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Using case studies and examples of aviation accidents you need to discuss the below deliverables as a result of your research. You can use a different case study for each of the deliverables.

1. You need to discuss and then evaluate the airworthiness requirements in the initial stages such as aircraft design, manufacture and then in the operation and maintenance of aircraft


2. Explain the relationship between certification and compliance with airworthiness regulations. In other words, how is certification used to ensure that we comply with airworthiness regulations? What can be the issues raised because of this?

• ICAO.
• FAA.
• EASA.
• National Aviation Authority (NAA).
• Airworthiness Directive (AD).
• Service Bulletin (SB).
• Certification Specifications 25 (CS-25) and it’s Subparts.
• Type Certificate (TC).
• Supplemental Type Certificate (STC).
• Restricted Type Certificate (RTC).
• Certificate of Registration (C of R).
• Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A).
• Airworthiness Review Certificate (ARC).
• Air Operator Certificate (AOC).
• Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC).
• Guidance Material (GM).
• Certification Maintenance Requirements (CMR)
• Certificate of Release to Service (CRS).

3. Using as an example a case study, identify a major safety problem, the actions taken to address this problem and evaluate the actions taken for this problem.

• Present a case study (American Airlines Flight 96).
• Identify actions taken to address the safety problem.

4. You need to identify the technical innovations and systems developments used to improve aviation safety.
•Technical Innovations.
•System development to improve the aviation safety

Airworthiness

The modern aviation industry is seen to be significantly profitable with the increment in the number of the customers. The sales of the organizations operating in the mentioned industry is increasing in a significant manner and that is seen to have a significant impact on the organizations operating in the mentioned industry. The increment in the customers has influenced many of the organizations in considering their plan of entering the aviation market. The significant amount of opportunity that the organizations of the mentioned industry are subjected, is observed to be crucial in increasing the competition of the market with the entry of many of the new organisations. In spite of having a profitable market for their business, many of the organizations are observed to face the heat of the competition. In order to overcome the impact of the competition, the organizations are observed to be focused in the application of the improved quality in their operations and the competitive pricing policy (Moreno-Izquierdo, Ramón-Rodríguez and Ribes 2015).

In the aviation industry, the safe and secure operations of the organizations is to be one of the key factor that influences the consumption of the customers and the preferences of the customers in selecting a particular airlines for travelling. As the safe and secure travelling is seen to be notably important for the customers of the mentioned industry, the organizations operating in the mentioned industry is seen to focus on the safety of the customers in a significant manner. This becomes pretty evident with the increment of the incorporation of the technology and the innovative solutions in the safety requirements of the aviation operations from the part of the organizations. Airworthiness is observed to be a key concept in the safe and secure operations of the organizations operating in the aviation industry. The conceptual definition of the term “Airworthiness” states that it is the degree of suitability of the aircrafts for the safe flights (Shaw 2016). The increasing awareness of the customers regarding the safe and secure operations is seen to be significant for the organizations in making sure that they operate with the aircrafts that are in airworthy condition (Shaw 2016). The paper is focused in the elaboration of the concept of airworthiness along with the requirements of the initial and the continuous airworthiness.

The main basis of the description of the requirements mentioned above is observed to be the Part 21, Subpart J, G, F, Type Certificates, Part M, Part 145, Part 147, Part 66 along with the Subparts of Part M (De Florio 2016). Adding to this, the paper describes the importance of a wide range of certification which ensures that the organizations that are operating in the aviation industry complies with the airworthiness regulations. In addition to this, the paper also describes the issues that can take place in the organizations are violating the requirements of the above mentioned certifications. Apart from that, the paper analyses the case of American Flight 96 with precise elaboration of the problems and the actions that are taken to make sure that the issue does not repeat in future. Apart from that, the paper also presents the impact of the technical innovations and the system development in the improvement of the safety of the aviation operations.

Requirements of the Airworthiness

As mentioned earlier, the airworthiness is described to be a state of the aircraft that defines whether it is in the perfect condition to fly or not. An aircraft that satisfies the airworthiness requirements is considered to be eligible to fly. It is considered to be a routine check-up of the aircrafts for making sure that the parts and the machinery of the aircraft is in perfect condition for flying. The state aircraft registry national aviation authority is seen to have the responsibility of certifying an aircraft for being in the airworthy condition. However, it is the pilot in command who holds the responsibility of evaluating the airworthiness of the aircrafts to make sure that the flight is in the desired condition to take safe operations (De Florio 2016). According to the, Code of Federal Regulations in United States, Title 14, Subchapter F, Part 91.7, the pilot in command has the responsibility of disrupting the operations of the aircrafts in any case where it is identified that the structural, mechanical and electrical condition of the aircrafts do not satisfy the airworthiness requirements for the safe operations (Govinfo.gov. 2019).

The role of the International Civil Aviation Organization is seen to be significant in the specification of the legislations regarding the airworthiness of the aircrafts (Icao.int. 2019). The Chicago convention of the mentioned organization was seen to produce the legislation for the identification of the airworthiness. The designed legislation was of great significance in defining the airworthiness in terms of the propeller, engine and the other parts of the aircrafts. The evaluation of the status of the propeller, engine and the other parts of the aircrafts regarding the construction of them in accordance to the approved design and the maintenance of the parts which needs to satisfy the airworthiness of the aircrafts, are considered to be major areas of focus of the designed legislation. The legislations designed for the evaluation of the airworthiness also covers the aspect of using the aircrafts in the approved standards and the limitations. The legislation of the airworthiness also focuses in making sure that the aircrafts are functioned by the certified operators who has achieved certification regarding the operations from the certified organizations and the operations of them is considered to be accepted by the state of the aircraft registry (De Florio 2016).

The requirements which are in need to be maintained for the airworthy operations of the aircrafts are observed to be divided into two different parts which are initial airworthiness and the continuous airworthiness.

European Union Aviation Safety Agency is an important organization for the formation of the legislations for the specification of the required infrastructures for the management of the design and the manufacturing of the aircrafts. The part 21 of the legislation designed by the mentioned organization is seen to be significant for the elaboration of the requirements of the initial airworthiness (Gratton 2018).

The mentioned part of the legislation includes considerable number of requirements for the various aspects such as the Design Organization Approval, General Provisions and Production Organization Approval. Adding to this, the mentioned part is seen to include considerable number of sub parts which include the specifications of the requirements of Type -Certificates, changes to Type –Certificates, Restricted Type –Certificates, changes to Restricted Type –Certificates, Noise certificates, Certificates of Airworthiness, Permit to Fly, Restricted certificates of Airworthiness, Certification for the Parts and Appliances, Production without Production Organization Approval, Identification of the Products, Supplemental Type –Certificates along with the European Technical Standard Order Authorisation (Gratton 2018).  

Initial Airworthiness

One of the main basis of Design Organization Approval is observed to be subpart J of the Part 21. The importance of subpart is seen to be high as it covers the various aspects like the Design Assurance System, the impact of the Design Assurance System for the minor changes in the type design along with the min repairs to the products, Independent System Monitoring along with the Independent checking function of the demonstration of the compliances, Requirements for Approval, Transferability, Compliances along with the classification of the changes, Data Requirements, Investigations, statement of the qualifications and experiences, Terms of Approval, Procedure for the implementation of the minor changes and the Type design along with minor repairs, effective management of the significant changes in the Design Assurance System, Procedure for the approval of the conditions for issuing the permit to fly, method for the approval of the minor revisions in the manual of the aircraft flight, issuing of the information and instructions along with the specification of the method for the approval of the conditions for issuing a permit to fly (Easa.europa.eu 2019).

The main basis of the Product Organization Approval is observed to be the subpart G of the Part 21 of the legislation designed by EASA. The subpart is seen to include various clauses for the effective management of the scope of the Applicable Design Data, Quality Systems and the different features of the Quality systems, strong bond between the production organizations and the design organizations and the requirements of an approval. Adding to this, the subpart also specifies the requirements for the operations such as the Independent Quality Assurance Systems, Monitoring functions, Approval requirements regarding the airworthiness, the evaluation of the vendor and subcontractor, Production Organization Exposition, effective management of the impact of the noise, fuel venting with a precise focus on the exhaust emissions, the certification of the pay party suppliers, certification of the employees, controlling and audit of the operations along with the Evidence Authorisation (Easa.europa.eu. 2019).

Apart from this, the list of the activities governed by the mentioned subpart also includes the specification regarding the terms of approval and the techniques for the effective and efficient management of the changes in the terms of approval, the speciation of the condition for the safe operations along with the verification of the satisfactory control. Adding to this, the subpart also elaborates the operations of the POA holders with a precise focus on the alignment of the correct transcription of the original design data and the own manufacturing data from the part design data package  and the design data package is in need to be delivered by the design organisations.

The subpart F of the mentioned legislation is seen to be significant in the elaboration of the applicability of individual products, parts and the appliances of the aircrafts, applicable design data, link between the design and the production, specification of the application form, Inappropriate approval of the subpart G, the procedure for the approval in advance of the issue of a POA, the minimum information required to be included with the application, contents of the manual, elaboration of the Production Inspection System with a precise focus on the functional tests for the letter of agreement (Easa.europa.eu. 2019). Adding to that, the aspects such as the Approved Production Ground and Flight Tests, Acceptable Functional Tests for the engines and variable pitch propellers are observed to be effectively covered by the subpart F.    

Part 21

The process of the certification of the manufacturing design of the aircrafts is achieved with the Type Certificates. The process of the certification evaluates the fact whether a particular aircraft is manufactured as per the approved design of the aircraft which satisfies the necessary requirements for the airworthy operations or not. Along with that, the basis of the certification is observed to be the comparison of the design documents and procedures and along with that, the process of certification also evaluates whether the design of the aircraft is capable of satisfying the requirements for a particular type of equipment (Easa.europa.eu 2019). Hence it is pretty evident that the type certificates are much needed for the organizations operating in the aviation industry in achieving the permit to fly from the regulatory agencies.

The continuous airworthiness is considered to be an important aspect in the description of the state of airworthy for the aircrafts. According to the EASA legislation, the part M is observed to be divided into two different parts which are section A and section B. The technical requirements for the parts and appliances of the aircrafts that have the potential to lead to the airworthy condition is covered in the section A and is seen to be applicable to the industry. Maintenance Organization, Airworthiness Release Certificate, General, Accountability, Continuing Airworthiness Management Organization, Components, Certificate of Release to Service, Maintenance Standards and Continuing Airworthiness are seen to be the important parts of the section A (Easa.europa.eu 2019). However, the section B of the part is seen to be concentrated on the competent authorities and is seen to be applicable for the regulators. The section B of the part is observed to include the 6 subparts for the effective management of the General Requirements, Accountability, Continuing Airworthiness, Maintenance Organization, Continuing Airworthiness Management Organization and Continuing Validity of the Airworthiness Certificates (Easa.europa.eu 2019).       

The Part 145 is seen to be an important section of the EASA legislation decorated for the continuing airworthiness. The mentioned part is seen to be important in the management of the design, operations, maintenance, and the production of the aircraft components with a precise focus on the continuing airworthiness requirements. Along with that, the part is seen to be significantly important in designing of the repair and maintenance programs. In addition to this, the certification for the design, production, operations along with the maintenance of the aircrafts is conducted through the part 145 approval (Le and Lappas 2015). Adding to this, the repair and the maintenances programs are seen to be evaluated against the continuing airworthiness requirements of the Part 145.

The part 147 is concerned about training and the developmental activities. The approval of the Maintenance Training Organizations is seen to be the main aspect of the mentioned part. Adding to this, the mentioned part is seen to be divided into two sections which are the basic training and the aircraft type rating raining. The issue of the part 66 maintenance license for the aircrafts is the fundamental aspect of the basic training. The authorisation of the type ratings to the part 66 aircraft maintenance license is covered by the aircraft type rating training (Le and Lappas 2015).

Continuous Airworthiness

The part 66 covers the procedure for the licensing of the aircrafts engineer and the rating. The effective alignment of the operations of the licensed aircraft maintenance engineer with the requirements of the continuing airworthiness is seen to be the fundamental objective of the part. Along with that, the operations of the registered operators, the operator’s certificate holders and the aircrafts’ owners is influenced by the requirements of continuing airworthiness of the part (Le and Lappas 2015). Hence it is pretty evident that the, part 66 plays a crucial role in the effective management of the continuing airworthiness.  

The International Civil Aviation Organization is the authorised agency of the United Nations for the effective management of the safe and secure aviation operations. The mentioned agency is responsible for the formation of the codes, principles and the techniques for the international air navigation. Apart from that, the agency conducts the planning and the development of the International Air Transport with a precise focus on the safety. As a result the mentioned agency is seen to be significantly efficient in the creation of the Doc 9760 and Annex 8 which are the written description of the airworthiness requirements that the organizations operating in the mentioned industry are in need to abide by, for continuing their operations (Icao.int. 2019).

The effective management of the operations of the civil aviation in United States is conducted by the Federal Aviation Administration. FAA controls the operations of the airports and manages the construction work for the infrastructural development. Adding to this, the FAA has the responsibility of managing the air traffic in the nation. Apart from this, the mentioned agency conducts the process of certification regarding the airworthiness of the aircrafts (Faa.gov. 2019). The certification process monitors the operations of the organizations with a precise focus on the requirements of the airworthiness and adding to that, the selection of the personnel and the evaluation of the condition of the aircrafts is seen to be major responsibility of the agency.

The European Aviation Safety Agency is considered to be responsible agency for the nations of the European Union for the effective management of the aviation operations. The main objective of the agency is to conduct the operations of the aviation industry in a safe and secure manner. EASA is responsible for the formation of the standardized codes, regulations of operations along with the conduction of the process of the certification which enables it to investigate and measure the performances of the organizations operating in the member nations. The major contribution of the mentioned body in the effective management of the airworthiness are seen to be the formation of EASA legislation which includes subpart H, J, G of the part 21 dedicated for the management of the initial airworthiness (Easa.europa.eu 2019). Considering the continuing airworthiness, the formation of Part M, 145. 147 and 66 is of great significance from the part of the agency (Easa.europa.eu 2019).

The NAA is the government recognised authority that is present in each of the countries for the maintaining the aircraft register and the monitoring the approval and regulation of the civil aviation. In addition to this, the mentioned body has the responsibility of the effective management and monitoring of the airworthiness requirements in the aspects such as the design of the aircrafts including engine and airborne equipment. The list also includes the maintenance of the aircraft equipment, operation of the aircraft equipment, licensing of the pilots and the air traffic controllers.

Relationship between Certification and Compliance with Airworthiness Regulations

With a precise focus on the airworthiness requirements of the aircrafts, the Airworthiness Directives notifies the owners or the service operators of the aircrafts regarding the safety deficiency in the different models of the aircrafts including the various systems of the aircrafts, parts and appliances, engines along with avionics (Faa.gov. 2019). Hence it is evident that the aircrafts that do not include an effective airworthiness directive will be considered as un- airworthy. The designed legislation regarding AD has the potential to force the certified operator to make the necessary adjustments for making sure that the aircrafts are certified as airworthy for continuing the service.      

The service bulletins are considered to be the documented notices that are served to the aircraft operators in order to aware them of a product improvement (Easa.europa.eu 2019). The manufacturers are responsible for the production of the service bulletins. In certain cases where the manufacturers feel that the adjustment is not a mere product improvement, rather a safety related advancement, the manufacturer will be in need to issue an alert service bulletins. It is considered to be the result of issuing the airworthiness directives.

The Certificate Specification 25 is considered to be the guidelines for the airworthy operation of the large aeroplanes. The design of the large aircrafts along with the infrastructural requirements are elaborated through the specification. Apart from this, the CS 25 is recognised as one of the significant legislative specification for the various aspects such as the design and construction of the aircrafts, Gas Turbine Auxiliary Power Unit Installations, general requirements, power plant, operating limitations and information, flight requirement, equipment and structure of the large aircrafts (Easa.europa.eu 2019).

Considering the subpart of aircrafts structure, the contribution of the specification is the definition of the Lamina level material properties, Damage, Laminate level design values or allowables and Point design. On the other hand, the subpart of flight requirements includes the requirements regarding the load distribution limits, centre of gravity limits, Removable ballast, proof of compliance, Propeller speed and pitch limits, take off speed limits, Weight limits, take off and take off path (Easa.europa.eu 2019). In addition to this, the mentioned specification plays a crucial role in managing the material system design values along with the Environmental design criteria. The organizations that are able to achieve the above mentioned legislative requirements are certified for the airworthy operation and the organizations that are unable to achieve the certification are forced to suspend their usual operations.

As mentioned earlier, the type certificates certifies whether the airworthiness of a type of aircraft is satisfies the manufacturing design of the aircraft or not. Hence it is pretty evident that the certification is important in the verification of the fact that whether a particular type of aircraft is designed in accordance to the approved design or not and along with that, it also evaluates whether the actual design of the aircraft satisfies the requirements for airworthy operations or not. The Minimum Operating Performance Standards (MOPS), DO-254 series, DO-160 series and DO- 178 series are considered to be the main basis of the evaluation on the process of the type certifications (Easa.europa.eu 2019). The type certifications are much required for the organizations operating in the aviation industry for initiating their usual business conduction as the regulatory authorities have the power to suspend their operations on being incapable to achieve the type certifications.

Major Safety Problems and Actions Taken

The repair and the modifications that are required in a particular type certified aircraft is the main operational area of the supplemental type certifications. The repair organizations that feel the necessity of conducting the repair or modification work are in need to achieve the supplemental type certificates from the regulatory authorities as the issuing of the type certificates confirms the fact that the design of the aircrafts cannot be changed. The mentioned type certificate covers the aspect such as the increment in the maximum weight or the changes in the type of the engine.

The subpart E in the Part 21 of the legislation framed by EASA for the airworthy operations and the 14 CFR 21.111 for the organizations operating United States are seen to be designed legislation for the issue of the supplemental type certificates (Faa.gov. 2019). The suspension of work is the result of any sort of violation in the application of the legislation.

The restricted type certificates make sure that the organizations capable of complying with the suitable type certification basis with a precise focus on the intended usage of the aircrafts along with the establishment of the environmental protection requirements. Adding to this, the engine and the propeller installed in the aircraft is in need to achieve all the required type certificates and is in need to show the compliance with the certification specification which are much needed for the safe and secure flight (Easa.europa.eu 2019). With the effective management of the above mentioned provisions, an applicant is eligible to achieve restricted type certificates in case of being ineligible to achieve the type certificates.

The Certificate of Registration or CoR is responsible in confirming the features of an aircrafts and the nationality of an aircraft through the number tagged on the outer surface of the aircraft.  With the help of the number that is generated with the certification of the registration, the specification regarding the turbulence, weight, design of the engine along with the noise that the aircraft generates, the airworthiness certificates of the aircrafts, design of the aircraft is communicated. Hence it is pretty evident that the registration number of the aircrafts play a crucial role in specifying the airworthiness requirements that the aircraft achieved and that helps the national authority in regulating the operations of the aircrafts (Hodgkinson and Johnston 2018).

The certificate of airworthiness is the fundamental criteria for the airworthy operations of the aircrafts. The certificate of airworthiness states the requirements that are in need to be applied for the safe and secure operations of the flights with a precise focus on the initial and continuous airworthiness. The requirements for the certification confirms the fact that pilot in charge has the responsibility to assess the condition of the aircrafts and report whether the aircraft is fit to fly or not (Gratton 2018).     

Along with this, the elaboration regarding the definition of the parts and the features of the flights is expected to be designed through the certificate of airworthiness. The certificate is much needed for the aircrafts in the continuation of the services.

Technical Innovations and System Developments

The Airworthiness Review Certificates are considered as the annual validation for the all the EASA aircraft types that are judged fit for the EASA Certificate of Airworthiness and are issued with a non-expiring Certificate of Airworthiness. The Continuing Airworthiness Management Organizations with the appropriate Part M Subpart G approval and the engineers that are able to achieve an approval for the European Light Aircrafts are eligible to apply for the certification (Caa.co.uk. 2019).

The Air Operator Certificate is considered to be the certification for the legal operations of the air operators in the aviation industry. The Air Operator Certificate holders are responsible for the management of the operations in accordance to the requirements of the part M. Along with that, the efficient management of the aviation operations are seen to be dependent on the legislation of the Part ORO (Icao.int. 2019).    

Apart from this, the holders of the mentioned certificate are in need to make sure that their operations satisfies the requirements for the subpart G of the EASA legislation.

The portrayal of the ability to meet the necessary requirements for the airworthiness along with the intent of Implementing Rules (IR) is considered to be the fundamental objectives of the AMC. The base of the Acceptable Means of Compliance is the airworthiness requirements specified in the basic regulations (Casa.gov.au 2019).

Apart from this, the Alternative Means of Compliance is seen to be a substitute form of complying with the airworthiness requirements.

The main basis of the Guidance Materials is observed to be the Basic Regulations, Certification Specifications, Acceptable Means Compliance and Implementing Rules (Icao.int. 2019). GM is recognised as the specification for achieving the techniques for satisfying the requirements of the airworthiness. Apart from this, Guidance Materials holds greater significance for the users in terms of making them aware regarding the usage of the Implementing Rules, Certificate Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance.

The perfect alignment of the operations of the organizations with the mentioned aspects of the Guidance Materials is seen to be significantly crucial for the organizations operating in the aviation industry for continuing their services.  

The Certificate Maintenance Requirements is seen to be a functional limitation for the type certificates and the supplemental type certificates. The type certificates and the supplemental type certificates that are framed as the scheduled maintenance task, designed during the time of design certification of the airplane systems are the main focus of the Certificate Maintenance Requirements. The depiction of the compliance with the specific requirements for the effective management of the hazardous failure and catastrophic conditions and the assessment of the numerical values for that, are considered to be the main objective of the Certificate Maintenance Requirements (Apics.org. 2019). Apart from this, CMR is recognised as the subset of the instructions that are identified during the certification of the continuous airworthiness.

The organization’s incapability in accomplishing the mentioned requirements can force them towards the suspension of work.

The Certification of Release to Service is considered to be the declaration from the part of the Licensed Aircraft Engineer, who has the required certifying approvals, regarding the degree of the airworthiness of a particular aircraft (Caa.co.za. 2019). It includes the information regarding the maintenance, date of the competition of the maintenance, information regarding the identity of the organization or the person responsible for issuing the release to service along with the expected limitations.

One of the major accident that the global aviation industry witnesses due to the absence of airworthy operations was the case of American Airlines Flight 96. On the 12th June, 1972, a cargo door failure of an aircraft of type McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10 of American Airlines took place which resulted in severe injuries of 2 crew members and 9 passengers (Fss.aero. 2019). The case was a perfect result of the faulty maintenance from the part of the maintenance authority regarding the requirements of the airworthy operations. As a result of this, the National Transportation Safety Board provided noteworthy recommendations for the design of the aircrafts to make sure that the operators do not face similar sort of issue in future.  

The main problem that resulted in the accident was the missing of the rear cargo door and the severe damage that it caused to the left horizontal stabilizer. A thorough investigation of the case informed the regulatory authority that the handlers report claimed that the cargo door was not electrically latched and that forced it to be manually closed. Three of the operators reported the case of the failure of the electrical latch actuators to latch or unlatch the cargo doors. The failure of the latch actuator resulted in the excessive voltage drop which deceased the output torque to the actuator (Fss.aero. 2019). The condition had the potential to prevent the electrical latching of the hooks. Adding to this, the ground crew at Detroit claimed that they found it extremely difficult to close the rear door. Investigator interviewed a number of crew at Detroit, where one of them claimed that they closed the door electrically and waited for the actuator motor to stop. When the heard the sound of the stopping the actuator motor, they felt that the operating of the locking handle was significantly difficult to close the doors. Hence the crew applied force with his knees to latch the lock and apart from this, the crew also witnessed the fact the vent plug in the section was not appropriately closed which the crew highlighted the case to the responsible mechanic as well. Apart from this, one of the major revelation came from the part of the flight engineer.

The flight engineer reported that the “door ajar” warning light was not lit during the time of the flight which was a major fault in the appropriate design of the aircraft. Investigators also found out that the latches were never rotated to their locked position (Fss.aero. 2019). As a result, the pressure on the doors made sure that the latches are further shut and the required transmission of the forces into the actuator system that is needed to close or open the actuators is absent. Hence the partial closure of the latches was instrumental in making sure that the forces on the doors is transmitted back to the actuator. Adding to this, the significant depressurization that took place due to the breaking of the door resulted in the pulling the rubber cables to its extension limit and that affected other important cables as well. Hence the aircraft suffered an accident of such intensity which was completely due to the organization’s incapability in maintaining the airworthiness of the aircrafts. Adding to this, investigators claimed that the organizations responsible for the operations such as maintenance and the design of the aircrafts were in need to make sure that the concerns of crew and the maintenance engineers are met in an efficient manner.

As the case was significantly impactful in terms of the safe and secure operations in the industry, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) introduced two new suggestions for increasing the safety of the operations with a precise focus on the design of the aircrafts and airworthiness requirements. The NTSB made sure that the DC-10 ensures that Windsor accident recur changes to the locking system to make sure that the manual forces cannot close it along with the venting cut into the rear cabin floor (Fss.aero. 2019).

The incorporation of the technology and the innovative solutions into the design of the products of the modern generation is seen to be notably contributing in the speedy operations along with the safety of the customers. Adding to this, the increment in the flexibility of the customers is significantly achieved with the incorporation of the technology. As the efficient air traffic management is seen to be significantly important for the organizations operating in the mentioned industry to reduce the number of the accidents, the incorporation of the Geospatial Technology is seen to be of great significance for the organizations. The contribution of the Geospatial Technology is seen to be in the form of the appropriate planning, maintenance, deployment and delivery of the infrastructure of aircrafts and along with that, the impact of the mentioned technology on the flight management in the modern aircraft fleet along with the cockpit resource management is noteworthy (Kawasaki, Berman and Guan 2013). Apart from this, the replacement of the paper charts by the electronic flight bags, aerodrome data, electronic aeronautical information publications, electronic terrain obstacle data and electronic route bulletins are considered to be great contribution of the mentioned technology (Baker et al. 2015).     

Apart from this, one of the crucial technology that have significant potential in the development of the system is considered to be the Geographic Information System. The mentioned technology is of great significance in the efficient management of the height clearances, flight paths and the noise level. The air traffic controllers can effectively manage and improve the operations such as the routing applications or the airspace planning with the accurate execution of the mentioned technology (Chang 2016). The restructuring of the spatial components of the information of the cost effective workflows can be notably achieved with the introduction of the Geographic Information System. Adding to this, better management of the facilities management applications can be achieved with the usage of the technology in an efficient manner.

Adding to this, the application of the technology provides a significant opportunity to the organizations operating in the mentioned industry for the improved management of the databases which has a greater significance for the development of the system. GIS enables the organizations to improve their systems related to aeronautical charts (Leh, Bajwa and Chaubey 2013) and apart from that, the implementation of the technology helps in the effective management of the aviation operations with a precise focus on one of the major threat of the industry which is the bird strikes. The applications of the GIS technology enables the organizations to map the movement of the birds and with the execution of the effective communication, the real time mapping of the movement of the birds enables the pilots to avoid such cases (Leh, Bajwa and Chaubey 2013).

Adding to this, the application of the Global Navigation Satellite System helps the organizations to improve their navigations which is seen to be significant as many of the experts of the industry are able to comment on the necessity of the improved navigational aids for the effective and safe operations in the industry. The GNSS is significantly helpful for the organizations in the effective management of the surveillance applications for the purpose of transferring of computed information, verification of the accurate locations of the aircrafts and the effective usage of the data link for controlling the air traffic as an alternative to the radar surveillance (Gps.gov. 2019). The impact of the GNSS is pretty evident in the effective management of the data to keep a track of the aircrafts.

Conclusion:

On a concluding note, the modern aviation system is seen to change in a significant manner over the years with the incorporation of the modern technology. The main objective of incorporating the technology is the improvement of the safety procedures of the organizations. The main basis of the safe operations in the aviation industry is considered to be the airworthy operations and that is pretty evident with the increment in urgency of the aviation organizations in meeting the requirements of the airworthiness. As the reputation of the organizations in conducting safe operations is seen to be significant in the increasing their sales, the organizations operating in the mentioned industry are observed to put strong emphasis in meeting the airworthiness requirements.

References:

Apics.org. 2019. Certification Maintenance - APICS. [online] Available at: https://www.apics.org/credentials-education/credentials/maintenance

Baker, T.R., Battersby, S., Bednarz, S.W., Bodzin, A.M., Kolvoord, B., Moore, S., Sinton, D. and Uttal, D., 2015. A research agenda for geospatial technologies and learning. Journal of Geography, 114(3), pp.118-130.

Caa.co.uk. 2019. Airworthiness Review Certificates ARC | UK Civil Aviation Authority. [online] Available at: https://www.caa.co.uk/Commercial-industry/Aircraft/Airworthiness/Certificates-and-permits/Certificates-of-airworthiness/Airworthiness-review-certificates/Airworthiness-Review-Certificates-ARC/

Caa.co.za. 2019. [online] Available at: https://www.caa.co.za/Airworthiness%20TGM/Certification%20of%20Maintenance%20Aircraft%20Certificate%20of%20Release%20to%20Service.pdf

Casa.gov.au 2019. Civil Aviation Safety Authority. Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance Material. [online] Available at: https://www.casa.gov.au/rules-and-regulations/standard-page/acceptable-means-compliance-and-guidance-material

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