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Sources and types of greenhouse gasses emission

Describe about the Environmental Issues Report for Environment Protection Advocates.

Issues to do with environmental degradation have raised an alarm internationally calling a response from major environment protection advocates ranging from state governments, humanitarian movements, and international conventions such as the World Bank, UNEP, and WHO among others. Practically, environmental degradation is a national disaster bringing into attention the corporate and global world into formulating strategies to respond to environmental calamities. Environmental issues affect the political, economic, and social arenas of life. Categorically, in the corporate world, environment affects business operations due to the need of establishing a sustainable development for economic growth. Industrial, agricultural, and human activities contribute to pollution of the environment. The aftermath of the mentioned disciplines is global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, pollution dashboard, and carbon footprint which cause adverse climate changes over time.

The purpose of this report is generating innovative analytic solutions and predictive models applicable to the relevant authorities in solving the environmental issues. The paper will major on greenhouse gas emissions as a pollutant to the environment. Ideally, the research shall be broken into major units ranging from sources of greenhouse gasses emission, impacts of greenhouse gasses emission to the environment, and trends of discharge. Further, the paper shall focus on global models and innovative ideas of mitigating environmental degradation, highlight any possible challenges speculated with the proposed strategies, and offer options in the form of recommendations to solve problems relating to the outlined models to ensure organizations become successful.

The Watson analytic is used to bring into picture the global emission of CO2 taking into account China, United States, Japan, European Union, India, and Russian federation as key emitters of carbon due to increased industrial process. Further, data on trends in greenhouse gasses emission is graphical represented to depict the future outcomes of greenhouse emissions. Models such as numerical model and solutions such as technology assessment needs, and the use of integrated software for business intelligence and planning are structurally constructed basing on the data generated from Watson analytics.

Carbon (IV) oxide. Carbon (IV) oxide gets into the atmosphere by burning solid waste, wood products, and fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal. Some chemical reactions such as cement manufacturing also circulate carbon into the atmosphere.

Nitrous oxide. Emission of methane into the atmosphere is through combustion of fossil fuels, and solid wastes. Nitrous can equally be emitted as a result of industrial and agricultural activities such as fertilizer application on crops.

Methane. Methane is circulated in the atmosphere from livestock and agricultural activities. Additionally, the gas may be emitted during transportation and production of natural gas, oil, and coal. Further, decaying organic waste materials is a source of methane (Tan, 2014).

Fluorinated gases. Industrial processes release hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and other gasses into the atmosphere. These gasses are stronger in depleting the ozone layer causing a global warming effect.

Pie chart diagram showing percentage emissions of green house gasses

Pie chart diagram showing percentage emissions of green house gasses

(Tiwari, Ojha, & Yadav, 2014)

IBM Watson analytics

Global carbon emissions

Research by Edgar foundation on the global emission of carbon (IV) oxide indicates that the rate of carbon emission is rising globally. Emissions from combustion of fossil fuel and industrial processes are at the lead with a percentage representation of 35.7 billion. 2014 Statistics indicate that there was a slighter improvement in CO2 production with only 0.5% of CO2 increment from 2013. This is, however, interesting since the economy grew by 3%.  Energy consumption equally decreased compared to the previous year. Such a sigh of progress is linked to the changes in climate since mild winter considerably helped in limiting fossil fuel demands for space heating in Europe. The top four carbon emitters, China emitted 29.6%, the United States 15.0%, Europe 9.6%, and India 6.5% in the year 2014. India indicated an increase of 7.8% whereas China and United States showed only a slighter increase of 0.9% each in 2014 compared to 2014. Europe showed a reduction of 5.4%.

Source: https://edgar.jrc.ec.europe.eu/news_docs/jrc-2015-trends-in-global-co2-emissions-2015-report-98194

Trends of greenhouse gasses emission

(Hutchison, 2013)

Primary sources of greenhouse emissions are electricity production, agricultural activities, transport industry, commercial and residential, and forestry.  From the data, it is clear that about 20 percent of greenhouse gas emissions have been witnessed since 2000. Changes in the trend of emissions may have resulted due to shifts in the economic position of states, variations in the price of fuel amongst other factors.  Cold winter seasons increases fuel demand for industrial and commercial sectors due to increased transport needs. The trend in the emission of greenhouse gasses emissions is worrying since atmospheric gasses keep on growing on a yearly basis risking the human population and other living things against the effects of ultraviolet rays and global warming.

Greenhouse gas emissions cause some environmental issues ranging from global warming, oceanic acidification, and ozone depletion, changes in plant growth and nutritional levels, and smog pollution.

Global warming. With the inception of the industrial revolution, greenhouse gas levels keep increasing in the atmosphere due to massive industrial and transport program to enhance economic growth (Simon, 2010). The gasses released in the air trap and store heat in the atmosphere increasing surface temperatures by 0.75 degrees Celsius for the past 100 years.  Global warming harms the environment through hazardous conditions such as desertification, stronger storms, increased melting of snow and ice, and sea level rise (Bohringer & World Bank, 2014).

Ocean acidification. Carbon (IV) Oxide is one of the major greenhouse gasses emitted into the atmosphere. The gas sinks in oceans forming carbonic acid in oceans affecting the aquatic lives. Practically, further increase of carbon (IV) oxide in the air also increases the acidic levels of oceans (Barnard, Hain, & Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2014).

Plant growth and nutritional changes. Plants use carbon (IV) oxide for growth and development. Therefore, increase in levels of carbon (IV0 oxide in the atmospheric air, causes a vital importance in the growth of plants. Such plants are subject to higher protein content for example potato tubers. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus equally surface to the advantage of the plants for growth and survival (In Bahadur, In Rajam, In Sahijram, & In Krishnamurthy, 2015).s

Smog pollution.  More concentration of greenhouse gasses increases ozone concentration too.  Emissions such as methane and nitrogen oxides on the ground cause ozone pollutant, a major component of smog that affects human health as well as plant growth (Demidov & Bonnet, 2009). Continuous exposure to ozone reduces life expectancy level causing premature death.  MitigatIng the exposure to ozone has been enhanced via restricted production of soya beans, maize and wheat are necessitated.Ozone layer depletion. Nitrogen oxide destroys the ozone layer.

Trends of greenhouse gasses emission

Depletion of ozone layer comes with significant problems such as exposure to ultraviolet rays that damage the skin through burns. Further exposure to such a risk may cause illness related to skin infection or cancer.

Watson Analytics argues the importance of using simple data to analyze situations, improve on present systems and predict future outcomes. The four models applied in attempts to solve environmental issues are human-mediated processes model, numerical model, environmental governance model, and the social model of environmental impact.

Human-mediated model. The model assumes human decision-making as a major approach to mitigate environmental hazards through adapting to selective activities during their daily living. The global tool used to pass ideas in this model is communication to inform the public of the impact of environment degradation and outlining mitigation process. Societal learning is enhanced under this model to highlight human responses to environmental change (Hutchison, 2013). The use of Agent practical type method of presenting the mitigation procedures will help to enhance understanding the role of human beings in the protection of the environment. Equally, creating urgency in need of eliminating existing hazards such as waste burning, fossil fuels consumption, and others(Caldwell et al., 2009).

Numerical model. The statistical approach relies on the use of real data to access the impact of environment risks to the socio-economic and political wellbeing of the human population. Strategically, real-time data will help in projecting scenarios of change, planning cause of action and budget accordingly.  For example, data on the percentage of carbon (IV) oxide released into the atmosphere will help in establishing technical ways of improving personal lifestyle by reducing consumption of fossil fuels. The approach will equally lead to the development of integrative assessment procedures for further interventions on environmental protection designs (Rosati, Coastal Engineering Research Program (U.S.), Coastal Engineering Research Center (U.S.), & United States, 1993).

Environmental governance model. Environmental management model assumes the role of government in controlling environment through formulating policies that manage industrial processes and human activities for environment protection. For example, carbon emission control act that demands companies to regulate the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere. Enhance this requires businesses to install carbon regulation plants at their sites to safeguard the environment.

The model advocates for sustainable development, however, it raises the needs of managing human activities in the political, social, and economic spheres (In Martin & In Kennedy, 2015). Governance should, therefore, be initiated by the government, businesses, and civil societies. Environmental management model views natural resources and environment as global public goods that carry significant value. In a nutshell, the model calls all stakeholders into ensuring that these global products are suitably utilized for a stable climatic condition. Maintainance of environmental, economic value practical uses management approach to restricting public and private sectors from damaging the environment.

Social model of environmental impact .Studying environmental data within the environment helps in designing a framework that directs investigation of environmental impacts. These surveys shed light on issues attracting greenhouse gasses.  Environmental impact assessment based on proponent components of social model is profoundly represented through culture, political economy, and the social structure (Konstantinou, 2013).

Culture is depicted as a driving force of environmental change. For instance, the use of public opinion helps to measure environmental values and attitudes in many states. Such findings give a clear picture of public concern to environmental issues and influence the choice of technology to use based on public support level. Additionally, social movements serve as grounds where public concerns are translated into policies for transforming environmental impacts. Equally, historical data on culture shape actions towards the environment. For example, religious heritage and technological systems serve as dominant factors of accessing environmental impact by determining beliefs and customs.Technology could be used to suggest the type of tools and machinery for agricultural practices reducing the emission of greenhouse gasses causing environmental degradation. 

Politics influence environmental decisions through measuring the level of democracy and government involvement in the economy. Governments via the constitution shape freedom and rights that may correspond to environmental issues (Mill, 2001).Suggestively, nations that allow much freedom in the economic investments may experience adverse environmental effects due to increased non-monitored industrial processes. Industries may equally boom due to ease of entry leading to more production and releasing of greenhouse gasses. Institutional policies may positively influence environmental quality. For example proper waste disposal and selective chemicals that are biodegradable and environmentally friendly. Statistics show that democratic government systems are more concerned with environmental quality as compared to authoritarian governments.

Impacts of greenhouse gasses emission to the environment

The social structure influences the environment.  State’s economic prosperity correspond the level of environmental concerns. For instance, poverty and inequality negatively affect environmental quality since the affected population becomes less concerned with environmental issues. Poverty, distribution of income, and land affect the technical levels of a nation as well as an individual. The standard of engagement towards environmental concerns is determined by the outlined elements too. Further, there is substantial evidence that gender differences impact environmental concerns. It is perceived that female spent a lot of time cleaning their environment; however, they use more products prone to environmental hazards as compared to men (Lin, 2001).

The greatest challenges of environment analytic data are sheer volume, ability to handle foreign languages, and running real-time information in the system on a daily basis. Off the shelf analytic tools could be a temporary solution to the fixed problems, however; they are limited to a particular purpose and may often fail to address other concerns of greater interests. Validation of data may also be a challenge. Mixed media usage to address client’s specified needs is equally a challenge (Byrski, 2012).

Addressing environmental issues is similarly limited due to lack of involvement from financial institutions, trade conflicts between the state and businesses due to the negligence of environmental agreements, and the social structural gaps leading to institutional failure in global environmental governance (United States, 2010).

Recommendations; Innovative environmental analytic solutions

Technology assessment needs. Assessing technology needs allow countries and industries to determine the best technology and prioritize on those that mitigate greenhouse emissions. It is equally important to understand environmental needs before choosing the type of technology to use in production.  These requirements will determine the best technology choice for running pollution free environment programs and production methods (Sleezer, Russ & Gupta, 2014).  The end mark of such initiatives is maximum participation and support by the public domain.  To some extent, familiarizing with the environment needs will substantiate the training and methods to be embraced in attempts to solve environmental hazards.

Training. Training hikes the levels of accountability as far as environment protection is concerned. Purposively, training prevents further environmental hazards and address existing environmental risks. Training in context enhances professional practice through practical, repetitive and scenario based basis. Such a move increases assurance to personnel dealing with hazardous conditions since they are well equipped with skills and knowledge of handling data and practical approaches to solving the environmental crisis.  Seminars, conferences, and field activities boost workforce and education level of handling environment to reduce further pollutants. For instance, training on mitigation may range from using new technology, renewable energy consumption, changing consumer behavior or management practices.

Use of integrated software for business intelligence and planning. Environmental degradation is linked to conflict due to the proliferation of environmental agreements with companies. Such issues require the management to use integrated software for business intelligence and planning purposes. Business intelligence involves the use of functional business information to detect significant events and monitor business trends to suit the changing environment. The approach will help the management to improve on decision making and tactics translating to a pollution free environment with least carbon emission and other greenhouse gasses (IBI 2011, Qu, & Yang, 2012)

Sample business intelligence integrated software

( Byrski, 2012)

The software plays four principal functions which are; getting insights into consumer behavior, improving visibility, turns data into action based information, and improves efficiency.

Getting insight into consumer behavior. With increased danger of greenhouse gas emissions leading to change in weather patterns, it is possible that most people may change their tastes and preferences. Such an action may work for or against the business. Business intelligence software will help the management to understand the market dynamics and develop products that match the current consumption trends. The approach shall ensure that the firm exists even during adversity and maintain its profit margin by attracting potential customers (Revella, 2015).

Global models and innovative ideas of mitigating environmental degradation

 Improving visibility. The risk of closure due to environmental issues is a major problem affecting most business. Business intelligence software shall allow businesses to control their production processes and make necessary improvements to fit into government policies. Regulations on production stipulated in the Company Production Act shall also be met amicably. Competitively, meeting the stated standards will leverage the company from closure due to poor environment related issues (Michalewicz, 2007).

Turning data into action based information. Changes in the environment come with a significant shift in people’s livelihood affecting their economic, political, and social frameworks. Such changes cause a paradigm shift of economic status of many states to greater heights. Patterns in production line equally become affected calling most organizations into changing their mode of operation and management designs. Business intelligence software shall allow the business to be swift in developing change programs that suit their financial position taking into account market demands for a prosperous future. Additionally, businesses shall enjoy opportunities such as awards of tender from government and parastatal due to their ability to manage resources and environment (Rösch & Scheule, 2013).  

Diagrammatic representation of how  data system works

(IBI 2011, & Yang, 2012)

Improving efficiency. Business intelligent software improves organizational efficiency through integrating all components and factors describing the business. For instance, information about changes in tastes and preferences due to climate change can be shared across relevant departments of the organization. As a matter of fact, such an initiative will save time on reporting processes and analytics. Additionally, duplication of roles within organization shall be evicted thus increasing accuracy in data generated from key departments. Further, this will improve productivity.

Conclusion

Precisely, it is important to note that environmental degradation is a global issue since effects of pollutants are spread from one state to another directly or indirectly. Greenhouse gasses are one of the primary sources of pollutants that affect the environment leading to climate change. Greenhouse gasses are categorized into four major types which are; Carbon (IV) oxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and fluorinated gasses. Primarily, sources of greenhouse gas are electricity production, agricultural activities, transport industry, commercial, and forestry.   Statistics show that the future of the environment is at risk due to a constant increase in greenhouse gasses emission with carbon (IV) oxide as the leading pollutant in the atmosphere due to consistent industrial processes and human activities such as agriculture. Further, impacts of greenhouse emissions to the environment emanate into other environmental issues such as global warming, oceanic acidification, and ozone depletion, changes in plant growth and nutritional levels, and smog pollution. However, strategic measures can be designed to globally control and access the impact of environment degradation through selected models. These models range; human-mediated processes model, numerical model, environmental governance model, and the social model of environmental impact.

Significantly, the models are limited to challenges ranging from a huge volume of data, different communication languages, limited use, validity issues, and mixed media use. Further, lack of involvement from financial institutions, trade conflicts between the state and businesses due to the negligence of environmental agreements, and the social structural gaps leading to institutional failure on global environmental governance hinder the effectiveness of the outlined models. However, these challenges can be mitigated through training, assessment of technology needs within organizations, and the use of integrated software for business intelligence and planning.

References

Barnard, N., Hain, S., & Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. (2014). Scientific synthesis of the impacts of ocean acidification on marine biodiversity.

Böhringer, C., Rutherford, T. F., Tarr, D. G., Turdyeva, N., & World Bank. (2014). The environmental implications of Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Byrski, A. (2012). Advances in intelligent modeling and simulation: Simulation tools and applications. Berlin: Springer.

Caldwell, M. M., Crooks, J. A., Heldmaier, G., Jackson, R. B., Lange, O. L., Mooney, H. A., … Sommer, U. (2009). Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems: Ecological, Management, and Geographic Perspectives. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Demidov, S., & Bonnet, J. (2009). Traffic-related air pollution and internal combustion engines. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Havercroft, I., Macrory, R., & Stewart, R. B. (2011). Carbon capture and storage: Emerging legal and regulatory issues. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

https://edgar.jrc.ec.europe.eu/news_docs/jrc-2015-trends-in-global-co2-emissions-2015-report-98194

Hutchison, E. D. (2013). Essentials of human behavior: Integrating person, environment, and the life course. Los Angeles: SAGE.

IBI 2011, Qu, X., & Yang, Y. (2012). Information and business intelligence: International Conference, IBI 2011, Chongqing, China, December 23-25, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin: Springer.

In Bahadur, B., In Rajam, M. V., In Sahijram, L., & In Krishnamurthy, K. V. (2015). Plant biology and biotechnology: Volume I.

In Martin, P., & In Kennedy, A. (2015). Implementing environmental law.

Konstantinou, K. (2013). Earthquakes: Triggers, environmental impact, and potential hazards. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Lin, N. (2001). Social capital: Social structure and action theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Michalewicz, Z. (2007). Adaptive business intelligence. Berlin: Springer.

Mill, J. S. (2001). The Principles of political economy. Kitchener: Batoche.

Revella, A. (2015). Buyer Personas: How to gain insight into your customer's expectations, align your marketing strategies, and win more business.

Rosati, J. D., Coastal Engineering Research Program (U.S.), U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Coastal Engineering Research Center (U.S.), & United States. (1993). SBEACH: Numerical model for simulating storm-induced beach change. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.

Rösch, D., & Scheule, H. (2013). Credit securitizations and derivatives: Challenges for the global markets. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley.

Simon, S. (2010). Global warming.

Sleezer, C., Russ-Eft, D. F., & Gupta, K. (2014). A practical guide to needs assessment. San Francisco: Wiley.

Tan, Z. (2014). Air pollution and greenhouse gasses: From basic concepts to engineering applications for air emission control.

Tiwari, S., Ojha, G., & Yadav, P. (2015). Reduction of Green House Gas Emission by Clean Power Trading. SAMRIDDHI: A Journal of Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Technology, 7(1). doi:10.18090/samriddhi.v7i1.4473

United States. (2010). The international financial institutions: report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, second session, March 10, 2010. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

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