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Background Information on Sida Acuta Herb Extract

Discuss about the Evaluation of Diuretic and Antiurolithiatic Properties.

This research field depicts the importance of using Sida Acuta chemical as a herb based coating on materials to increase its biocompatibility. Biocompatibility is referred to as a compatibility with different living tissues and living systems just through not being toxic in nature but also harmful and at the same time physiologically chemically reactive that would not cause immunological rejection. There are different contract manufacturer of products for the medical, foot care, safety and many other industrial marketers with a strict focus on the polymeric cushioning solutions. Biocompatibility helps to establish relationship between the living tissues with completed medical equipment’s.

Through the help of biocompatible coating a secured relationship could even be developed for the establishment of proper chemical bounding among the bioimplant and bone tissues. The states of art or literature review are developed in this research paper. However, at the very beginning a set of research questions are developed and based on those questions the project aim and objectives are also illustrated. Apart from this, the theoretical content including hypothesis, experimental set up with interactive steps and validated strategies are also developed in this paper. On the other hand, from the experiments proper results are also generated through which the results could even be analyzed properly. However, based on the project topic, a project planning or project schedule is also developed.

According to Golinska et al. 2017, using the extract of the green plants, a hybrid chitosan cerium oxide nano particles were equipped by the chemists. Biocompatibility is referred to as one of the most strictly affecting issue in the current days. It has been found that due to lack of bio compatibility the biomaterials are getting destroyed the external harms. Ayeni et al. 2014, stated that in order to reduce the rate of the external harms it is necessary for the experimenters to develop such a chemical coating so that tissues could get a protection. In order to avoid the antibacterial activities different herbal extracts are widely using by different business organizations nowadays. In various industries due to the unique physico chemical and the antimicrobial features, the green herbs are widely using. Santhosh, Yuvarajan and Natarajan (2015), stated that in the phases of biological coating, different natural bio-molecule those are present in the plants as acid, protein, enzyme, amino acids are found to be as very much helpful for the arthritis patients. The herbal coating process is widely used for bone replacement. With the help of this application the incorporation of green chemistry methods and techniques in the nanotechnology is founded as a great field of interest. Umoren et al. (2016), stated that however, for the population prevention purpose the green chemistry process is widely used. The coating could not be done using general process rather advanced equipments and technologies are required to be used by the experimenters for the development of Sida Acuta herb extract coating on the bio materials like bone, tissues etc.

Coating Technologies and Biomaterials

Veerakumar et al. (2014), stated that with the growing age of the human the bone health used to decomposed eventually. In order to reduce the issues of bone heath density the herbal coating is very much beneficial. In the recent years it is defined that the development of reliable as well as eco accommodating methods for synthesizing the nano-particles is referred to as a vital step the field of nanotechnology. In order to make recovery from different urinary diseases and blood related issues, this particular Sida Acuta extract is used by the doctors. George, Joseph and Aravind (2017), opined that different processes are also developed by them for using this particular extract exactly. The methods include: Sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, anxiolytic activity, test for muscle-effects, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures etc. These might affect the bodies in normal temperature. Udhayakumar et al. (2016), opined that for the application of this Sida Acuta extract properly on the bones, tissues or any other biomaterials, these technologies are required to be applied by the researchers. It has been analyzed that, this flowering plant holds more than 200 genera with more or less around 2300 species. Behind coating this is also used as a food or beverage product.

The Sida Acuta herbs grow in the altitude of 1525 m above the level of sea. However for preparing the extract of liquid from the herb, the plant is needed to be air dried first in the oven at 40 degree temperature for around 4 of days. 100% solvent of ethanol must be used for the continuous extraction of the herb liquid. The liquid extract could not be directly used as a coating over the tissues or bones rather proper additional extracts should also be added to it. Mathew et al. (2016) opined that, for the pharmacological evaluation and anxiolytic activities this extract is very much helpful. The issues associated to body muscles, bones and tissues could be completely diminished with the help of the application of the Sida Acuta herb Extract.

This coating could be developed by the professionals by different methods like Sol-Gel Technique, biomimetic, sputtering, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), pulsed laser deposition etc. However based on the experimental budget the technology should be adopted by the developers. All the applications are very much costly in nature but at the same time, based on the type of application and accurate features of the modifiable surface techniques must be elected by the experimenters (Varadavenkatesan, Selvaraj & Vinayagam 2016). In order to measure the total time taken for the experiment Rota Rod Test (RRT) technology should be used. On the other hand appropriate, temperature of the experiment hall and body should be assumed. It will help to reduce the issues of hyper activities. On the other hand, in order to apply Sida Acuta over the tissues and bones or on other biomaterials, accurate time schedule or cost management approaches are also required to be done so that it could be completed within estimated accurate time.

Methods of Application for Sida Acuta Coating

The objectives of this particular project are as follows:

  • To study the role of Sida Acuta extract for increasing biocompatibility of a material
  • To coat the biomaterial with Sida Acuta herb extract for increasing the biocompatibility of the material to be coated
  • To study the details of biocompatibility for determining the change in hydrophilicity, hemocompatibility and anti bacterial activities as well
  • What are the featuring characteristics of Sida Acuta extract that protects the materials from external harms?
  • Does the surface property of the materials changes if it is coated with the Sida Acuta Extract?
  • Does the biocompatibility of a material get enhanced after getting coated with Sida Acuta?

It has been analyzed that, for developing the environmental performance widely, all the aspects and prevalent stages of improvement are increasing ultimately. In order to increase the biocompatibility of the biomaterials the surface areas of those materials are required to be modified accordingly. Based upon the internal interaction between the biomaterial system at the exact molecular surface and the biological system the response from the biological host are very much important. Thus, it can be said that the ultimate, optimal performance and the biocompatibilities of the material bodies get influenced depending upon the properties of the atomic scale. In this particular paper, one of the common surface coating techniques such as surface modification using Sida Acuta Extract is focused by the researchers. In the field of biomedical engineering this particular technique is used for tissue repairing. 

Even in complex superficial modification also this technique is widely used by the developers. Most common as well as vital surface modification methods used for increasing the biocompatibility of the biomaterials are thermal spray, electrophoresis, Sol-Gel Technique, biomimetic, sputtering, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), pulsed laser deposition etc. Most of the well known biomedical companies are currently using these methods for increasing the biocompatibility of the biomaterials. In the current bone tissue engineering application field, the potential application of effective factors and optimal tissue repairing these technologies and methods are widely used. The potential applications and role of these methods and technologies are elaborated below:

Pulsed Laser Deposition is referred to as a technique of physical laser deposition. This particular technique is used where high powered pulsed laser beam is strictly focused inside a vacuum channel for striking the target within the material. However, the approach of Pulsed Laser Deposition is very much complex in nature including the ablation approach also. The possibilities of plasma plume development also get increased with the application of this particular process. Not only get this but also within the heated substrate the rate of growth of highly energetic ions, neutrals, electrons as well also increased in time. However, the process of Pulsed Laser Deposition is divided into five phases through which the ultimate resultant could be achieved. The five stages are as follows:

  • Initially the target surface absorbs the laser
  • The plasma would be created through laser ablation of the target materials
  • The dynamic of the plasma would be developed
  • The ablation material over the substrate gets decomposed
  • Nucleation and growth of the surface generated

 The requirement of engineering coating is eventually becoming more and more rigorous. The thermal spray is referred to as one of the important and integral part of the design process and it is an environmental concern also. In order to use a minimum number of resources and for gaining upcoming economic competitiveness this particular technique is very much helpful.

Project Objectives and Sub-goals

The process of thermal spray could be done using two main components such as spray gun and prepared surface. For making the spray gun working the three different factors those are needed to be applied on it include energy, selection of spray material, different process media or gas. Through relative motion the spray plume is generated and develops a coating over the nominated surface of the biomaterial product. The materials those are generally used for the coating purpose for this particular research product is the Sida Acuta Extract.

The Sol Gel technique is referred to as a wet chemical method that is widely used by the researchers for develop coating over the biomaterials for increasing its biocompatibility. This particular approach is also known as chemical solution of deposition. Even, for material fabrication this technique is widely used by the managerial head and the chemical solutions used in this process include sol (a short for solution). For both the discrete particles and network polymers this sol gel acts as a precursor.  

For this particular Biomedical engineering field application the Sida Acuta extract is used for increasing the biocompatibility of human bone and human skin as well. This coating helps the biomaterial to keep protected from the external harms. With the help of the coating the bones and skins will not be directly affected from the external harms.  

H0: Useful surface alteration could adhere in the outside of the materials if Sida Acuta extract is used as a coating of the materials.

H1: No such measurable usefulness could adhere in the outside of the materials if Sida Acuta extract is used as a coating of the materials.

In order to make the biomedical experiment practically, different devices and other experimental setup are required to be developed professionally. There are different coating techniques available in the market however based on the chemical characteristics of the surface area (for this experiment the surface is bone and skin tissue) the process or technique of coating should be selected by the experimenter. After judging the details of the surface area that is the bone it has been analyzed that sol gel technique must be used for the development of the coating over the bone. Not only this but also, from the process details and the features of the biomaterial surface it is defined that Sida Acuta extract is a herbal extract, thus it could be used for the coating without any kind of hesitation. In order to gain nanostructures this particular Sol Gel technique could be used. Though, the plasma spray method is commercially available and high speeded balanced process, but still this could not be used in the development of chemical coating over the biomaterial (here bone). For this particular experiment the sol gel technique is used by the researchers. For this particular method the specific synthesis metrics should be used. The other equipments those are used for the successful completion of the experiment are as follows:

The temperature needed for this particular application is around 150-600 degree Fahrenheit vis 2500 and 6500 degree Fahrenheit for the traditional technique.

  • It could synthesis large amount of products with a lower cost
  • Certain solidifying chemicals must be used for developing coating for biomaterial
  • However more than one biomaterial could be simultaneously co synthesized
  • Ultra high purity material can also be synthesize

Spray gun is needed to spray the Sida Acuta extract as a coating over the biomaterial (bone). However, one of the major issues associated to biomaterial coating is lack of usage of supporting materials. Room temperature and the expert team are needed to execute the experiment resultant professionally.

Interactive steps

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Predecessors

Project initiation

27 days

Thu 10/26/17

Fri 12/1/17

 

   Understanding the details of the subject

5 days

Thu 10/26/17

Wed 11/1/17

 

   Selection of the research topic

4 days

Thu 11/2/17

Tue 11/7/17

2

   Literature review on role of Coating of the biomaterial with the Sida Acuta extract to enhance the biocompatibility of the coated material

6 days

Wed 11/8/17

Wed 11/15/17

3

   Selection of Biomaterials

4 days

Thu 11/16/17

Tue 11/21/17

4

   Feasibility study

4 days

Wed 11/22/17

Mon 11/27/17

5

   Risk understanding

4 days

Tue 11/28/17

Fri 12/1/17

6

Project planning

21 days

Mon 12/4/17

Mon 1/1/18

 

   Selection of project stakeholders

8 days

Mon 12/4/17

Wed 12/13/17

7

   Risks management plan development

5 days

Thu 12/14/17

Wed 12/20/17

9

   Understanding technologies for coating

4 days

Thu 12/21/17

Tue 12/26/17

10

   Selecting appropriate technology

4 days

Wed 12/27/17

Mon 1/1/18

11

Project execution

18 days

Tue 1/2/18

Thu 1/25/18

 

   Developing project aim

4 days

Tue 1/2/18

Fri 1/5/18

12

   Developing project objectives

5 days

Mon 1/8/18

Fri 1/12/18

14

   Developing project questions

4 days

Mon 1/15/18

Thu 1/18/18

15

   Developing project sub goals

5 days

Fri 1/19/18

Thu 1/25/18

16

Project closure

21 days

Fri 1/26/18

Fri 2/23/18

 

   Result analysis

4 days

Fri 1/26/18

Wed 1/31/18

17

   Discussion

5 days

Thu 2/1/18

Wed 2/7/18

19

   Outcome acceptance

6 days

Thu 2/8/18

Thu 2/15/18

20

   Post research documentation

6 days

Fri 2/16/18

Fri 2/23/18

21

One of the most common techniques used for the execution of the experiment is the Sol gel techniques. With the help of this technique the biomaterial such as bone could be coated with the Sida Acuta herb extract. This particular Sida Acuta shrub grows in the tropical climate up to 1.5 meter. Mainly for the patient of arthritis this herb is very much helpful. It has been analyzed that with the growing age of human being the bone density used to get lower and thus in order to strengthen the bone of the human a proper coating of Sida Acuta herb is very much helpful. However for developing the coating on the bone a proper medical technique is required to be used.

The physical properties of the biomaterials like bone could remain unchanged if accurate surface modification technology is used by the experimenters. However, for coating different complex shapes electrophoresis technology is very much helpful. According to this experimental set up no complex biomaterial or complex shaped bone is used. After this coating it is defined that, the rate of protein absorption rate get reduces because in some of the cases it requires, lower rate of protein absorption or else it will cause uncontrolled rate of immune response. On the other hand proper cell adsorption is also required while replacing the tissue cells for facilitating the growth processes. The biomaterials those are used as a blood implant must have a lower rate of ability to form clots as it is difficult from the patient’s perspectives.

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Predecessors

Project initiation

27 days

Thu 10/26/17

Fri 12/1/17

 

   Understanding the details of the subject

5 days

Thu 10/26/17

Wed 11/1/17

 

   Selection of the research topic

4 days

Thu 11/2/17

Tue 11/7/17

2

   Literature review on role of Coating of the biomaterial with the Sida Acuta extract to enhance the biocompatibility of the coated material

6 days

Wed 11/8/17

Wed 11/15/17

3

   Selection of Biomaterials

4 days

Thu 11/16/17

Tue 11/21/17

4

   Feasibility study

4 days

Wed 11/22/17

Mon 11/27/17

5

   Risk understanding

4 days

Tue 11/28/17

Fri 12/1/17

6

Project planning

21 days

Mon 12/4/17

Mon 1/1/18

 

   Selection of project stakeholders

8 days

Mon 12/4/17

Wed 12/13/17

7

   Risks management plan development

5 days

Thu 12/14/17

Wed 12/20/17

9

   Understanding technologies for coating

4 days

Thu 12/21/17

Tue 12/26/17

10

   Selecting appropriate technology

4 days

Wed 12/27/17

Mon 1/1/18

11

Project execution

18 days

Tue 1/2/18

Thu 1/25/18

 

   Developing project aim

4 days

Tue 1/2/18

Fri 1/5/18

12

   Developing project objectives

5 days

Mon 1/8/18

Fri 1/12/18

14

   Developing project questions

4 days

Mon 1/15/18

Thu 1/18/18

15

   Developing project sub goals

5 days

Fri 1/19/18

Thu 1/25/18

16

Project closure

21 days

Fri 1/26/18

Fri 2/23/18

 

   Result analysis

4 days

Fri 1/26/18

Wed 1/31/18

17

   Discussion

5 days

Thu 2/1/18

Wed 2/7/18

19

   Outcome acceptance

6 days

Thu 2/8/18

Thu 2/15/18

20

   Post research documentation

6 days

Fri 2/16/18

Fri 2/23/18

21

Conclusion

From the overall discussion it can be concluded that, different herbal extracts are available in the marketplace those are widely used in the biomedical research field. With the help of this extract the surface area of different biomaterials gets changes and due to this reason the rate of external harms also gets reduced highly. It means that with the coating of Sida Acuta the biomaterials could eventually get increased rate of biocompatibility. Before the implementation of the experiment in the real field of application, proper understanding of the topic are done accurately. In addition to proper understanding the leading objectives and aim of the projects are also elaborated in this research paper. Apart from research in details of the topic area, the objectives based of the literature review are also done elaborately. Besides topic elaboration a questionnaire set based on the research objectives are also developed in this paper.  From the experimental set up and the generated result from the set up it has been found that with the coating of Sida Acuta herb extract over the biomaterials the features of the surface areas gets absolutely changed and thus the rate of external harm resolved and at the same time the desired compatibility also gets reached positively. From the details of the experiments and data collection it has been defined that, the assumed hypothesis are completely validated in nature. Thus, it could be said that biocompatible coating of the biomaterials for creating direct as well as appropriate chemical bounding between the bioimplant and bone tissues are possible.

References

Arciniegas, A., Pérez-Castorena, A.L., Nieto-Camacho, A., Kita, Y. &Vivar, A.R.D., 2017. Anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts and metabolites from Sida acuta and Sida rhombifolia. Química Nova, 40(2), pp.176-181.

Ayeni, F.A., Alawode, S., Joseph, D., Sukop, P., Olawuyi, V., Alonge, T.E., Alabi, O.O., Oluwabunmi, O. & Alo, F.I., 2014. Investigation of Sida acuta (Wire Weed) Plant Extract as Corrosion Inhibitor for Aluminium-Copper-Magnessium Alloy in Acidic Medium. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 2(04), p.286.

Benjumea, D.M., Gómez-Betancur, I.C., Vásquez, J., Alzate, F., García-Silva, A. & Fontenla, J.A., 2016. Neuropharmacological effects of the ethanolic extract of Sida acuta. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 26(2), pp.209-215.

Firdhouse, M.J. & Lalitha, P., 2015. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles &its applications. Journal of Nanotechnology, 2015.

George, M., Joseph, L. &Aravind, A., 2017. A review on antibacterial activity of alkaloids from Sida acuta.

Golinska, P., Rathod, D., Wypij, M., Gupta, I., Sk?adanowski, M., Paralikar, P., Dahm, H. &   Rai, M., 2017. Mycoendophytes as efficient synthesizers of bionanoparticles: nanoantimicrobials, mechanism, and cytotoxicity. Critical reviews in biotechnology, 37(6), pp.765-778.

Mathew, M., Adiga, S., Avin, S. & Tripathy, A., 2016. Evaluation of diuretic and antiurolithiatic properties of ethanolic extract of sida acuta burm F. in wistar albino rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8(5), pp.122-126.

Pavithra Bharathi, V., Ragavendran, C., Murugan, N. & Natarajan, D., 2016. Ipomoea batatas (Convolvulaceae)-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for controlling mosquito vectors of Aedes albopictus, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology, pp.1-13.

Perumalsamy Muneeswari, S.D., Perumal, P.C., Gopalakrishnan, V.K. & Poornima, K., 2016. Phytochemical Screening and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Chloroform Extract of Sida acuta Burm. F. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 8(4), pp.663-667.

Santhosh, S.B., Yuvarajan, R. & Natarajan, D., 2015. Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector. Parasitology research, 114(8), pp.3087-3096.

Udhayakumar, G., Muthukumarasamy, N., Velauthapillai, D. & Santhosh, S.B., 2016. Magnesium incorporated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization, antibacterial and larvicidal activity. Arabian Journal of Chemistry.

Umoren, S.A., Eduok, U.M., Solomon, M.M. & Udoh, A.P., 2016. Corrosion inhibition by leaves and stem extracts of Sida acuta for mild steel in 1M H 2 SO 4 solutions investigated by chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Arabian journal of chemistry, 9, pp.S209-S224.

Varadavenkatesan, T., Selvaraj, R. & Vinayagam, R., 2016. Phyto-synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Mussaenda erythrophylla leaf extract and their application in catalytic degradation of methyl orange dye. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 221, pp.1063-1070.

Veerakumar, K., Govindarajan, M., Rajeswary, M. & Muthukumaran, U., 2014. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitology research, 113(5), pp.1775-1785.

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