Describe about the Geotextiles for Implementation of Geo Textile.
The materials used in geotextiles are fabrics which are absorbent and can be used for soil types that possess the capability to separate, filter, protect or drain. Geotextiles are defined as certain materials which can be woven, fused ornon-woven materials and have widespread applications in the field of civil engineering. The applications of such interfacing of the fabricwith soil have several useful applications, mainly during the construction of reinforced structures like supporting reinforcements of road beds, enhancement of the hydraulic qualities of water transport systems, and any kind of modification & quality enhancement of soil. Several advancements and developmentsregarding the production &usage of geotextiles in order to modify and improve soil texture & quality have occurred in the USA, Japan and Western Europe. Implementation of geo textile in the field of civilengineering essentially needs a number of qualities on the part of the fabric materials, like high strength, elasticity &elongation without occurrence of any kind of failure or rupture due to load actionsor any form of repeated continuous stresses, high level of flexibility, high values of degradation or abrasion resistance, resistance to chemicals, polluted & abrasive ground water and any kind of degrading fungus attack. Geotextile fabrics are normally used across large expanses &areas.For such cases a high value of width or breadth of the fabric has a number of relevant and obvious advantages. This is because geotextiles are commonly woven& knitted in the biggestfabric width that is possible. For consecutive production, the machine that weaves & knits the fabric material has a minimum weaving width of upto twelve meters and a maximum insertion rate of the weft of about twelve m/min are available.The insertion rate of the weft and its speed mainly depend on the value of the yarn count, quality of yarn, fabric style and fabriclength &width.
Geotextile fabrics can be diversified in accordance to the usage and applications in civil engineering. The broad divisions have been done into two groups:
Geomembranes: This particular type of fabric is the most widely used and has application in the creation of water proof linings of canals, reservoirs andearth filled dams.
Geotextiles: This type is primarily used in earth crust & soil modifications. Certain descriptions and names used by civil engineers are:-Geo-cellsare actually 3D mattress like structureswhich are completely filled with soil, gravel and rock to form a type of padding that helps to reinforcefoundationsof loose soil textures and any type of compressible soils; and Geo-composites that are products made by using two or more geotextiles, like for example geo-textiles, geo-grids& geo-membranes in a laminated & layered composite structure.
Geo-grid: They are actually deformed or even non-twisted net like fabrics made of polymeric materials which can be biaxial or uniaxial.
Geo-membrane: Geomembranes are those kinds of membranes that are completely non-absorbent. These are used mainly as cutoffsand liners. Liner barrier non-absorbent & impervious membranesare typically used to control the movement & migration of any kind of fluid. Until recently, geo-membranes were typically used mostly as canal and pond liners;however, the biggest application presently is the containment & segregated storage of hazardousmunicipal waste materials and associated leachates. The liner barrier impervious membrane fabrics are used tocontrol fluid migration due to them being highly nonabsorbent. Materials that are compatible with acidic, alkaline and other kinds of fluids etc. are certain products like film coated or impregnated geo-textiles, film-fabrics composites.
Geo-synthesis: This category includes certain geo-textiles materials, geo-grids, geo-membrane, and geocomposites.
Geo-textiles: Any kind of absorbent or permeable textile or cloth (natural jutes or synthetic) that are used in formation of foundationand also in ground engineering projects. They can be knitted in consecutive stitches that use single or multifilament used to make the clothes or are connected jointed by hot pressing.
Geotextiles have widespread applications in almost every type of geotechnical and hydraulic projects. Ithelps in reducing construction costs and also lowers construction time. Economic advantages are obtained as a result of simpler maintenance and consequent long intervals in between repairs. there are many such applications where the formulation of geotextile is needed to define various field, such as railway construction, road construction, erosion control, road construction, protection of natural slopes, canal lining, construction of dam, stabilization of riverbanks, protection of embankment sand the most important utility is to stabilize the bearing capacity of subgrade. in fact, the list does not end here, there are other factors that benefits the nature through Geotextiles, and that are preventing liquefaction, protection of coastal areas, waterproof roof and tanks, farming, gardening, lining of ponds, and various other foundation protection through the help of pipe coat, seismicconditions or vibration proof.
During the construction of road, the formula of geotextile gets enhanced by introducing several processes by differing particlesize. The construction of road requires segregation of soil to release dynamic stress and allow leaving water without mixing the components of soil. It is imperative to check the mixing of soiltypes as that can create adverse effect to the construction. With the application of geotextile, the road ways get durable and capable of enduring harsh condition of weather, as that is the most important factor for the rider and driver to ease the journey. According to the researchers, it is observed that the process of geotextile on construction of road requires minimal cost and maximum benefits, so many developing countries are introducing this technology to their system to get benefitted. Moreover, the railway construction industry gets more convenience as the application of geotextile helps to measure the accurate dynamic force or static that is required to transfer from lines of the rails through the sleepers situated just above the layer of the gravels. Basically, the following application helps to calculate the load bearing capacity of the railway track and thus, the theory of vibration can easily get diluted in the railway embankment. On the other hand, geotextile ensures coastal stabilization and river bank prevention by the foundation of sloping sections and newly built banks, through the help of some construction materials like fabrics, polypropylene and yarn.
However, there are some principle factors that help geotextiles to function and they are as follows:
the process of Reinforcement
Various steps of Protection
Separation & confinement
Filtration & drainage of fluid
The above mentioned functionary aspects of geotextiles are further explained to get the apt knowledge of the application in the modern age, and they are given below:
The process of Reinforcement: the application of geotextiles helps to reinforce the weak subsoil or sub-grade soil. The reinforcement function of the geotextiles helps to increase the capacity of soil by regularizing the level of stress factor from the core foundation. Thus, the Reinforcement of slope and ground can be prevented by the right use of the technology. There are some fabrics that are useful for elongation and tensile strength to power the mechanical properties.
Various steps of Protection: there are many benefits of geotextiles, but few noted points that are proved to be the best protection offered by the geotxtiles and that are permeability, retention, survivability, durability, and anti-clogging. Moreover, the structural waterproof protection also defines protection from optimum puncture, installation protection and in-plane drainage protection.
Separation & confinement: The process of separation defines the ultimate mechanism that helps to set apart sand and gravel from each other, long-standing. Hence, it is understandable that the fabrics used for the construction helps to prevent the inside contamination. Mainly the process of geotextiles is required to construct railways, roadways and parking areas, as the base of the construction is imperative for stabilizing the given weight.
Filtration and Drainage: It is already defined that the regularizing the two layers of soil depends on the use of fabric for construction, as the geotextiles materials are situated between the layers of soil to protect the contamination of the coarse grain with fine grain. as a matter of fact, the filtration and drainage process helps to retain the resistance of soil by allowing water passage. The applied formulation of geotextiles helps to build various water channels to protect the stability of fine construction. Hence, High permeability property is used in such conditions where the process of filtration and drainage is involved.
It is a known fact that the materials used for geotextiles is very crucial as that is enrolled with building foundation, earth, rock or soil to enhance the stability and strengthen the capacity of the construction. The termed application is also helpful to prevent soil erosion and reinforcement of soil in various manners. In fact, the main function of geotextiles will remain same as the protection of soil from erosion and separation of varied materials in the core layers of foundation are the most benefitted solutions; including of soil & similar structures, protection of embankments & groundwork, and filtration of particles & drainage of unwanted materials. Geotextile has been successfully utilized in many projects, repair works and are also able to provide instance solution under distress situations.
Ground anchors mainly comprise of cables or rods which are connected to a load bearing plate and are mainly used to provide stabilization of steep embankments or slopes that consist of softer soil; they are also used to enhance the reinforcements of embankments or the base foundation capacity of soil, and to prevent highly excessive levels of erosion and landslides. The use of steel ground anchors is often restricted by the overall stability and durability in its placement as a result of its weight, and also in the difficulty to maintain significant levels of tension in the anchor system. Anchor systems which are fabricated from fiber and other reinforced composite materials however show a number of advantages when compared to conventional systems for the reasons stated below:
The durability gets enhanced with the introduction of resistance theory of geotextiles and thus creates resistance of soil and prevention of corrosion. The process not only increases the life span of the construction but also reduces the maintenance problem and thus, provides better lifecycle costs.
As the process requires lighter weight of fabric, the transportation mode gets easy for placement of materials like cables to site.
The application of geotextiles helps to increase tensile strength as mechanical properties are lighter in weight and considered safe during installation.
Mostly, the process of geotextiles involves some conventional jacking systems to provide flexibility to the construction without jeopardizing the theflexibility or the tensioning that is necessary.
Composite ground anchors generically consist of three parts:
the anchorage happens to be sheath of stainless steel together with an nut-plate through which runs the composite cable. It is generally made with the help of expansive cement mortar in order to render it the necessary rigidity without any probable slippage. The anchorage also aids in fastening of the system to the outside structure.
The cable may found to be made up of many multiple rods which may be braided or separate and in some cases it may even happen to be a single rod.
Sometimes it may also be in the form of a sheath or sleeve that is made of either PVC or polyethylene which is then fitted to the free anchor length found in the cables.
A sheath or sleeve made from polyethylene or PVC that is fitted around the free anchor length of the cables.
An anchor arrangement for use with an open mat system to reinforce turf is typically provided. This anchor arrangement includes an anchor head constructed and arranged to be embedded in earth. A cable is then connected to the anchor head. A cable connector device is provided. The cable is inserted into the connector device, and the connector device holds the cable against withdrawal from the connector. A brace having a receiver is provided. The cable connector device is oriented within the receiver in the brace in such a way so that it can be easily removed.
In one embodiment, the brace comprises a pair of legs joined at the bight part or section in order to form a u-shaped receiver. Each of the legs has a mat holding segment extending from an end opposite of the bight section. The cable connector device is oriented in the u-shaped receiver in such fashion so that it becomes easily removable. In certain cases or designs, the cable connector device, is oriented in the u-shaped receiver, is even with or below each mat holding segment.
One design type or aspect portrays an open mat system that is used to reinforce turf. The system includes at least a first open grid mat against the turf. The open grid mat includes a matrix of rigid members defining open pockets in between the rigid members. A minimum of one anchor arrangement that helps to secure the mat to the ground turf is provided. The anchor arrangement includes an anchor head embedded in the earth, a cable connected to the anchor head, a cable connector device, and a brace. The cable is inserted into the cable connector device, and the connector device holds the cable against withdrawal from the connector device. The brace has a pair of legs joined at a particular section so as to form a u-shaped receiver. Each of the legs has a mat holding segment extending from an end opposite of the bight section. The u-shaped receiver is oriented within a first one of the open pockets, and each mat holding segment is oriented in a direction against the rigid members. The cable connector device is so oriented in the u-shaped receiver inside the first open pocket and is quite easily removable.
Another type of anchoringhas at the leastanother second open grid mat against the turf. Each of the first and second mats has a pair of side edges and a pair of end edges between the side edges. The at least second open grid mat is adjacent to the first mat so that one of the end edges of the first mat is overlapping one of the end edges of the second mat. There is at least one rivet through the overlapping end edges to secure the first and second mats together.
In yet another design type, there exists at least a third open grid mat against the turf. The third open grid mat has a pair of side edges and a pair of end edges between the side edges. The at least third open grid mat is adjacent to the first mat so that one of the side edges of the first mat is overlapping one of the side edges of the third mat. There is at least one spring clip around the overlapping side edges to secure the first and third mats together.
Finally, one anchoring design, the spring clip includes at least a first arm and a second arm joined by a bridge section to form a u-shape. The first arm has a first lance projecting therefrom, the first lance having a free end. The free end extends in a direction toward the second arm and the bridge section. The second arm has a second lance projecting therefrom, the second lance having a free end. The free end of the second lance extends in a direction toward the first arm and the bridge section.
Earth anchors are used in highly erosion prone areas that may include storm water pipe outfalls, curb outfalls, over-flow structures, and shorelines. In areas where there exists a high level of shearing force as a result of excessive velocities and turbulences, environmental scouringusually results. In order to prevent this scour, turf reinforcement mats are provided. These mats reinforced by the earth anchors provide ample levels of mechanical protection against the highlevels of erosion in these areas, as they are all mainly placed over the soil cover. The anchors are specifically & essentially required so as to secure the mat to the ground or earth, and the soil.
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