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How the Alcohol Detector Works

Driving while incapacitated due to drunkenness is dangerous for the drivers who happens to have high blood alcohol content in their system as it leads to fatal car accidents, vehicular death, and Highway injuries. The purpose of the project is to come up with vehicle accident prevention by developing alcohol detector to reduce traffic accident cases built on driving under the influence of alcohol. This project is founded by linking alcohol sensor with a microcontroller. The alcohol sensor that is going to be used in this project is MQ-2 which is used to detect alcohol content in human breath. An ignition is built as a prototype to act like fire starter over vehicles engine. The primary purpose of this ignition system is to produce spark plug which ignites the targeted vehicle's engine. This system work based on the amount or level of alcohol content in human breath detected by alcohol sensor. Today most of the families are affected by many accidents caused by drunk driving drivers or the person who is driving the vehicle. Alcohol detectors project is aimed to reduce the traffic accidents occurring of all over the world.    

Indians earned dubious distinction due to its high number of facilities leading to more accidents in the world.

Road safety has emerged as a major concern around the world especial in countries like India. Drinking and driving are becoming a major issue in the world today as it leads to more accidents and affecting public health. Today it is emerging as a one among the many significant problems being faced by humankind. The system underway is aiming at reducing road accident resulting from drunken driving. The system is designed to detect alcohol within the vehicle and lock the engine immediately. Once the alcohol has been detected in the vehicle, an SMS is sent to preselected contacts alongside the location of the vehicle. Hence this system minimizes the road accidents resulting from drinking and driving.

In a related work survey, the software and hardware of GSM network and GPS were established. The projected GSM and GPS based system had two parts controlling station and the mobile unit. Then interfaces, data transmission, system processes, connections amongst the mobile unit while the power plant is working successfully.

There is an electronic device which is mounted in a vehicle to allow the holder or the company concerned with the tracking to know whereas about of the vehicle.

Road Safety and Drinking and Driving

The diagram below shows how GSM and GPS technology work together towards locking the engine of the vehicle. It consists of GMS, keyboard, microcontroller, GPS, LCD, door locker, IR transmitter, MAX232 driver, relay driver and IR receiver.  On the GSM board, there is an active sim with enough amount to allow outgoing calls. +5V Dc powers the circuit.

  • The primary goal of this project is to come up with a way of preventing drunken driving of motorcar by stopping moving engine remotely.
  • The project will also enable the person who does consume alcohol to use the same car.
  • The system is fabricated so that it can only detect alcohol content from the driver’s breath only.
  • To share the idea with companies with more technological advancement to make the project available in a cost effective way.
  • Driving while drunk remains an international problem that affects thousands of victims every year.
  • It is estimated that drunk drivers cause over 20% of accidents occurring in India every year.
  • Statistics shows that every year around 14000-15000 people dies from accidents.
  • Nearly 60% of all accidents which-which occurs due to drunk driving.

Figure 1 Hardware Modules.

This system is adapted from the Arduino Uno Microcontroller board as shown in the chart above. The major function modules are made up of Alcohol sensor, Arduino Uno, GSM module, GPS module, DC motor, and LCD.

Its primary purpose is to detect the alcohol. It has an analog output which is built in Arduino board.

This is the central unit of the whole system. All components are constructed of the Arduino board and programmed in a way that their functionality is synchronized.

It is defined as Global System for Mobile (GSM). It is accepted globally as standard digital cellular communication. The name GSM is a standardization group founded in 1982 to establish common standard mobile telephone in Europe which would formulate better specifications for the mobile cellular operating system at 900 MHz for European countries and their partners. It was projected that many countries in the world would join GSM partnership.

The cellular system originated from the United States of America with the release of advanced mobile phone service (AMPS) system in 1983. This system was later adopted by Latin America, Asia, and Oceanic countries, forming one of the largest markets in the cellular world.

Most cellular mobile telephones had an analog system in the early 1980s unlike today’s newer digital system. The primary challenge analog system is facing is the inability to coup with the growing needs in cost efficiency hence the welcoming of digital technology.

Some of the advantages digital systems have over the analog system are;

  • Less interference
  • Stable signal
  • Addition of transmission and Switching
  • The ability to meet growing demands

The chart below shows the worldwide evolution of mobile phone system


Mobile system


Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) 450


American Mobile Phone System (AMPS)


Total Access Communication System (TACS)


Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) 900


American Digital Cellular (ADC)


Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)


Digital Cellular System (DCS) 1800


Personal Digital Cellular (PDC)


PCS 1900 – Canada


PCS – United States

Over the years through the development of cellular satellites, many systems have come up without any benefit of homogenous specifications. The GSM customary is intended to discourse these snags.

Talks have been held over the previous years (1982 – 1985) to decide on which system should be built between digital and analog system GSM. After numerous field tests, the digital structure was accepted for GSM. The next step was to choose between the broadband solution and a narrow. In 1985 May, the narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) was selected.




GSM formed


Field test


TDMA was chosen as access method


Signing of memorandum of understanding


GSM system validated




Startup of commercial  system


Coverage of airports and larger cities


Main road coverage


Rural areas coverage

GSM and GPS Technology for Vehicle Tracking

SMS is sent to the contacts from the GSM about the where about of the vehicle.

The First Global Positioning System (GPS) premeditated in 1983 by Honda. The developer claims having possessed the first GPS- based   

It is designed to locate the user and send SMS via GMS module to the Pre-selected contacts.

DC MOTOR: It is designed to lock the engine facility whenever alcohol is detected in the vehicle.

LCD: It is used to display the information whenever alcohol is detected.

Arduino board microcontroller

This is the brain of the system.

  The Arduino is the microcontroller board built on ATmega328. It is programmed in a way that it can photocopy electromechanical devices. It enables you to connect both analog and digital electronic signals:

  • Sensors
  • Actuators

The Arduino board microcontroller has 14 digital input and output pins, USB connection, power jack, 16 MHz Ceramic Resonator, six analog inputs, ICSP header and resets button. The microcontroller board contains everything that is needed for microcontroller support. For it to work, it is connected to a computer with USB or power cable from AC to DC adapter or fully charged battery.


Flash memory

Analog input


Clock speed

DC current

Digital input and output pins


Operating voltage

Input voltage


3.3 v pin DC

The Arduino has several facilities which are used for communicating with a computer, other microcontrollers, and another Arduino. Serial communication UART TTL 5V is provided by the ATmega328, which is found on digital pins. Serial communication is channeled Over USB and presented as virtual com port in the computer software by the ATmega16U2 on the board. External drivers are not needed as the ATmega16U2 firmware is designed in such a way that it uses standard USB COM drivers, but the .inf file is required on the window. Software in the Arduino which consist of the serial motor that enables textual data to be transmitted to and from Arduino board. As data is sent via USB serial chip, TX LED an RX flash on the Arduino board.  

The resistance value from MQ-3 differ regarding gasses concentration and various kinds, but when working with these components, it is necessary for sensitivity adjustment. The detector is supposed to be calibrated by alcohol concentration of about 0.4mgl in the air the value of load resistance about 200K? to 470K?. While considering humidity and temperature, proper alarming point for gas detector must be regarded with accurate measurements.   

  • It is very sensible towards alcohol gas.
  • It is a simple circuit drive  
  • It is durable and cheap
  • Very sensitive towards alcohol and little towards benzene
  • Fast response, long life, high sensitivity, and stability.
  • 5V is needed for power supply
  • Type of interface is analog
  • Pin Definition is 1-GND 3-VCC
  • Small sensitivity when it comes to  Benzene and very sensitive towards alcohol
  • Simple circuit drive with 40x20mm as its size
  • Quick response and higher sensitivity
  • Has long life and very stable

System Components

The GSM net is used by cellular phones since it provides long range, a low cost, a wireless communication network for applications which require connectivity instead of using higher data rates to connect to the internet. Machines such as HVAC, vehicle services industrial refrigerators, vending machines, freezers, etc. benefits from being attached to a GSM arrangement. Another good example is a garage where special packages are offered to clients. Based on Technicians know how to given vehicles as tailored service intermission can be indicated. Part of the service is to install the GSM modem to the vehicle. This will help to notify the garage upon the vehicle approaching its service intermission. The customer will be later told by the garage mechanics.

The procedure used by the GSM setup and control is built on the Hayes AT_ command set. The GSM specific commands are adapted to the packages rendered by GSM modem such as: calling specified phone number, erasing memory location, text messaging, etc. Since the key objective for the application note is to indicate how to send and receive a text message, the only subject of the AT- Command set is essentials to be executed.      

The European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) GSM 07.05 defines the AT Command interface for GSM well-matched modems. From this file, some chosen commands are selected and presented temporarily in this section. This control subset will allow the modem to launch and obtain SMS messages.

The table below describes the AT- Command set. The commands can be tried out by connecting a GSM modem to be tested by linking a GSM modem to one of the computer COM ports  




Oversee if serial interface and GSM modem is functioning


Turns the echo off.


Displays new messages  


Selects SMS memory


 conveys message string format, how they are compressed  


Reads given instructions from a given memory location.


Convey message to a given recipient


Delete messages

Message setup (AT+CMGF)

This command is used to establish input and output structure of SMS messages. The command has two modes:

  • PDU mode: it used in reading and conveying SMS in a specially encoded configuration.
  • Text mode: in this mode, SMS is read and sent in a plain text.

PDU mode setup saves message payload, and it is default in most modems. The PDU mode is implemented in the source code for this application note. Therefore it is possible to use text mode to reduce code footprint if the connected modem supports this.

In text field header fields like sender address, validation period, message length, etc. can be read out together in text plain with the message.

Read message (AT+CMGR)

This command (AT+CMGR) is used to read messages from selected memory location. The execution of AT+CMGR returns messages at index from chosen memory. The compressed messages and the entire status messages (PDU) are returned. Therefore for one to obtain useful information out of the compressed messages, decompression is supposed to be done.

Arduino Uno Microcontroller Board

Send message (AT+CMGS)

This command allows the user to send SMS messages. The user then set the fields for the messages which can be compressed and conveyed using the AT+CMGS command.

The GSM net is used by cellular phones since it provides long range, a low cost, a wireless communication network for applications which require connectivity instead of using higher data rates to connect to the internet. Machines such as HVAC, vehicle services industrial refrigerators, vending machines, freezers, etc. benefits from being attached to a GSM arrangement. Another good example is a garage where special packages are offered to clients. Based on Technicians know how to given vehicles as tailored service intermission can be indicated. Part of the service is to install the GSM modem to the vehicle. This will help to notify the garage upon the vehicle approaching its service intermission. The garage mechanics will later inform the customer.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite navigation based on the space to provide time information and location in all-weather conditions in where on or near this planet (earth) where there is a unobstructed line of sight to four or more satellites. Due to GPS setup, it is essential to military, commercial users and civil around the world. The GPS is under the maintenance of the United of America, but it is accessible to everyone provided the user has a GPS receiver.  

  • Maps, on the maps there is the provision of street maps, shown in human understandable setup via text or in graphical format turn by turn map reading direction to being in charge via SMS or speech.  
  • Directions are fed directly to an autonomous vehicle such as a robotic probe.
  • Traffic congestion maps (depicting real-time data or historical) and suggested alternative orientations.
  • Information on nearby amenities such fuel stations, tourist attraction and restaurants
  • GPS can answer paths or roads available, traffic congestion, alternative routes and even roads or paths that might be taken to reach the destination quicker.
  • GPS navigation also helps to alert users on which roads are busy and the best routes to take.
  • With GPS receiver, users can find places of their interest such banks, hotels, food, petrol stations, airports and any other areas of interest.
  • With GPS it is easier to identify shortest routes between two locations
  • GPS navigation satellite provides options to highway or back roads.

There is some other GPS device which needs to be connected to a computer for them to work. This machine can be PDA, digital camera, home computer, laptop or smartphones depending on the equipment and readily available connectors. The connection can be made through various channels such USB cables, serial, Bluetooth, SD, compact flash, PCMCIA and new express cards. Express cards / PCMCIA GPS units also include a wireless modem.

  • GPS module works best with applications that involve navigation, surveying or tracking.
  • 5V power 40mA current draw
  • 38s warm start, 45s cold start 8s hot start
  • -159dB sensitivity.

A liquid crystal display has some uses for its screen showing ability. The primary display module is the 16 *2 screen display often applied in many electronic devices and circuitry. This invention provides more than seven segments not to mention the multi-segment LED ability it possesses. Given its numerous characteristics, the LCD pose some advantages such as being economical, having secure programming knowledge, lacks limitation in a display of unique to custom features.

The LCD can display 16 characters in one line. The number of lines present is two for each device. In all these characters, every character is being revealed by 5*7 pixel matrix. More to that, the liquid crystal display has two registers. These records include; command register and data register.

Global System for Mobile (GSM)

The control register is made t store command instructions provided to the LCD. What is a command? These are directions given to the LCD to redefine the task. Predefinition entails initialization, screen clearing, cursor position setting, display control and much more. The second register is the data register that stores data that needs showing on the screen. These data are ASCII value of each character that needs posting.

  1. 5*8 cursor dots.
  2. +5V power supply.
  3. Built-in controller.
  4. 1/16 duty cycle.
  5. B/L driven by pins 1, pin 2 or pin 15, pin 16 or A.K.
  6. V is optional in the -3V power supply.
  7. DC Motor.

In a direct current motor, it works on a principle that current flowing in a magnetic field in a current carrying conductor will be exposed to a torque that makes it move. The act is known as motoring action. Any reversal in the current direction will cause the rotational movement to be reversed. The principle on which this engine works is the ability of present and magnetic fields interacting to develop a mechanical force thereby establishing the principle. More to it the need to determine the direction of rotation. Fleming’s left-hand rule helps in this prediction. The law states that when all the index, middle fingers and thumb held and put perpendicular to one another. The index finger is representing the predetermined magnetic field direction. The middle finger will point out the direction of flowing current, and the thumb points out the direction on which the force moves the dc motor shaft.

There exists a similarity in the construction of and structure of a DC motor and a DC generator. Electrically, the two devices have different functions. In a DC motor, the input comprises of electric energy used to produce mechanical energy from the output of the engine. In a block diagram, the electrical function of a motor is represented below.

There is a voltage to its input port at a value of E, and a current I is also supplied to the port, and the two are converted into mechanical energy that outputs through the output port. A parameter K relates the input port and the output port variables.

T = KI    and E = K?

Taking note of the picture drawn above, there is the conclusion that the working of a DC electrical generator is only opposite to the working of DC motor. Also, the operation of both equipment can be derived easily by port reversing.

  • 8051 microcontroller 1
  • IC case (Pin) 1
  • MQ sensor 1
  • LCD 1
  • Push button 2
  • PCB plate “6*6 inch 1
  • Zero size PCB 1
  • Bus strip (1*4) male to male 3
  • Bus strip (1*4) female to male 2
  • LED 1.5mm 2
  • Resistance 10k 4

330 0hm 3

220 0hm 3

  • Ceramic capacitor 22nf 4
  • Crystal 11.5 MHz 1
  • Connecting wire (single thread) 5m 1
  • Soldering wire 50 gm 1
  • Soldering iron    1
  • Paste (flux) 1
  • Capacitor 1000 uf /50 v 1
  • Diode N4007 4
  • Voltage regulator 7805 1

      7812 1

  • Transformer 12-0-12 (1amp) 1
  • Variable resistor (preset) 10k 1  

Systems entrench this application. An entrenched system is a combination of computers software and hardware fixed together regarding their capabilities or programs designed to carry out a particular function. Keil C51 C is the most popular compiler for the C 8051 microcontroller compiler in the world. There is no any other compiler with more features than it has. The C51 compiler is capable of translating C source file into reloadable object modules which are full of characteristic information for debugging with the µ Vision debugger or a circuit emulator. In addition to the above features, the compiler has listing files which may optionally include symbols, table and cross reference information.

Alcohol Detector Calibration

Entrenched C is an extension of the programming language C to support established processor, enabling portable, efficient application programming for the entrenched system. The AT89C51 high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4k bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (EPROM).An Atmel’s with high density and its none volatile memory technology which is compatible with the industry standard MCS - 5 is used to manufacture the device.

Mainly designed detective device is integrated
Inside the Navigation Wheel. One detail to be taken into
contemplation is that we are not worried about the amount
Of liquor intake of the other travelers in the carriage. Also the
detection system must not be pretentious due to other
inessential elements [example: in case the car passes
near a wine factory or shop].so the sensitivity of the system must be
limited to a tiny distance

  • The key is put in and turned on. This finishes the
    electrical route of the core, engine and the cell.
  • The engine is filled with fuel from the petroleum supply
    system and the essential power from the cell.
  • Ignition is set-up and starts the car
  • There is always a nonstop flow of IR rays b/w the
    source and the device.
  • The IR rays have a real affinity towards liquor.
  • The IR source, led-894 yields high strength IR
  • The IR source, led-894 yields high power IR
    rays, which means it grips liquor of only high
    content from the air.
  • So this signifies that this apparatus will work
    only when the driver is over drunk.
  • When IR grips OH there is loss in the amount
    of IR rays established by the sensor.
  • The loss of IR rays is detected by the device and this
    leads it to trigger the relay circuit.
  • Loss of IR α amount of liquor consumed
  • The outcome is a small o/p shaped at the receiver
  • The pin 7 enclosing the small o/p is fed to the core

  • The ignition will start only when the key traces
    +ve and –ve terminals.
  • With little o/p at the principal terminal, the core fails to
    complete the circuit.
  • This leads to cutting off fuel supply cut-off to the engine.
  • Thus the engine halts working or doesn’t start
    liable on the spot of the car.

What Occurs When the Car owner is Not Drunk?

  • When the driver is not that drunk or not completely
    drunk, there is a continuous flow of IR rays between the
    Source and sensor.
  • His activates the relay circuit and gives a high o/p at
    pin 7
  • This significant o/p is fed to the key terminal
  • This completes the electric circuit containing the key, engine
    and the battery.
  • The car starts to move.
  • The above-proposed design can also be implemented
    in two wheelers.
  • A few technological additions like a GPS tracking
    the system could be used to alert the cops.
  • Proximity device could be used to show that the vehicle is going to stop. This could be useful for the
    vehicles behind
  • The system benefits in  a way that the car user cannot
    Even interfere with it. Because the petrol supply valve is
    uncluttered only when all the machinery are working
    So if anyone meddles with it or if the
    liquor content is overhead a particular limit; fuel is not
    used and the vehicle cannot be started.
  • Also when the fuel stream is cut-off, the carriage doesn’t
    stop sharply. This aids to prevent accident with
    the vehicles are coming behind.
  • This circuit notices the alcohol directly
  • This circuit is simple in construction.
  • Readily available ICs are used.
  • Accountability of the circuit is high.
  • High Accuracy.
  • Cars
  • Trucks
  • Buses
  • Lories
  • Trailers

line level source

1  #include <reg51.h>


 3 void delay (unsigned int del)

 4 {

 5 1

 6 1 unsigned int i,j ;

 7 1

 8 1 for (i=0;i<deli++)

9 1 for (j=0; j<1275;j++);

 10 1

11 1}



 14 #define LCD_PORT P2


16 sbit RS = P2^0;

17 sbit RW = P2^1;

 18 sbit EN = P2^2;


20 sbit SENSE = P1^0;

 21 sbit SW = P1^1;

 22 sbit RLY = P1^2;


 24 void lcd_ command (unsigned int cmd)

25 {

 26 1 LCD_PORT = (cmd & 0xF0);

 27 1 RS = 0;

 28 1 RW = 0;

 29 1 EN = 1;

 30 1 delay(1);

31 1 EN = 0;

32 1

 33 1 LCD_PORT = ((cmd<<4) & 0xF0);

34 1 RS = 0;

 35 1 RW = 0;

 36 1 EN = 1;

37 1 delay(1);

 38 1 EN = 0;

39 1 }


 41 void lcd_data(unsigned int dat)

 42 {

 43 1 LCD_PORT = (dat & 0xF0);

 44 1 RS = 1;

 45 1 RW = 0;

46 1 EN = 1;

47 1 delay(1);

48 1 EN = 0;

 49 1

 50 1 LCD_PORT = ((dat<<4) & 0xF0);

 51 1 RS = 1;

 52 1 RW = 0;

 53 1 EN = 1;

54 1 delay(1);

 C51 COMPILER V9.56.0.0 MAIN

 55 1 EN = 0;

 56 1

 57 1 }


59 void lcd_string(unsigned char *str)

 60 {

 61 1

 62 1 unsigned char i = 0;

 63 1

 64 1 while (str[i] != '0')

 65 1 {

GSM Modem for Vehicle Services

 66 2

67 2 lcd_data(str[i]);

 68 2 i++;

69 2

 70 2

 71 1 }


 73 void lcd_init()

74 {

 75 1

 76 1 lcd_command(0x02);

 77 1 lcd_command(0x28);

78 1 lcd_command(0x06);

 79 1 lcd_command(0x0C);

80 1

 81 1

82 1 }

 83 void lcd_num(unsigned int num)

84 {

 85 1

86 1 unsigned int d = 0;

 87 1

 88 1 lcd_command(0x04);

 89 1

 90 1 if(num==0)

 91 1 {

 92 2

 93 2 lcd_data(48);

 94 2

95 2 }

96 1

97 1 while(num>0)

 98 1 {

 99 2 d = num%10;

 100 2

101 2 lcd_data(d+48);

102 2

103 2 num = num/10;

 104 2

105 2 }

106 1

 107 1 lcd_command(0x06);

 108 1

 109 1 }


111 void main()

 112 {

113 1 unsigned char flag = 0;

 114 1 P2 = 0;

115 1 SW = 1;

  • SENSE = 1;

 C51 COMPILER V9.56.0.0 MAIN

 117 1 RLY = 0;

 118 1

 119 1 lcd_init();

 120 1 lcd_command(0x80);

121 1 lcd_string("ALCOHOL DETECT");

122 1

 123 1 delay(400);

 124 1

 125 1 while(1)

 126 1 {

 127 2

 128 2 lcd_command(0x01);

 129 2 lcd_command(0x80);

 130 2 lcd_string("ALCOHOL DETECT");

131 2

132 2 lcd_command(0xC0);

 133 2 lcd_string("SENSING......");

134 2 135 2 delay(300);

 136 2

137 2 if(SENSE==0)

 138 2

 { 139 3

 140 3 lcd_command(0xC0);

141 3 lcd_string(" ");

 142 3

 143 3 lcd_command(0xC0);

 144 3

145 3 lcd_string("DETECTED !!!!!");

 146 3

147 3 delay(500);

 148 3

149 3

150 3 flag=1;

 151 3

 152 3 }

 153 2

154 2 else

155 2 {

 156 3

 157 3 lcd_command(0xC0);

158 3 lcd_string(" ");

 159 3

 160 3 lcd_command(0xC0);

161 3

 162 3 lcd_string("CHECK OK !!!");

163 3

164 3 delay(500);

 165 3

166 3

167 3 flag=0;

 168 3

169 3

 170 3 }

171 2

 172 2 lcd_command(0x01);

 173 2 lcd_command(0x80);

 174 2 lcd_string("ENGINE START");

 175 2

176 2 delay(100);

177 2

178 2 while(SW==1);

 C51 COMPILER V9.56.0.0 MAIN  

179 2

 180 2

 181 2 if(flag==0)

182 2 {

183 3 RLY = 1;

 184 3

 185 3 delay(800);

 186 3

187 3 RLY = 0;

 188 3

 189 3 flag=0;

 190 3 }

191 2

192 2 delay(800);

 193 2

 194 2 }

195 1

 196 1

 197 1

198 1 }









 CODE SIZE = 472 ----

 CONSTANT SIZE = 89 ----

 XDATA SIZE = ---- ----

PDATA SIZE = ---- ----

DATA SIZE = ---- 9

IDATA SIZE = ---- ----

BIT SIZE = ---- ----



An operational solution is given to develop the intellectual system for cars which will be used to observe various parameters of means of transportation in-between constant period and will conduct this data to the base unit as clarified in this paper, by by means of hardware platform who’s Fundamental is Arduino, Liquor sensor mq3, GPS & GSM module. The considered system would finish the purpose of connecting with the base station via GPS, GSM and control of various strictures. The whole Controller system has the benefit of small volume and high dependability. Forthcoming scope of this system is to manage the accidents and providing useful information about the fortuitous automobile, thereby decreasing the rate at which accidents are taking place due to drunken driving. This system takes along innovation to the current technology in the automobiles and also advances the safety features, hence evidencing to be an operational development in the motor industry.

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