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Discuss About The Establishing A Research Agenda For The Digital Literacy.

Description of the Events

Reciprocal teaching is the procedure that was developed in the concept that the role model of the teacher or the educator is slowly passed from the teacher to the children in the class of any educational institution. This process includes practices and peers discussions by the students with the use of four critical strategies of reading. These include predicting, clarifying, generation of the question and summarizing (Townsend et al., 2012). Reciprocal teaching, the process is also called peer learning process, a procedure of discussion technique by which the students or the learners tend to develop strong oral language skills while working together towards the improvement of their comprehension reading. The assignment illustrates the scenario of reciprocal teaching with the effective observation of interaction of participants with detailed notes of the activities of the students or the learners in the educational institution. Proper approval from the students and the participants of this observation survey has furthermore been taken with the effective involvement of the parents and the permission to take photographs of the activities of the student.

Purpose of the events – Reciprocal teaching process is a strategy that generally asks the teachers and the students to share the teacher’s or the educator’s role by the allowance of both for leading the discussion on vocabulary and develop ideas and questions with the summarization of the data or the information in the end (Schleppegrell, 2012). Reciprocal teaching process can generally be used across several of the content areas and it works smoothly with textbooks and nonfiction texts as well.

The purpose and the benefits of the reciprocal teaching are immense. This method is a great way towards the teaching of the learners and the students towards the determination of the important and the essential ideas gathered from reading and reviewing together with the effective discussion of the vocabularies, development of the ideas, questions and information summarizing (Okkinga et al., 2018).
Practice and time – The event in observation includes breaking down of the classroom in small groups of mixed abilities. Furthermore, one of the learners was elected and designated as the teacher of a small group of learners. This student who was elected as the leader or the teacher of the group will furthermore help his small group on task and ensure the responsibility of movement via each of the four steps of reciprocal teaching while the learners of the group read the class materials that was already divided by the class teacher.

Overview of the 3D Model

Participants – The participants for this observation are the children’s of the institution and the teacher of the classroom of the educational institution

Figure 1;  The reciprocal teaching model

Source: (Skwarchuk, Sowinski & LeFevre, 2014)
Conversation/interactions – Students or the learners are directed to go through each of the actions after successfully reading the management of the text allocated to him.

Prediction- The teacher of the classroom asks students to predict and guess about their thinking related to the subject of the reading. The teacher then asks the student about their thought by asking them different questions in a detective approach.

Questioning- The teacher then reminds the students to generate the questions while reading and listening. The teacher then furthermore reminds them regarding the three levels of the questions. These are

  • Right- questions and answers in text form
  • Between the lies question- a requirement of interference
  • Questions related to the critical thought process

Clarifying- While the students start listening and reading the texts given by the teachers, the teachers remind them to query regarding the phrases and the words that are not clear to them (Shadiev et al., 2014). These clarifications by the teachers take the forms of the following queries and questions. These include how to pronounce, the meaning of the word, thought of the teacher and the random guesses of the students.

Summarizing – The student who was elected as the role of the teacher summarizes verbally among the pairs and then share with the assigned small groups and records their summary while reading it aloud in the small groups. Each of the members of the small group of the students thus formed furthermore could create semantic maps with major points of significance as shared by the learners of each group.

The literacy model is one of the theoretical approaches generally named as the Green’s 3D Model of literacy was originally designed to support the integration of the ICT towards the literacy education procedure. In the present scenario, this model has been adopted for supporting the integrated conceptual model for the purpose of teaching and learning among the broad category of English (Durrant & Green, 2000). In the scenario of the current reciprocal teaching process of the educational institution, the Green’s 3D model is generally used to initiate support to the teachers of the institution for deconstructing the text according to the three dimensions that are overlapping in nature.  These dimensions are in no particular order and are ensured through proper analysis and preparation for the teaching purpose (Ahmad et al., 2016). While the students and the learners are generally not expected to engage with this theoretical model of Green’s, the use of the 3D model of literacy may initiate support towards the teaching which facilitates the learners and the students towards the effective engagement with the texts with entire and complex nature.

Analysis: Key Episode 1

Figure 2; Green’s 3D Literacy Model

Source: (Durrant & Green, 2000)

Operational – Green’s 3D Model of Literacy illustrates some of the basic questions towards the students or the learners. These questions include how the text is made, how the events have been sequenced towards the creation of a narrative base and more

Cultural -  The model explains some of the basic questions in this category which includes familiarity with the texts, connection with the experience of the community, nation and the world (Ayun & Yunus, 2017). The level of prior knowledge for booking of the order and more.

Critical – This particular category illustrates the experience of the students and the stories related to it.

In respect to the above scenario of the reciprocal teaching, the Green’s 3D model of literacy brings together the language, the meaning and the context with practice and the context of the technology. The word literacy signifies the coming together of the literacy and it and his model of literacy illustrate the technology learning and the language learning on the together basis (Bulfin & McGraw, 2015). According to the model, the literacy is a situated social practice that includes three-dimensional views.

In the recent years, among the curriculum of literacy and English, bringing of the popular cultures in the classroom has been one of the successful and energizing innovations in respect to the literacy model. This is because this model helps in building connection or bridges among the student's and it furthermore allows the students to work with the real texts that they are interested in with the provision of the opportunities for reflection and analysis.

Analysis: key episode 1

During a unit of work regarding the examination of the computer games and the fantasy genres, a student of the grade of class 8 was asked for the preparation of an online review of the computer games and emails it to the teacher. The student belonging to the secondary school was linked in the activity that was linked both in and out with proper utilization of the technological understanding and orientation and literacy values (Sefton-Green et al., 2016). The three dimensions of the literacy model were utilized when the students were asked to play the games, pen down the reviews and utilize the conventions of the review of the games and furthermore publish the row reviews and submit to the teacher. Construction of the reviews required operational knowledge of the student’s with the proper demonstration of their knowledge regarding the genre and the requirement of the audience over the games. The cultural dimensions included the context of the tasks and the understanding and the knowledge of the game for review. The critical part was to research and analyze the review and the texts of the advertisements and commenting some critique.


Analysis: key episode 2

During the geography class, one of the students was asked to demonstrate and make the scenario of an active volcano by the project and his fellow members of the group he is leading. The student belonging from the primary section and from the grade of class 4 firstly accumulated all the students and instructed them to organize for chart papers of different colors, mud for making the structure of the volcano, a bottle to structure the volcano, some plants for the decoration of the project, coloring pen, glitters, text pads, brushes and poster colors, a packet of red powder, a packet of zinc powder/ powdered sulphur and a bottle of water (Reichenberg & Kent, 2014). The operational factor as identified by the literacy model can be explained by the activities of the students towards the gathering of the materials for the formation of the volcano project. Each and every student properly engaged themselves for the project of the volcano when the teacher guided them to pour the metallic powder and water over it to create a smoky effect from the top of their volcano as the sign of its eruption. The cultural dimensions included the proper following of the teacher and him leaders comment and the execution of the volcano project by joint and collaborative group study and approach. The critique part was that the learners or the students needed to call on both their organizational skills and the literacy skills and the principles for the construction of the project efficiently.

Analysis: key episode 3

The students of class 12 of the senior secondary section of the educational institution were instructed for the making of the multimedia for the approach towards the design of the curriculum as an instance that exemplifies the approach of the Green's 3D model of literacy. In the procedure of the creation of the multimedia presentation, the students had to make certain decisions about their key knowledge's and designs, the way of presentation and how the audience would adopt the multimedia design as a whole (Chen & Kong, 2017). This defines the operational level of the students. In the cultural level, the students earned clearly about the technology, the literacy and the history behind the presentation of the multimedia design. The critical dimension as illustrated by the model of literacy includes the decisions of the students that were made in the procedure of authoring, the selected facts, the basis and the probable best way for presentation in relation to social class.

The effects and the implications of the reciprocal teaching method in respect to the Green’s 3D Model of literacy are taking the learners and the students towards a further approach where they are learning the use and the analysis of the new technologies together with the developed literacy levels.

The strategies and the skills that are needed for effective participation on the learning and teaching at classroom includes interest and proper explanations, concern and respect for the learners or the students and their learning, appropriate feedbacks and assessments, goals and intellectual challenges, the independence, control and active engagement (Sénéchal & LeFevre, 2014). Finally, the most important one is encouraging the learners to express their thought and knowledge.

The level of understanding the students will require for effective engagement in the range of the topics includes principles conceptual knowledge, prior knowledge, metacognition, difference and alteration among the learners, motivation, situated learning and community learning (Skwarchuk, Sowinski & LeFevre, 2014).

The probable strategies for supporting the students for the analysis of the texts, for interpretation and interrogation of the representations, the specific subject or the discipline of the teaching includes effective reading, writing, speaking, listening and expressing of the knowledge related to teaching.

Conclusion

Reciprocal teaching is the institutional activity forming dialogue among the teachers and the students on the text segments and construction of the text meaning. It furthermore encourages the students or the learners to express their own process with active involvement and monitoring of the reading steps. The assignment focuses on the observation of reciprocal teaching process in an institution and the 3 different context of the use of Green’s 3D literacy model with respect to the involvement of the student and their literacy level.

References

Ahmad, M., Badusah, J., Mansor, A. Z., Abdul Karim, A., Khalid, F., Daud, M. Y., ... & Zulkefle, D. F. (2016). The Application of 21st Century ICT Literacy Model among Teacher Trainees. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 15(3), 151-161.

Ayun, Q., & Yunus, M. (2017). The Efficacy of Reciprocal Teaching Method in Teaching Reading Comprehension to EFL Students. ELT Echo: The Journal of English Language Teaching in Foreign Language Context, 2(2), 134-146.

Bulfin, S., & McGraw, K. (2015). Digital literacy in theory, policy and practice: old concerns, new opportunities. Teaching and Digital Technologies: Big Issues and Critical Questions, 266-281.

Chen, Y. C., & Kong, D. (2017). An Investigation On Factors In The Integration Of Reciprocal Teaching Into Multimedia Teaching. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & psychology Education, 13(1), 133-142.

Durrant, C. & Green, B. (2000). Literacy and the new technologies in school education: meeting the l(IT)eracy  challenge. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 23(2) 89-10

Okkinga, M., van Steensel, R., van Gelderen, A. J., & Sleegers, P. J. (2018). Effects of reciprocal teaching on reading comprehension of low?achieving adolescents. The importance of specific teacher skills. Journal of research in reading, 41(1), 20-41.

Reichenberg, M., & Kent, L. Ã. (2014). An intervention study in grade 3 based upon reciprocal teaching. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 8(2), 122-131.

Schleppegrell, M. 2012. Academic language in teaching and learning. The Elementary School Journal, Vol. 112, No.3, pp.409-418.

Sefton-Green, J., Marsh, J., Erstad, O., & Flewitt, R. (2016). Establishing a research agenda for the digital literacy practices of young children. A White Paper for COST Action IS1410.

Sénéchal, M., & LeFevre, J. A. (2014). Continuity and change in the home literacy environment as predictors of growth in vocabulary and reading. Child business development, 85(4), 1552-1568.

Shadiev, R., Hwang, W. Y., Yeh, S. C., Yang, S. J., Wang, J. L., Han, L., & Hsu, G. L. (2014). Effects of unidirectional vs. reciprocal teaching strategies on web-based computer programming learning. Journal of educational computing research, 50(1), 67-95.

Skwarchuk, S. L., Sowinski, C., & LeFevre, J. A. (2014). Formal and informal home learning activities in relation to children’s early numeracy and literacy skills: The development of a home numeracy model. Journal of experimental child psychology, 121, 63-84.

Townsend, D., Filippini, A., Collins, P. & Biancarosa, G. 2012. Evidence for the importance of academic word knowledge for the academic achievement of diverse middle school students. The Elementary School Journal, Vol.112, No.3, pp. 497-518.

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