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First Reading Strategy

Discuss About The Dynamic Conditional Random Fields Sentence?

In today’s world, Literacy is considered as one of the major concepts. In specific words, literacy refers to the ability to read and write. However, in the recent years, the expansion in the meaning of literacy can be seen. In today’s world, literacy refers to the ability to use language, different numbers, various images, computers and other means for the understanding, communicating and gaining knowledge in order to solve different kinds of problems (Biancarosa, 2012). From this, it can be understood that literacy is an essential aspect for the people in this world. In this context, it needs to be mentioned that it is essential for the development of literacy among people and the starting of this aspects can be seen from the time of early primary schools. It can be seen that the teachers use to develop and adopt different kinds of strategies for the development of literacy among the kids (Durgunoglu & Verhoeven, 2013). Thus, it is essential for the teachers to develop different types of strategies for the improvements of reading and writing among the students. The main aim of this essay is to discuss about two strategies each for the development of reading and writing of the students from early primary school.      

In the early primary school, students face many obstacles in the development of the habits of reading and writing. This part of the essay puts focus on the development of the reading strategies for the early primary students. Out of these many obstacles, one major problem is lack of fluency in decoding. Decoding refers to the ability of the students to read words by the translation of written symbols into the sound of spoken words. More specifically, it is also called as the process of word identification. There are many strategies available for the reduction of this obstacle in the classroom. However, one major strategy is the use of Air Writing (Vikram & Russell, 2013). This is an important part of the learning process where the teachers ask the students to write the letters or words that they are learning in the air with the help of their fingers (Vikram & Russell, 2013). With the help of this strategy, the students can learn to see the share of the letters in their imagination that creates an image of the letter in their mind. In this strategy, the teachers need to ask the students to take the words that are neither too small not too big. In addition, students need to practice this with lower case letters as it helps them in storing the letters in their mind (Fellowes & Oakley, 2011).

Second Reading Strategy

The practice of air writing has some major strength. With the help of this strategy, the students acquire the ability to use their stored words for reading texts. After that, the students become able to identify the letters in lowercase as well as in uppercase. Sometimes, the teachers implement the practice of writing the words in table, as this process is more effective for bringing fluency in decoding (Chen, AlRegib & Juang, 2016).

Apart from strengths, there are some major limitations of this strategy. First, the students from early primary schools face difficulties in imagining the letters in the mind. Apart from this, high expertise from the teachers is required, as they need immense patient for implementing this strategy (Fellowes & Oakley, 2011).

Apart from strengths and limitations, the teachers are required to consider the aspects of Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (APST). They are required to follow Standard 1, 2 and 3 for the implementation of this strategy. As per Standard 1, the teachers need to know the learning process of the student. As per Standard 2, the teachers should provide teaching by knowing the content of teaching. As per Standard 3, they are required to plan for the implementation of the strategy based on the results from Standard 1 and 2 (aitsl.edu.au, 2018).

The above discussion talks about the strategy of air writing in order to bring fluency in the process of decoding. However, the above discussion talks about the limitations of this strategy. Thus, for avoiding the limitations of this strategy, the teachers are required to adopt the strategy to create images to match the imaginary letters and sounds (Milne, 2012). This step is considered as simple and most helpful for increasing the decoding ability of the students. In this process, the students get the ability to develop the sound and letter imagery by seeing letters and hearing the letter sounded out. After that, the teachers make the students practice for the process to create an image that goes with the letter and its sound. With the help of this technique, the students can overcome the limitations of the above-discussed strategy (Grundvig, 2012).

It needs to be mentioned that this strategy has soma major strengths. With the help of this strategy, the students can recognize each letter in an effective manner that helps them in the development of their readings. By implementing this strategy, the teachers can develop the skill of letter recognition along with letter application so that they can read in a comprehend manner. In the presence of this strategy, the students from primary school can develop the power of the identification of errors in reading (Milne, 2012).

First Writing Strategy

In case of limitations, it needs to be mentioned that the second strategy is developed in order to overcome the limitations of the first strategy of reading. For this reason, there are not many limitations of this strategy. However, the limitations can be seen from the side of the teachers, as lack of expertise is a major hindrance in the implementation of this strategy (Cremin & Myhill, 2013).

At the time of the implementation of this strategy, the teachers are required to consider the Australian Curriculum (AC) for the study of English. As per AC, it is essential for all the young Australians to learn English language. The aims of AC is to make the young Australians learn to read, view, speak, write and reflect in English in a sophisticated manner (australiancurriculum.edu.au, 2018). In addition, the teachers are needed to consider the standards of National Assessment Program (NAP) at the time of implementing the strategy as it states that the students need to have the skill and understanding about English (nap.edu.au, 2018).

The above discussion talks about two major strategies of reading improvement for the students from early primary school. It needs to be mentioned that the students from primary schools also face certain issues while writing and the teachers are required to consider these issues. One of such issues is punctuation errors and it is a major hindrance for the writing development of the students. One of strategy is punctuation comparison. In this particular strategy, the teachers use to select a page from a familiar big book and retype the page by removing all the punctuations (Wang, Ng & Sim, 2012). After that, the pages are distributed among the students so that they can observe them. After that, each student of the class is required to read one sentence of the page aloud after adding the missing punctuations. Lastly, the teachers are required to compare the punctuated sentence and announce the winner. It needs to be mentioned that this strategy is highly beneficial for the students (Wang, Ng & Sim, 2012).

This strategy has some major strength for achieving the desired objective. With the implementation of this strategy, the students of early primary schools become aware about all kind of punctuation for constructing a sentence. After that, they become aware about the purpose of the use of punctuation. Thus, it can be seen that with the help of this strategy, the teachers become able to make the students know how to use correct punctuation for the overall development of the writing of the students (Granitzer et al., 2012).

At the same time, this strategy has some major limitations. Under this strategy, the students get less opportunity to know about the use of punctuation on the individual basis as the effectiveness of this strategy can be obtained while implemented in a group. At the same time, the teachers are required to have loads of patience as the implementation a continuation of this strategy is a tedious job for the students (Granitzer et al., 2012).

At the time of the implementation of this strategy, the teachers are required to consider some standards. One of such standards is Writing and Representing Standard of NSW Education Standards Authority. The main aim of this standard is to make the students able in composing simple texts in order to convey an idea or message. It needs to be mentioned that the use of punctuation is required for the composition of correct sentence (syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au, 2018).

The above discussion shows the discussion of one of the writing strategies. However, from the above discussion, it can be observed that the above-mentioned strategy has some major limitations. In order to overcome these limitations, it is necessary for implementing the strategy of sentence champion (Harris et al., 2012). Under this particular strategy, the teachers use to provide the students with bank of words and a full stop. After that, the teacher use to remind the students about the rules of punctuation. Now, the teachers use to instruct the students to write as many correct sentences as possible with the help of these provided letters. At the same time, the students are required to form sentences with the help of correct sentences. Lastly, the teachers use to declare the student as word champion with most punctually correct sentences. In this aspect, it needs to be mentioned that the students are provided with lower case letters and they are required to add capitals to the staring of the sentences (Harris et al., 2012).Based on the above discussion, it can be seen that this strategy has some major strengths. With the implementation of this strategy, each student gets equal chance for the development of correct sentences are punctually correct also. Apart from this, at the time of the implementation of this strategy, the teachers become able to put focus on each student so that they punctuation can be improved. All these aspects together helps in the improvement of the overall writing strategy of the students from early primary schools (Tompkins et al., 2014).

In this aspect, it needs to be mentioned that this particular strategy is developed for overcoming the limitations of the first strategy. However, it needs to be mentioned that it is required for the teachers to put more efforts for the introduction of this strategy; but there is not any specific limitation of this strategy (Tompkins et al., 2014).

In this aspect, the teachers are required to consider the standards of Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. In this aspect, the teachers are required to follow the principles of Standard 3 and Standard 4. As per standard 3, the teachers are needed to plan for the effective implementation of this strategy (aitsl.edu.au, 2018). According to Standard 4, it is the responsibility of the teachers to develop a supportive and learning environment for the implementation of this strategy. Apart from this, the teachers are also needed to consider the Australian Curriculum for this strategy (australiancurriculum.edu.au, 2018).    

Conclusion

From the above discussion, this essay sheds lights on the development of four major strategies in order to bring improvements in the reading as well as writing skills. These four strategies are use of air Writing; create images to match the imaginary letters and sounds, punctuation comparison and sentence champion. From the above discussion, it can be seen that all these strategies have major impact on the development of reading and writing of the students. As per the earlier discussion, the strategy of air writing and creation of images for matching the imaginary letters helps the students from early primary schools in developing fluent decoding at the time of development of the reading of them. After that, the strategy of punctual comparison helps the students in avoiding the issue of punctual error in their writing. As per the above study, with the help of the strategy of sentence champion, the students can develop their writing on an effective manner.

References

English. (2018). Australiancurriculum.edu.au. Retrieved 2 February 2018, from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/english/

Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. (2018). Aitsl.edu.au. Retrieved 2 February 2018, from https://www.aitsl.edu.au/docs/default-source/general/australian-professional-standands-for-teachers-20171006.pdf?sfvrsn=399ae83c_12

NSW, B. (2018). English K–10 :: Early Stage 1 :: Writing and representing 1. Syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au. Retrieved 2 February 2018, from https://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/english/english-k10/content/863/

NSW, B. (2018). English K–10 :: Content. Syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au. Retrieved 2 February 2018, from https://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/english/english-k10/content/

Fellowes, J., & Oakley, G. (2011). Language, Literacy and Early Childhood Education. Oxford University Press.

Chen, M., AlRegib, G., & Juang, B. H. (2016). Air-writing recognition—Part I: Modeling and recognition of characters, words, and connecting motions. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 46(3), 403-413.

Grundvig, V. (2012). Can picture books in the English classroom lead to increased reading comprehension?(Master's thesis).

Milne, E. (2012). Letters, postcards, email: Technologies of presence (Vol. 24). Routledge.

Cremin, T., & Myhill, D. (2013). Writing voices: Creating communities of writers. Routledge.

Wang, X., Ng, H. T., & Sim, K. C. (2012). Dynamic conditional random fields for joint sentence boundary and punctuation prediction. In Thirteenth Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association.

Granitzer, M., Hristakeva, M., Jack, K., & Knight, R. (2012, March). A comparison of metadata extraction techniques for crowdsourced bibliographic metadata management. In Proceedings of the 27th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (pp. 962-964). ACM.

Harris, K. R., Lane, K. L., Graham, S., Driscoll, S. A., Sandmel, K., Brindle, M., & Schatschneider, C. (2012). Practice-based professional development for self-regulated strategies development in writing: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(2), 103-119.

Tompkins, G., Campbell, R., Green, D., & Smith, C. (2014). Literacy for the 21st century. Pearson Australia.

Vikram, S., Li, L., & Russell, S. (2013, April). Writing and sketching in the air, recognizing and controlling on the fly. In CHI'13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1179-1184). ACM.

NAP - Standards . (2018). Nap.edu.au. Retrieved 2 February 2018, from https://www.nap.edu.au/results-and-reports/how-to-interpret/standards

Reading . (2018). Nap.edu.au. Retrieved 2 February 2018, from https://www.nap.edu.au/naplan/reading

Teacher Standards . (2018). Aitsl.edu.au. Retrieved 2 February 2018, from https://www.aitsl.edu.au/teach/standards

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