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While quoting the references, be sure of the authenticity. The references should be preferable from Journal, conferences from standard scientific bodies like IEEE, Elsevier, Springer etc. Kindly be mindful of fake journals. You can also refer to magazine articles and standard websites.

Your review should follow the following structure:

  • Introduction
    • Introduce your topic
    • Outline what you will discuss throughout the review
    • Frame the paper with your thesis
    • Tell your audience why it is important that you reviewed the literature in your topic area
  • Body
    • Can take different forms depending on your topic
    • Break it up into sections if this is helpful (i.e. if you are studying three different methodologies, then you can break your body into three main sections)
    • Go through all of the literature in detail, in an organized fashion
  • Discussion/Conclusion
    • Restate your thesis
    • Wrap up your review by drawing everything together and making sure it is clear what conclusions you draw about your topic or field of study based on the  research studies you read and analyzed.

Methodologies for Internet of Things in Livestock

This paper would discuss in depth about the use of internet of things in livestock. Internet of things is the network of appliances, devices and various items which uses sensors, connectivity and software for exchanging the data. Livestock is the animals which are domesticated especially for the business purpose such as selling dairy products, meats and providing wool. The application of IoT in livestock and animal faming includes monitoring of animal healthcare, animal livestock identification by using sensors and displaying the details with the help of QR code [1]. The paper would discuss the methodologies involved in the management of livestock through the internet of things. It would provide the methodologies such as monitoring, breathe analyzer method and methods for the fitness and feeding the animals. It would explain the different types of applications, software and process utilized for the adoption of this methods. The use of sensors is very common in livestock management with the help of internet of things. It would also investigates on the implications of using different software for the three methods described and provide the advantages of this methods.

The arrangement of computerized and mechanical machine, gadgets, software which are capable of exchanging information over a system is defined as internet of things (IoT). Livestock is defined as the domesticated animals who are raised as an agricultural asset [2]. The implementation of internet of things for the livestock management is considered to be an emerging and efficient process. This section of the paper would discuss the methodologies for internet of things in livestock. This paper would discuss three methodologies used for the livestock management which are animal monitoring system, breath analyzing method and livestock feeding. The methodologies can be explained as follows.

The monitoring of the livestock includes metabolic activities, identification, and reproductive cycle of animals [3]. The metabolic monitoring is an important aspect of livestock management with the help of internet of things. The method uses a nano bio sensor which includes the electrochemical additives, device for exchanging the information and the antennas [4]. This sensors have been used in the animal model to ensure that it does not harm the animals when present inside their body. The use of device was found to be effective.

Health monitoring is an important aspect of use of internet of things for animals [5]. It includes the technologies in form of wearable for streaming the data to the cloud. This methodology is capable of monitoring the respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure and various such factors which are used for assessing the health of a livestock. .  This systems can help the farmer in taking actions on the basis of this report.  Internet of things can be used for monitoring the reproductive cycle of the animals. The use of this devices can eliminate the work load of continuous supervision of the farmer. It would be efficient is solving the feeding issues of the animals.

Monitoring methodology

                                                           

The use of health monitoring process would benefit the farmer and industries using animals for business purpose by decreasing the rate of losS of livestock [7]. The IoT wearables are used for both the monitoring and tracking of the animals. The location of an animal can be easily traced with the help of wearable sensors and this would increase the ease of the farmers while raising them. It can provide the information about the animals who are separated from the herd. The different behavior of the animals would be reported to the farmers with the help of the devices available to the farmer for keeping the track. The feature of sensor location tracking can be adjusted according to the requirement and the numbers of animals available to a farmer [10]. It can also be optimized with the health tracking device and can be used as a single device for both the purpose.

The method of breath analyzer for the livestock is important as it is capable of providing the blood sugar level of the animal. The very common respiratory illness in animals includes chronic respiration and bovine tuberculosis. The methods used for the breath analysis of livestock are needle trap extraction and stable technology. It gives the information about the exhaled breath. This obtained data is used for analyzing the disorder of the livestock [6]. The devices of internet of things used for heady scent detection is useful for detecting the disease in livestock.

                                                               

A form of livestock sickness is known as Bovine tuberculosis and this disease has significance in worldwide health of public. This disease can be detected with the help of a sensor device based on the nanotechnology is found effective in detecting the Bovine disease in the animals. The screening methods are utilized for identifying the ailment of the foot and the mouth. The air born disease are identified by using electrostatic particle seize technique. The breathe analyzer technique has the capabilities of examining the respiratory and various such infection in animals. The identification of disease in animal is important as it increases the productivity of farmer and farmhouses. The health of animal which are consumed on a large scale is important as it can affect the health of the people consuming them. The use of nanotechnology sensor, screening method and electrostatic particle seize technique are effective for the management of the livestock with the help of internet of technologies.  

Breathe Analyzer Methodology

The development of applications for providing connection among the proprietors of the pet and the medical service providers has been increased efficiently with the help of internet of things [11]. The various applications and software have been developed for the cattle managers and the dairy provider so that their business can function smoothly. The prominent methods used for the checking the fitness of the livestock is Pet Dialog application [13]. This application allows the farmer or the dairy manager to manage the food intake by the animals, exercise, feeding and various such activities of the animal. It provides assistance to the owner or farmer about the fitness and food consumption of the livestock. The application collects the data according to the animal and provides alert based on this report. The applications are utilized by the veterinary hospitals for scheduling the appointment of the animals or checking all the animals of a farm. Apart from the use of applications and internet of things for the health issues of animals, it is also used for making payments to the doctor or for the payment of the dairy products and the food of the animals. The applications can also be used for sending the details of the fitness of animals to the medical service providers of the animals.

                                                   

The requirement of food in the farms are very high and thus in order to meet this requirements various technologies are developed. The applications for making automation of the long process of food manufacturing is developed. BCS is an application developed for accounting the capability of the cow and their condition [14]. This application is available in ten different languages. The importance of this applications for checking the fitness of the livestock can be understood by the fact that the most of disease in human beings are originated from the animals. Thus it is very important to analyze the illness at a very initial stage in order to avoid the spreading of disease to a large extent.

Conclusion:

It can be concluded that this paper is efficient in providing the methodologies used for livestock management through the help of the internet of things. It provides a brief introduction to the livestock management and requirement of internet of things for the livestock. The next section of the paper explains the methodologies of internet of things used in the livestock management. This paper discussed the three methodologies which are monitoring methodology, breathe analyzer method and fitness and feeding method for the animals. It provides the analysis of the monitoring methodology and various aspects of monitoring such as health monitoring, tracking the animals and monitoring the reproductive cycle of the livestock. The paper is efficient in explaining the breathe analyzer method by providing the process and the methods of detecting the disease. It also identifies the various types of livestock sickness and relevant technologies involved in this detection. The third method explained in this paper is the fitness and feeding method used and the relevant software as the Pet Dialog. It discusses the advantages of using such application for the maintenance of livestock. Therefore it can be concluded that this paper is appropriate in providing all the requirements.

References:

  • Shifeng, Yao, Feng Chungui, He Yuanyuan, and Zhu Shiping, "Application of IOT in agriculture," Journal of Agricultural Mechanization Research7, 2011: 190-193.
  • Nukala, Revathi, Krishna Panduru, Andrew Shields, Daniel Riordan, Pat Doody, and Joseph Walsh, "Internet of Things: A review from ‘Farm to Fork’," In Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC), 2016 27th Irish, pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2016.
  • Berckmans, Daniel, "Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems," Scientific and Technical Review of the Office International des Epizooties33, no. 1, 2014: 189-196.
  • Prasad, Ram, Vivek Kumar, and Kumar Suranjit Prasad, "Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: present concerns and future aspects," African Journal of Biotechnology13, no. 6, 2014: 705-713.
  • Kumar, Anuj, and P. Gerhard . Hancke, "A zigbee-based animal health monitoring system," IEEE Sens. J15, no. 1, 2015: 610-617.
  • Dlodlo, Nomusa, and Josephat Kalezhi, "The internet of things in agriculture for sustainable rural development," In Emerging Trends in Networks and Computer Communications (ETNCC), 2015 International Conference on, pp. 13-18. IEEE, 2015.
  • Abbasi, Abu Zafar, Noman Islam, and Zubair Ahmed Shaikh, "A review of wireless sensors and networks' applications in agriculture," Computer Standards & Interfaces36, no. 2, 2014: 263-270.
  • Beng, Lim Teck, Poh Boon Kiat, Lee Ngai Meng, and Phoa Ngee Cheng, "Field testing of IoT devices for livestock monitoring using Wireless Sensor Network, near field communication and Wireless Power Transfer," In Technologies for Sustainability (SusTech), 2016 IEEE Conference on, pp. 169-173. IEEE, 2016.
  • Shengbin, L. Bicheng, Z. Kun and W. Jiangwei, 2014, The design of intelligent breeding livestock monitoring system based on the internet of things (iot). Electronic Measurement Technology, 11, p.021.
  • Beng, Lim Teck, Poh Boon Kiat, Lee Ngai Meng, and Phoa Ngee Cheng, "Field testing of IoT devices for livestock monitoring using Wireless Sensor Network, near field communication and Wireless Power Transfer," In Technologies for Sustainability (SusTech), 2016 IEEE Conference on, pp. 169-173. IEEE, 2016.
  • Lassen, Jan, P. C. Garnsworthy, M. G. Chagunda, Enyew Negussie, P. Lovendahl, and Yvette de Haas. "Progress with genetic selection for low methane traits in dairy cows," 2014.
  • A  Abernethy, P. Upton, I. M. Higgins, G. McGrath, A. V. Goodchild, S. J. Rolfe, J. M. Broughan et al., "Bovine tuberculosis trends in the UK and the Republic of Ireland, 1995–2010," Veterinary Record172, no. 12, 2013: 312-312.
  • Croney, C. Candace, "Bonding with commodities: Social constructions and implications of human–animal relationships in contemporary livestock production," Animal Frontiers4, no. 3, 2014: 59-64.
  • R. Tolleson, and D. W. Schafer, "Application of fecal near-infrared spectroscopy and nutritional balance software to monitor diet quality and body condition in beef cows grazing Arizona rangeland." Journal of animal science92, no. 1, 2014: 349-358.
  • Lebacq, P.V.  Baret and D. Stilmant, 2013, Sustainability indicators for livestock farming. A review. Agronomy for sustainable development, 33(2), pp.311-327.
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