 975-990

Ikegami, K., & Seyram Agbenyega, J. (2014). Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning Through 'Happiness' Promote Quality Early Childhood Education? Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 39(3), 46-55.

Kellett. M., (2011). Researching with and for Children and Young People. Centre for Children and young People Background Briefing Series, no. 5. Lismore: Centre for Children and Young People, Southern Cross University.

Kluczniok, K., Anders, Y., Sechtig, J., & Rossbach, H. (2016). Influences of An Academically Oriented Preschool Curriculum on The Development of Children – Are There Negative Consequences for The Children's Socio-Emotional Competencies? Early Child Development & Care, 186(1), 117-139.

Mihyeon, K., Cross, J., & Cross, T. (2017). Program Development for Disadvantaged High-Ability Students. Gifted Child Today, 40(2), 87-95.

O’Connor, A., Blewitt, C., Nolan, A., & Skouteris, H. (2018). Using Intervention Mapping for Child Development and Wellbeing Programs in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings. Evaluation & Program Planning, 6857-63.

Ozoli?š, J. (2013). The Body and The Place of Physical Activity in Education: Some Classical Perspectives. Educational Philosophy & Theory, 45(9), 892-907.

Platz, D., & Arellano, J. (2011). Time Tested Early Childhood Theories and Practices. Education, 132(1), 54-63

PSC National Alliance. (2012). Making sense of ‘intentional teaching’. Children’s Services Central [Online]. Available at https://www.cscentral.org.au/Resources/intentional-teaching-web.pdf [accessed 30 May 2018]

?enay ?lik, ?., & Sar?, H. (2017). The Training Program for Individualized Education Programs (Imps): Its Effect on How Inclusive Education Teachers Perceive Their Competencies in Devising Imps.

Sund, P., & Wickman, P. (2011). Socialization Content in Schools and Education for Sustainable Development – II. A Study of Students’ Apprehension of Teachers’ Companion Meanings In ESD. Environmental Education Research, 17(5), 625-649.

Wyse, D., Hayward, L., Livingston, K., & Higgins, S. (2014). Creating Curricula: Aims, Knowledge, And Control a Special Edition of The Curriculum Journal. Curriculum Journal, 25(1), 2-6. Doi:10.1080/09585176.2014.

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