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Impact of bismuth and iron on Sn solder alloy properties

Discuss about the Electronic Components and Technology Conference.

The Sn solder alloy was made from the copper, lead, top and indium to get the solder alloy of low melting temperature. These elements were weighed initially by the balance of electronic that is digitally based of every nominal then followed by melting in the furnace by the temperature of 450degress Celsius for around one hour to get the composition that is homogeneous. The ingot was melted again for around four times. Then the ingots underwent compression to the thickness of one millimetre by using the hydraulic compression machine and pressed by the puncher to the billet shape for melting and the test of hardness. Before the test, the billets were polished and etched in the natal for around sixty seconds and observed under the microscope optical for the study of microstructures. 

The test of the wettability was performed by soldering the Sn solder alloy on the substrate of copper and the angle of contact was measured using the software of VIS pro.  Melting point was evaluated using the test of differential scanning calorimetry. The test of hardness was performed based on the Vickers hardness with the load of one kilo-newton applied to the Sn solder alloy. The thickness of the billet was 5 millimeter with the thickness of one millimeter in every element; the billets were used to test the density. The density of the Sn solder alloy was determine by the use the machine of electronic densimeter to ensure that the values gotten are accurate by calculation of the density (Hess, 2014).

For the analysis of the thermal, the temperature for melting was analyzed by the use of the differential scanning electron from the instrument of TA. The analysis was performed at the rate of heating of 10degrees Celsius per minute with the temperature ranging from o to 500 degrees Celsius under the atmosphere of nitrogen. The bullet weight was approximated to be 10 grams. The coefficient expansion of thermal of the Sn was evaluated by the use of the L75 machine of series of platinum from the leases.  The bullet solders were cylindrically made with the 5mm of diameter and 10mm of height. Testing of the shear was carried out for strength testing of the joints.  The extreme shear forces were determined with the velocity of crosshead of 0.01mm/s and transformed to strength of shear (Hua, 2015).

Thermal analysis and aging of Sn solder alloy

On the addition of the bismuth to the Sn-based soldier reduces the temperature of the melting at once promote the wetting.  with the addition of the bismuth, the SAC microstructure of the Sn solder alloy is changed drastically from the primary Sn grain large number surrounded by the regions of eutectic to a large number of the needle-like small AgSn and particles of CuSn that are dark grey, that is distributed uniformly within the matrix of the alloy.  The Bi cluster particles with around the dimension of 2micrometer could be observed when the content of Bi is 3wt/% (Jiang, 2015).

Iron is used in the industries because it’s cheap, available, its toxicity is very low, high balancer of temperature and excellent magnetic and mechanical properties. The addition of Fe element to the Sn soldier alloy boosts the wettability of the soldier and also inhibits none particle growth to the solder alloy. The nanoarrays morphology was investigated by the use of scanning electron microscope and the analyzer of the quantitative chemical was performed by the X-ray of the energy dispersive spectroscopy.  The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy examines were made by the alpha of K monochromatic high-performance XPS spectrometer (Jiang, 2012).

The studies of the X-ray diffraction were performed by using diffractometric of Rigaku Radb equipped with the copper Kα radiation. Thermal diffusivity of the Sn solder alloy was measured using the instrument of nano flash where the side front of the sample was heated by the light pulse and the signals of the resulting temperature verse time on the rear surface was evaluated using the detector of infrared (Jiang, 2012).

Ageing of the samples subsequently resulted in the copious formation of the CF voids, their growth and clustering.  It noteworthy that the CV voids were found more near the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic in the soldier bulk or near the layer of IMC on the substrate of copper (Jiang, 2014). For the analysis of the thermal, the temperature for melting was analyzed by the use of the differential scanning electron from the instrument of TA. The analysis was performed at the rate of heating of 10degrees Celsius per minute with the temperature ranging from o to 500 degrees Celsius under the atmosphere of nitrogen. The bullet weight was approximated to be 10 grams

An assymetrical intefacial microstructures were detected at bottom and top boundaries of copper-Sn when the scanning electron microscope was used after aging of isothermal at 120 degrees celcius for different occasions.  the interfacial assymetrical microstructures resulted from Bi segregation that attributed to difference in the density betwewen the atoms of Bi and Sn. Bi atomes were transferred to the bottom of interface of Solder-Cu by the gravity during the procedure of soldering because the atoms of Bi are massive than the atoms of Sn. with the increasing time of ageing, BI was found at the bottom of interfacer of Cu-Sn and its segregation leads to the growth of intermetallic compounds of Cu-Sn , blocked transport of Sn to the intermetallic compounds of Cu-SN and facilitated their growth.

Properties of Sn-Bi and Sn-Cu solder alloys

While investigating the microstructure of pure tin samples the voids of crystallographically faceted were still observed but were rare or fewer groups of CFV were seen though could be found in any material in lower amounts.

Standard alloy systems of SnBi have the melting point of 138 degrees Celsius. Hence, the targeted temperature for melting range of the alloy was preferred to be below 170 degrees Celsius. This enables the temperature for the soldering to be limited to 170 to 200 degrees Celsius avoiding the damages of the thermal to the components of the soldiered electronics.  The low point of melting is desirable because it saves cost through low consumption of the power. Narrow liquids and solidus temperature range were preferred for the alloy because it favors the process of soldering and the case of the system of Sn-Bi results in the solder joint preferred cosmetically (Meininger, 2012).

Sn-Bi Low dissolution of the copper is preferred to avoid destruction of the solder alloy. Allow with the high content of Sn and Ag and allows with high melting points have the best properties of copper dissolution. High dissolution of copper in any soldier alloy leads to the formation of the Cu6Sn5 phase of intermetallic.  Which is observed in the case of Cu-Sn-Bi alloy compared to Sn BI has the lower rate of Cu Sn formation. The tests of tensile were performed as per the ASTM E8 tensile test.  The addition of Sn BI alloy leads to high strength of the tensile


Copper added to the alloy of Sn-Bi form the CuSn intermetallic that is dispersed in the matrix. The phase of Sn with the dispersed Bi forms the morphology of lamellar that is a type of eutectic Sn42Bi58 phase. Although CuSn intermetallic is in the matrix, the addition of 0.4wt% Cu increases the elongation and the strength of the alloy. Other additions help in the strengthening the precipitate of Si-Bi matrix and refined microstructures of the alloy for strength improvement of the solder alloy. The microstructure of the Sn42Bi58 sample bulk is found to be lamellar with more continuity of high brittle Bi-rich phase of lighter color in the Sn-Bi soldier eutectic. Minor additions of elements like Cu refine the microstructure hence the case of Sn42Bi57.6Ag0.4, the continuity of large phase pf Bi brittle with large areas of the ductile phase like Sn in the solder eutectic alloy (Moon, 2010)

A low-temperature processing is necessary for stopping damages of heat to the devices of electronics during process of soldering. Soldering at low temperature reduced the danger of the shock of thermally prompted by the mismatch of expansion between many materials in the packages of electronics. The elements of alloying used to reduce the temperature of melting of the solder alloy should obey to the directives of resistance of the materials that are hazardous and possess low melting point like bismuth, indium and gallium (Zhu, 2013). Another application of step soldering that is common when the soldering the device that needs many steps which is the availability of solders with the low point of melting will make many processes of reflow on the single board.  In this application, the soldier in the step of subsequent must have the reduce melting point than the one utilized in the step of preceding (Panigrahi, 2017).

Low-temperature processing for electronics packaging

 Because of the demand for the utilization of electronic gadgets in the industry, the solder connection use has improved. Regarding the toxicity of the lead in Sn Pb solder alloy, coming up with the lead-free alloy solder with the low temperature of the melting point in one of the most significant issue in the electronic industry (Yim, 2016). The testing of the differential scanning calorimetry indicates that the alloy of the alloy gave low melting temperatures as 141.31 degrees Celsius. Conventional technologies of soldering have become essential for the packaging and interconnection of all gadgets of electronics and circuits. Customary tin-lead has been using as inter-connects of electrical in the industries of electronics, however, the toxic lead causes the dangerous impact on the health and environment (Wong, 2014).

The temperature of melting is a grave characteristics of solder since it regulates the system’s temperature of operation and less temperature of processing that the device should persist. The melting curves of Sn Bi were evaluated from the endothermic topmost of single sharp of heating curve of DSC within the temperature of zero to five hundred degrees Celsius. Ultimately the solder alloy efficiency depends on the process of alloying and examples like Sn-Pb, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Bi are the mixtures of elements giving out solder alloy (Zhu, 2013).

 It is true that the formation of characteristics and kinetic of copper-Sn intermetallic compounds in the chip ceramic carrier that is leadless surface mounts soldier joints when the soldering the reflow. a thickness of the Cu-Sn IMC layer in the surface mount soldier joint is caused by the high temperature of reflow when soldering, prolonged time of storage, long time of reflow, and long operation term of the electronic assembly at room temperature. When the Sn-Pb solder melts on the substrate of the copper of a printed circuit board when soldering, Cu-Sn IMC forms immediately at the interface and function as the material for bonding between the pad Cu and the bulk material.  It is illustrated as: d=square root of Dt. where d is the thickness layers, D is the coefficient of interdiffusion, and t is the time for aging. High magnification SEM diagrams showing the views of cross section of the interface of Cu-SN in the surface of 0805 mounted joints of soldier annealed at 155 degrees Celsius.

The results of DCS are summarized above and the temperature for melting of the soldier was measured as 160.67 degrees Celsius, 34.85% lower than the temperatures of other alloys with around 217 degrees Celsius and 18.88% lower than the melting temperatures of CuSn and Cu Sn BI with 183 degrees Celsius.  All the samples showed the melting peak of 143.51 degrees Celsius and after the eutectic point of melting the peak of melting was around 143.51 degrees Celsius to 160.67 degrees Celsius. Cu has the lowest point of melting compared to other types of metals and its addition to the soldier can decrease reduces the melting point by around 4%

Conclusion

This repeat presents the results of the experiments om the Sn42Bi58 joint solders, SEM and optical microstructures of their matrix and the copper interface, behavior of the solidification studied, melting points by differential scanning calorimetry, creep, copper wettability and fatigue of low cycle. Because of the demand for the utilization of electronic gadgets in the industry, the solder connection use has improved. Regarding the toxicity of the lead in Sn Pb solder alloy, coming up with the lead-free alloy solder with a low temperature of a melting point is one of the most significant issues in the electronics industry.

The testing by the differential scanning calorimetry demonstrations that the solder alloy produces the low melting temperatures as 141.31 degrees Celsius. Conventional technologies of soldering have become essential for the packaging and interconnection of all gadgets of electronics and circuits. Customary tin-lead has been used as interconnects of electrical in the industries of electronics, however, the toxic lead causes a dangerous impact on the health and environment. Ultimately the solder alloy efficiency depends on the process of alloying and examples like Sn-Pb, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Bi are the mixtures of elements giving out solder alloy.

A low-temperature processing is necessary for stopping damages of heat to the gadgets of electronics during process of soldering. Soldering at low temperature reduced the danger of the shock of thermally induced by the mismatch of expansion among many materials in the packages of electronics.  The elements of alloying used to lower the temperature of melting of the solder alloy should obey to the directives of resistance of the materials that are hazardous and possess low melting points like bismuth, indium and gallium. Another application of step soldering that is common when the soldering the device that needs many steps which is the availability of solders with the low point of melting will make many processes of reflow on the single board.  In this application, the soldier in the step of subsequent must have the lower melting point than the one used in the step of preceding.


There are many types of dopants that can be added to the solder alloys and enhance solder alloys properties. The alloy solders functions as the dopants and the matrix act a reinforcement in the learning materials.  An of the dopants to the alloy solder gives good microstructure, slower the layer growth of IMC increases the hardness of the alloy soldier and the strength of high shear, also it increases elongation and changes the fracture to the ductile fracture.

While developing new alloys for the temperature, improvements in the properties of mechanical serves as the key to indication of the potential performance. In this report, many alloys that are low temperatures like lead-free and eutectic with good mechanical properties, high conductivity of thermal, high resistance of creep and low rate of dissolution of copper. Improvement in the properties of metallurgical and the properties for soldering for SMT assembly have been gotten. These improvements were made by maintaining the desirable attribute like alloy spread and melting temperature close to the Sn-Bi standards eutectic alloys.

Hess, D., 2014. The growth of carbon nanotube stacks in the kinetics-controlled regime. New York: Carbon.

Hua, F., 2015. Thermal properties of tin/silver alloy nanoparticles for low temperature lead-free interconnect technology. Florida: Electronic Components & Technology Conference.

Jiang, H., 2012. Tin/indium nano bundle formation from aggregation or growth of nanoparticles. Michigan: Journal of Nanoparticle Research.

Jiang, H., 2012. Tin/Silver/Copper alloy nanoparticles paste for low temperature lead-free interconnect applications. London: Electronic Components & Technology Conference.

Jiang, H., 2014. Ultra High Conductivity of Isotropic Conductive Adhesives. Nevada: The IEEE Proceedings of the 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference.

Jiang, H., 2015. Surface Functionalized Silver Nanoparticles for Ultra-Highly Conductive Polymer Composites. London: Chemistry of Materials.

Meininger, A., 2012. Magnetic nanocomposite for potential ultrahigh frequency microelectronic application. Melbourne: Journal of Electronic Materials.

Moon, K., 2010. Low-temperature carbon nanotube film transfer via conductive adhesives. Nevada: Electronic Components & Technology Conference.

Moon, K., 2010. Synthesis, thermal and wetting properties of tin/silver alloy nanoparticles for low melting point lead-free solders. Colorado: Chemistry of Materials.

Moon, K., 2013. Conductivity Enhancement of Nano-Ag Filled Conductive Adhesives by Particle Surface Functionalization. Paris: Journal of Electronic Materials.

Panigrahi, S., 2017. Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles: synthesis, stabilization, optical properties, and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Berlin: Journal of Physical Chemistry B.

Wong, P., 2013. Tin/silver/copper alloy nanoparticles for low-temperature solder pastes interconnect. Berlin: Journal of Electrochemical Society.

Wong, P., 2014. The preparation of stable metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes whose surface were modified during production. New York: Carbon.

Yim, M., 2016. Novel nonconductive adhesives/films with carbon nanotubes for high performance interconnect. Michigan: Journal of Electronic Materials.

Zhang, Z., 2011. Variable Frequency Microwave Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles. Perth: Journal of Nanoparticle Research.

Zhu, L., 2013. A paradigm of carbon nanotube interconnects in microelectronic packaging. Colorado: Journal of Electronic Materials.

Zhu, L., 2013. Low temperature carbon nanotube film transfer via conductive polymer composites. London: Nanotechnology.

Zhu, L., 2013. The Role of Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) on Ag Nanoparticles for Conductive Nanocomposite. Michigan: Proceedings of 10th International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials.

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