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1) What does the statement "the best interface for a system is no User Interface"?  When might this apply and provide two examples.

2) Compare the bandwidth, distance, interference rating, cost and security of a) twisted pair cable, b) coaxial cable and 3) fibre optic cable.  Use current data, give specific details for at least 3 types of cable within each category, these should have different specifications, rather than simply different brands of the same type.

3) The three common ways to obtain information from IoT devices are sensors, RFID and Video tracking.  Compare the three technologies by addressing the advantages, disadvantages, key requirements for the things.  Provide two applications of each (these applications should NOT be sourced from the textbook).  You may use a table to present the material if you wish.

4) Discuss the issues associated with security and privacy in the context of the Internet of Things.

5) An IoT water level monitoring application requires updates from a sensor periodically, using the command/response paradigm. The application triggers a request every 1 s. The round-trip propagation delay between the application and the sensor is 12 ms. On average the sensor consumes 3 ms to process each request. The application consumes 2 ms to send or receive any message. If the application blocks on every request to the sensor, how much of its time budget can be saved by redesigning the application to use the publish/subscribe communication model in lieu of the command/response approach?

6) Describe Nielson's Law.  How does it relate to Moore's Law?  What are the implications for the Internet of Thing?

The Best Interface for IoT Systems

1: The real problem that is mainly faced with an interface is basically it is an interface. In doing any daily task with the interface gets into the way it would be all together a very bad option. The main focus should be on the task and not on the interface which is related to the task. The main aspect that should be followed practically is that the mere job is not basically done on the job or it can be stated that the effort in doing a job is not on the interface it should be putting effort on a job. When a job is directly related to a interface the main design aspect is related to the inherent inhuman, unnatural which directly gives a diminishing return. The better aspect in such a scenario is not putting any emphasis on the interface and full emphasis should be towards the job which is to be performed.

In refrigerators the user interface is implemented to control the overall temperature. This is mainly achieved by the use of a remote control which has a user interface attached to it. The remote can directly control or modify the temperature of the refrigerator and open or close the door. An extra benefit is the child clock system which helps it to protect from childer in accessing it (Takai et al., 2013). If we eliminate the user interface system by implementing sensor the door of the refrigerator can open automatically which would directly reduce the work load.

User interface in the merchant pay role by using of a remote application (Fisher, 2013) the implementation of the no user interface would directly reduce the steps involved in any process and which would be highly beneficial for the user.

Cable types

Bandwidth

Distance

Interference rating

Cost

Security

Twisted Pair Cable

1MHz

100m

Limited to distance with regards to susceptible to interference

Cost is much less than other

Security aspect is less

Coaxial Cable

1GHz

500m

Interference compared to others are least susceptible

Comparing to others it has medium cost

Breaching is easy as it has less security involved in the technology (Winzer 2014).

Fibre Optic Cable

75 THz

10km (Single-mode)

2Km (multimode)

 EMI is least susceptible

Cost is on the higher side

Security is high

IoT Devices

Advantages

Disadvantages

Application

Sensors

* affect by calamities like atmospheric and, snow.

*can be used in different environmental condition

*signals received are very much difficult to reflect which is mainly from curves or thin and soft objects.

* Alarm system is smart.

*washing machine can be considered smart

*Smart lightning.

RFID

* 100% code data security is assured which cannot be duplicated

* Available in large number of sizes, types and materials.

*cost is more than barcode

 * Less reliability due to complexity in understanding.

*Longer than the Barcode labels.

.

* applied to baggage and apparel and pharmaceutical tracking (Gubbi et al., 2013).

*It has also application in museum, school and universities.

Video Tracking

* communication with regards to devices.

*Automation and control.

*Collects information.

*with video tracking monitoring is a added advantage (Singh, Tripathi and jara, 2014).

* livelihood quality are improved.

*There is not any compatibility of international standard for the monitoring equipments.

*complex system is more which can increase the risk related to failure.

.

*Human-computer interaction.

*Augmentation of reality.

*Medical imaging.

*Video communication.

The main aspect related to the security issue is the denial of service attack (DOS) , because of this they’re very many websites which can be termed as popular were not able to be accessed. The list was so large that it made a huge wave in the technology the list included Amazon, Netflix and many others. The attack was launched by a malware activity which can be termed as Mirai. The result of the attack was that it launched a scour piece of activity which include the internet of thing devices and then enlisted those devices which included them to the target machine of the activity. (Suo et al., 2012).

Comparison of Bandwidth, Distance, Interference Rating, Cost and Security of Different Cable Types

Much important information which can be termed as personal information where hacked by the hackers in orders to get their personal benefit and it lead to a huge problem in different sphere. The technology directly implemented and it can be related to any banking sector. The banking sector can be considered as the most sensitive aspect of information where all the details of any particular personal can be received quite easily by the practice of hacking (Borgohian, Kumar and Sanyal, 2015).

In this mode the end point which is considered as the main aspect with regards to the request which is originally originated from the side of the opearator will have to wait in queue in order to get response of the request it had made or originated. This implementation is mainly done after the end point request operation has completed its final processing, this may directky involve the waiting time from the view of the originators. In this case asynchronous message would not be received by the originator which merely means that the emphasis would be put on the originators side will have to pay a specific role in order to creating a exhnaging scenario with emphasis on the originator and the receiver.

It is also referred as pub/sub which enables the communication with respect to the unidirectional with emphasis on two or more subscribers from the part of the publisher. After the subscriber declares the interest with emphasis on the indicated category, it then inserts the message to the interested subscriber.

                                   

Figure: Publish-Subscribe Paradigm

Command/Response Paradigm:

                                                   

Figure: Command/Response paradigm

Nielson’s law Statement: the law states the growth would  increase upto 50% 1983 and 2016. The statement of Nielson law is “A high-end user’s collection speed grows by 50% per year”.

Neilson’s law and Moore’s law were quite common but due to the factor of implementation the law which was stated by Moore were accepted more than the law which is stated by Nelson . Moore stated that “computer double in capabilities every 18 months”, which is related with 60% of annual growth.

In around 2024 it is merly expected that the technology which involves sensor technology will eventually break through the concept of “trillion sensor” which would be beneficial in the near future which would be beneficial with the creating of data stream virtually from every surrounding surface. Microchip will be directly implemented in the body sensor or in the skin sensor. (Bonomi et al., 2017).

References:

Borgohain, T., Kumar, U., & Sanyal, S. (2015). Survey of security and privacy issues of Internet of Things. arXiv preprint arXiv:1501.02211.

Fisher, M. (2013). U.S. Patent No. 8,352,323. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Ha, S. K., Kim, G. S., Choi, S. M., Kim, S. K., Kim, J. G., Park, M., ... & Sim, K. (2013). PHILS based protection system design for an HTS power cable installed in a grid. ?????? ???? ???, 339-340.

Lee, W., Cheon, M., Hyun, C. H., & Park, M. (2013). Development of building fire safety system with automatic security firm monitoring capability. Fire safety journal, 58, 65-73.

Nielsen, J. (2014). Nielsen’s Law of Internet Bandwidth, 1998.

Singh, D., Tripathi, G., & Jara, A. J. (2014, March). A survey of Internet-of-Things: Future vision, architecture, challenges and services. In Internet of things (WF-IoT), 2014 IEEE world forum on (pp. 287-292). IEEE.

Sommer, J., & Franz, W. (2012). A Component-based Simulation Model and its Implementation of a Switched Ethernet Network.

Suo, H., Wan, J., Zou, C., & Liu, J. (2012, March). Security in the internet of things: a review. In Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE), 2012 international conference on (Vol. 3, pp. 648-651). IEEE.

Takai, I., Ito, S., Yasutomi, K., Kagawa, K., Andoh, M., & Kawahito, S. (2013). LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications. IEEE Photonics Journal, 5(5), 6801418-6801418.

Tozlu, S., Senel, M., Mao, W., & Keshavarzian, A. (2012). Wi-Fi enabled sensors for internet of things: A practical approach. IEEE Communications Magazine, 50(6).

Winzer, P. J. (2014). Spatial multiplexing in fiber optics: The 10x scaling of metro/core capacities. Bell Labs Technical Journal, 19, 22-30.

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