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Descriptive statistics

Discuss about the Effects of Floods on Psychology.

Human psychology responds significantly to any external effect; whether negative or positive. However, the psychological response depends on the person, although there some interactions where different people react similarly. The mode of reaction an individual’s psychology generates depends whether one feels happy or disturbed. In this manner, the level of happiness and anger will vary significantly depending on the intensity of the external effect among other factors such as the pre-state of the victim’s psychology. Some other confounders might be the environment, which constitutes of people and material stuff. Also, quality of life for an individual might determine the intensity of effect an individual will endure (Zanna, 2005).

In this paper, floods are used a predictor to the psychological score change of the victims. Some other possible predictors and confounders are included in the dataset to determine whether they are significantly related to change in psychological score. The variables include age, place of residence, the impact of the floods, the health state of the floods, the environmental state, social support & family function and a dummy variable on whether a victim lives alone or not. These variables will be used to answer the research questions using the relevant statistical methods. The main objective of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in psychological score change before and after floods. The change in psychological score will also be compared among the possible confounders such as age, gender and level of impact. A regression model will be developed to determine the best fit in predicting the pre-psychological score.

Table 1: Descriptive statistics

Variable

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Age in years

41

19

60

33.68

9.039

Physical health domain (pre flood)

12.57

7.43

20.00

16.0209

1.99373

Environment domain (pre flood)

13.50

6.50

20.00

14.1527

2.22958

Social support scale (pre flood)

29

16

45

32.90

7.141

Family functioning scale (pre flood)

22

12

34

22.97

3.737

Psychological domain (pre flood)

12.00

8.00

20.00

14.8538

1.88409

Psychological domain (post flood)

12.67

7.33

20.00

14.7275

2.00587

The average age for the participants of the study is 33.68 with a standard deviation of 9 years. Before the floods, the physical health status had a mean of 16.02 with a standard deviation of 1.99. The environmental domain before the floods had an average score of 14.1527 with a standard deviation of 2.229. There is an approximately normal distribution of the social support scale because the average value is between the maximum and minimum values. The family functioning score is slightly lower than the social support. This indicates that the participants’ psychological states might be much contributed by social support than family functionality. Based on the average statistics, there is no much difference between the pre-flood and post-flood psychological scores.

Table 2: Place of residence

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Urban

128

70.3

70.3

Regional

54

29.7

100.0

Total

182

100.0

Place of residence

70.33% of the study participants live in urban while 29.57% in regional areas.

Table 3: Is the participant living alone?

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

No

171

94.5

94.5

Yes

10

5.5

100.0

Total

181

100.0

94.48% of the respondents do not live alone in their places of residence. Therefore, this variable might be a very good predictor of the psychological score.

Table 4: Impact of the floods for you in terms of the property you were living in

Category

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

no impact

37

20.3

31.1

31.1

minor impact

31

17.0

26.1

57.1

moderate/major impact

51

28.0

42.9

100.0

Total

119

65.4

100.0

Missing

99

63

34.6

Total

182

100.0

63 (34.6%) entries of the impacts of floods were missing the dataset. The analysis will only use the valid entries. Table 4 shows that 42.86% of the participants had moderate/major flood impacts, 26.0.5% with minor impacts and 31.09% of the respondents reported to have been not affected by the floods.

Table 5: Cross tabulation between living alone and pre-flood score below 15

Living alone?

Total

No

Yes

pre-flood score below 15

above 15

86

4

90

below 15

84

6

90

Total

170

10

180

Table 6: Chi-square tests

Value

Degrees of freedom

Asymptotic Significance (2-sided)

Exact Sig. (2-sided)

Exact Sig. (1-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

.424a

1

.515

Likelihood Ratio

.426

1

.514

Fisher's Exact Test

.747

.373

a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 5.00.

b. Computed only for a 2x2 table

We will use the Fisher's exact test because one cell in the contingency table has count below 5. Therefore, we conclude that there is no association between pre-flood score below 15 and an individual living alone.

Are age, social support score and family functioning score predictors of pre-flood psychological score?

Table 7: Initial Model summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.358a

.128

.113

1.74759

a. Predictors: (Constant), Family functioning scale (pre-flood), Age in years, Social support scale (pre-flood)

11.3% of the variation in pre-flood psychological score is explained by family functioning scale before the flood, age and social support scale before the floods.

Table 8: Model's ANOVA

Model

Sum of Squares

Degrees of freedom

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

77.374

3

25.791

8.445

.000

Residual

525.301

172

3.054

Total

602.675

175

The p-value for the ANOVA test is below the significance level, hence concluding that the model is statistically significant (Weinberg & Abramowitz, 2008).

Table 9: Model coefficients 

Unstandardized Coefficients

Sig.

95.0% Confidence Interval for B

B

Std. Error

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

(Constant)

14.355

1.307

.000

11.774

16.936

Age in years

-.010

.015

.501

-.039

.019

Social support scale (pre flood)

.075

.019

.000

.036

.113

Family functioning scale (pre flood)

-.071

.037

.055

-.144

.002

Social support scale is the only significant variable in the model with a p-value less than 0.001.

Table 10: Second model summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.360a

.130

.109

1.75147

a. Predictors: (Constant), Place of residence, Family functioning scale (pre-flood), Age in years, Social support scale (pre-flood)

Including place of residence in the model reduces the Adjusted R Square value from 11.3% to 10.9%. This reduces the significance of the model. Place of residence turns out to be insignificant in the second model. Therefore, the only significant variable is social support scale (Draper, 2014).

Table 11: The minimum model summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.319a

.102

.097

1.79826

a. Predictors: (Constant), Social support scale (pre-flood)

b. Dependent Variable: Psychological domain (pre-flood)

Social support scale explains 9.7% of the variation in the pre-flood psychological domain.

Table 12: The minimum model coefficients

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

95.0% Confidence Interval for B

B

Std. Error

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

1

(Constant)

12.060

.635

18.981

.000

10.806

13.314

Social support scale (pre flood)

.085

.019

4.484

.000

.047

.122

Predicting a male with a social support scale of 40.

Is there a difference in the post psychological score between men according to the level of the impact of floods

Table 13: One way ANOVA test

Psychological domain (post flood) 

Sum of Squares

Degrees of freedom

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

44.101

2

22.050

6.001

.003

Within Groups

415.229

113

3.675

Total

459.330

115

The p-value for the one way ANOVA test is less than 0.05, hence concluding that there is a difference in means of post-flood psychological domain between different levels of flood impacts (Zhang, 2013).

Table 14: Post-hoc test using LSD method

(I) Impact of the floods for you in terms of the property you were living in

(J) Impact of the floods for you in terms of the property you were living in

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

 
 

no impact

minor impact

.13943

.47694

.771

moderate/major impact

1.30217*

.42076

.002

minor impact

no impact

-.13943

.47694

.771

moderate/major impact

1.16275*

.44106

.010

moderate/major impact

no impact

-1.30217*

.42076

.002

minor impact

-1.16275*

.44106

.010

*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level

The post-flood psychological score averages of no impact and moderate or major impact groups are significantly different. Also, minor and moderate/major impact groups have a significantly different mean value of post-flood psychological scores (Roberts & Russo, 2014).

Is the mean change in psychological score change between pre and post-flood the same for men who experienced no/limited impacts compared to those who experienced moderate/major impacts

The Levene’s test p-value is less than 0.05, hence concluding that the variances of psychological differences are not equal between the two groups.

Table 16: Independent test of equality of means

t-test for Equality of Means

t

Degree of Freedom

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Psychological score difference between pre and post floods

3.882

110.937

.000

1.43526

.36968

.70270

2.16782

According to table 16, we conclude that the difference in means of psychological differences between men who experienced no/minor impacts compared to those who experienced moderate/major flood impacts is significant (Weinberg & Abramowitz, 2008).

Conclusion

In conclusion, we can state that the there is no sufficient information to detect an association between living alone or otherwise and having pre-flood psychological score below 15 or above. Social support scale for the men participants emerged as a significant predictor of pre-flood psychological score. A statistically significant difference in post-flood psychological score was detected between no impact and moderate/major flood impact groups. Also, minor and moderate/major flood impacts groups were found to have significantly different means of post-flood psychological score. Finally, a significant difference in means of the psychological difference between those who experienced no or minor impacts compared to those who experienced moderate/major flood impacts were detected.

References

Draper, N. (2014). Applied Regression Analysis. Wiley-Interscience.

Roberts, M., & Russo, R. (2014). A student's guide to analysis of variance (3rd ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.

Weinberg, S., & Abramowitz, S. (2008). Statistics using SPSS. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zanna, M. (2005). Advances in experimental social psychology. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.

Zhang, J. (2013). Tests of Linear Hypotheses in the ANOVA under Heteroscedasticity. International Journal of Advanced Statistics and Probability, 1(2). https://dx.doi.org/10.14419/ijasp.v1i2.908

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