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Q1) What does the statement "the best interface for a system is no User Interface"?  When might this apply and provide two examples.

Q2) Compare the bandwidth, distance, interference rating, cost and security of a) twisted pair cable, b) coaxial cable and 3) fibre optic cable.  Use current data, give specific details for at least 3 types of cable within each category, these should have different specifications, rather than simply different brands of the same type.

Q3) The three common ways to obtain information from IoT devices are sensors, RFID and Video tracking.  Compare the three technologies by addressing the advantages, disadvantages, key requirements for the things.  Provide two applications of each (these applications should NOT be sourced from the textbook).  You may use a table to present the material if you wish.

Q4) Discuss the issues associated with security and privacy in the context of the Internet of Things.

Q5) An IoT water level monitoring application requires updates from a sensor periodically, using the command/response paradigm. The application triggers a request every 1 s. The round-trip propagation delay between the application and the sensor is 12 ms. On average the sensor consumes 3 ms to process each request. The application consumes 2 ms to send or receive any message. If the application blocks on every request to the sensor, how much of its time budget can be saved by redesigning the application to use the publish/subscribe communication model in lieu of the command/response approach?

Q6) Describe Nielson's Law.  How does it relate to Moore's Law?  What are the implications for the Internet of Thing?

User Interface and Technology

The statement “the best interface for a system is no user interface” means eliminating the user interface system during slapping of application in any technology in order to eliminate various process during interfacing of user with that technology. It will help in buying more time for the user as there will be not much steps to operate a technology during user interface for that operation. It can be explained by the following examples:

In cars user interface technology is implemented to open the gate by using an application operated by mobile phone. It takes several steps before opening gate as the user will have to take out his phone and unlock the phone then dig into the icons of many applications, search for the particular application then he or she can open the gate (Takai et al., 2013). If we eliminate the user interface system by implementing sensor for the car in the key then whenever user reaches near the car the gate will opened automatically.

User Interface in the merchant pay system by using phone application (Fisher, 2013). If we implement no user interface system it will eliminate all the steps including entering password to phone and app and all that are explained in example 1 and allow user to sit, order and leave as this system will pay the restaurant bill automatically.

Cable types

Bandwidth

Distance

Interference rating

Cost

Security

Twisted Pair Cable

1MHz

100m

Susceptible to interference but limited to a distance

Cheapest than others

Poor Security

Coaxial Cable

1GHz

500m

Least susceptible to interference than others

Medium cost compared to others

Moderate security but can be breached (Winzer 2014).

Fibre Optic Cable

75 THz

10km (Single-mode)

2Km (multimode)

Not susceptible to EMI

Expensive than others

Highly secured

Twisted Pair Cable:

1 Unprotected Twisted-Pair (UTP)

Type 1: Used in low speed data cable and telephone lines.

Type 2: These can support 4 mps implementation (Lee et al., 2013).

Type3: These cables support maximum 16 mps but commonly used in 10 mps.

Type 1: Features 22-AWG two pairs.

Type 2: Inherit type 1 with 4 telephone pairs (Sommer and Franz, 2012).

Type 3: Features two pairs of shielded 26-AWG.

Type 1: 50-Ohm RG-7 or RG-11, applicable with thick Ethernet.

Type 2: 50-Ohm RG-58, applicable with thin Ethernet (Ha et al., 2013).

Type 3: 75-Ohm RG-59, applicable with cable television.

IoT Devices

Advantages

Disadvantages

Application

Sensors

*It is not affected by atmospheric dust, rain, snow.

*It can also work in adverse conditions if proper power supply is given.

*In comparison with inductive or capacitive proximity sensors it has more sensing distance.

*It seems difficult to receive signal reflected from curved, small, thin and soft objects.

*Smart sleep system.

*Smart washing machine.

*Smart lightning.

*Weather monitoring.

*Blood Pressure monitoring (Tozlu et al., 2012).

Smart internet mirror.

RFID

* Tag code data is 100% secure and cannot be duplicated.

 * Availability of large number of sizes, different types and different materials.

* Physical contact is not needed between the communication devices and data carrier. Tags can be used many times.

* The rate of error is extremely low.

* Portable data base and long read range.

*These are more expensive than Barcode system.

*Harder to understand results in less reliability.

*Longer than the Barcode labels.

*Specific applications for tagging, does not fits to all.

*Many Tags can respond in the mean time.

* In product tracking high frequency RFID tags are used such as, pallet tracking, jewellery tracking, airline baggage and apparel and pharmaceutical tracking (Gubbi et al., 2013).

*Implantable RFID are used in animal identification.

* Replacement of library barcodes with RFID Tags.

*It has also application in museum, school and universities.

Video Tracking

*Communication between devices.

*Automation and control.

*Collects information.

*Monitoring is another advantage of video tracking (Singh, Tripathi and jara, 2014).

*Better quality of livelihood.

*There is not any compatibility of international standard for the monitoring equipments.

*More complex system which can increase the risk of failures.

*Privacy and security both will be exposed.

*Human-computer interaction.

*Augmentation of reality.

*Medical imaging.

*Video communication.

A variety of potential security issues that can harm consumers by the application of Internet of Things, some of them are firstly, an unauthorized individual can access to the personal information and misuse it for own benefits. Secondly, it can facilitate systems to attack other systems using it as a pathway (Suo et al., 2012). Thirdly, a safety risk of a personal also increases because of these security issues.

Comparison of Different Cable Types

Direct involvement of sensitive personal information, such as bank account details, health information and precise geo-location are the privacy issues in the practice of Internet of Things (Borgohian, Kumar and Sanyal, 2015). Several privacy issues occur due to the expose of personal information like habits, physical condition and locations.

In blocking mode process, the endpoint originated from the operating request will have to wait for a while to get a response of its request. After achieving this process, endpoint of the operation that is requested from the originator side will be finished which will consume time, from the side of originator. The water level measuring technique is a synchronous case this results that, the asynchronous message will not be received by the originator side; which implies that Originator will be responsible for initiating the information exchange between the receiver and the originator sides.

It is also referred as pub/sub which can be helpful in enabling the communication of unidirectional message to more and different subscribers from a publisher. After the enabling process, the subscriber side declares of its own interest on the requested message or data to the publisher side. After evaluating the availability of data in response to the message delivered by subscriber it then forces another message to the subscribers which are interested in that information.

Figure: Publish-Subscribe Paradigm

Because of the excess level of the message travelling which are not needed and are travelling in reverse direction, Response/Command response can be referred as suboptimal.

Figure: Command/Response paradigm

Total time saving will be 6ms in the propagation delay between the application and sensor + 1ms in receiving that message. Total time saving is 7ms.

Nielson’s law states that the growth of bandwidth of users is increasing by 50 % per year considering the data collected between 1983 and 2016. The statement of Nielson law is “A high-end user’s collection speed grows by 50% per year”. He has proposed a graph:

Figure: graph population v/s year (Nielsen, 2014)

Nielson’s law is very similar to Moore’s law but more established than that. Moore stated that “computer double in capabilities every 18 months”, which is related with 60% of annual growth.

It is being expected by various researchers that in around 2024 sensor technology will spread its wings through the “trillion sensor” and will be applicable in all almost all areas including surrounding surfaces, cars, and home and at every place where it can be expected. Sensors in microchip that can be implemented into the human body is being recommended by various scientists.

References:

Borgohain, T., Kumar, U., & Sanyal, S. (2015). Survey of security and privacy issues of Internet of Things. arXiv preprint arXiv:1501.02211.

Fisher, M. (2013). U.S. Patent No. 8,352,323. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Ha, S. K., Kim, G. S., Choi, S. M., Kim, S. K., Kim, J. G., Park, M., ... & Sim, K. (2013). PHILS based protection system design for an HTS power cable installed in a grid. 

Lee, W., Cheon, M., Hyun, C. H., & Park, M. (2013). Development of building fire safety system with automatic security firm monitoring capability. Fire safety journal, 58, 65-73.

Nielsen, J. (2014). Nielsen’s Law of Internet Bandwidth, 1998.

Singh, D., Tripathi, G., & Jara, A. J. (2014, March). A survey of Internet-of-Things: Future vision, architecture, challenges and services. In Internet of things (WF-IoT), 2014 IEEE world forum on (pp. 287-292). IEEE.

Sommer, J., & Franz, W. (2012). A Component-based Simulation Model and its Implementation of a Switched Ethernet Network.

Suo, H., Wan, J., Zou, C., & Liu, J. (2012, March). Security in the internet of things: a review. In Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE), 2012 international conference on (Vol. 3, pp. 648-651). IEEE.

Takai, I., Ito, S., Yasutomi, K., Kagawa, K., Andoh, M., & Kawahito, S. (2013). LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications. IEEE Photonics Journal, 5(5), 6801418-6801418.

Tozlu, S., Senel, M., Mao, W., & Keshavarzian, A. (2012). Wi-Fi enabled sensors for internet of things: A practical approach. IEEE Communications Magazine, 50(6).

Winzer, P. J. (2014). Spatial multiplexing in fiber optics: The 10x scaling of metro/core capacities. Bell Labs Technical Journal, 19, 22-30.

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