Discuss critically the application of Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory to a deeper understanding of how to develop your staff in the school, college or university context in your country.
This assignment has aimed to critically discuss application of the motivation-hygiene theory of Herzberg towards a deeper understanding of the development procedure of the staff in the context of the colleges in Kazakhstan. A prime economic depression reduces the public financing for the Kazakhstan education following the independence from the Soviet Union. In the link with a lack of teachers or a lack of facilities in school, instead of two sessions few secondary and primary schools run three, so one student group attends from 1pm to 6, and a second group of students from 8 to 1pm. Therefore, it has resulted in the teachers who do overtime; students are overused facilities and are kept up late. According to a report of Asian Development Bank, the public education financing is low in Kazakhstan is low and the procedures for introducing the private financing have become unsuccessful (Glassman 2014). Secondly, this assignment has implemented a proper way of motivating the staffs in the colleges, schools and universities by developing their skills in order to provide education to all the country people. Furthermore, the third purpose of this assignment is for applying the Herzberg motivation Hygiene theory in the context of the staff development in the institutional improvement. The assignment would also provide an exploration and the explanation regarding the understanding of the importance of motivation within a group of staff in an institution in a country like Kazakhstan. The value and the applicability of the theory have also been critiqued and its strengths and the limitations have also been examined in this assignment. It has been done by contrasting where applicable with the additional and applicable theories that would help in understanding the motivation of staff such as the teachers, professors in the institutional workplaces of colleges, schools and universities. Hence, in this discussion Herzberg’s theory would take an important role to identify the way of motivating the professors of the colleges of Kazakhstan where education system is facing a lot of problem due to the lack of motivation among the professors for the critical financial situation of the country.
In accordance with the theory stated by Herzberg, there are few factors of job that result in the satisfaction when there are other factors of job that prevent dissatisfaction (Adair 2011). According to Herzberg, the opposite of “Dissatisfaction” is “No Dissatisfaction” and the opposite of “Satisfaction” is “No satisfaction”. He has categorized these factors of job into two different segments.
The first segments are the Hygiene factors: these are the factors of job those are important for the motivation existence for the long-term (Allende 2011). However, if these job factors are non-existent or if these factors are absent at the workplace, then it would result in dissatisfaction. Furthermore, these hygiene factors are the factors that while reasonable or adequate in a job, do not make the employees dissatisfied and pacify them (Beringer and Fletcher 2011). The job factors are extrinsic for working. These factors are also known as the maintenance or the dissatisfaction factors because they are needed for avoiding the dissatisfaction (Demir 2014). These job factors demonstrate the job scenario or the job environment. These kind of job factors symbolized or indicated the physiological requirements that the individuals expected and wanted to be met. These factors incorporate:
Pay - the salary or pay structure should be reasonable and appropriate. It must be competitive and equal to those in that similar industry in that similar domain (Fugar 2015).
Administrative Policy and Company Policy - the policies of organization should not be very rigid. These should be clear and fair. This should incorporate flexible and reliable working hours, vacation, breaks, dress, code and many more (Herzberg 2012).
Fringe Benefits - the workers or the employees should be got the offers of the plans of health care that is mediclaim, employees help programs, benefits for the family members and many others (Herzberg 2015).
Physical Working Conditions - the condition of working should be hygienic, clean and safe. The equipment of work should be well-maintained and updated (Herzberg 2012).
Status - the status of the employees within the company should be retained and familiar (Herzberg et al. 2014).
Interpersonal Relations - the employee relationship with their subordinates, superiors and peers should be acceptable and appropriate. There should not be any humiliation or conflict element present (Herzberg 2011).
Job Security - the company must give the security regarding job to the workers.
The second segment is the Motivational Factors: In accordance with the argument made by Herzberg, the hygiene factors cannot be termed as the motivators. These factors of motivation generate the positive satisfaction (Herzberg, May, and Reuss 2014). These kinds of job factors are inherent to the work. The job factors motivate the workers for a superb or an extraordinary performance (Ivancic et al. 2015). The job factors are also known as the satisfiers. These factors are incorporated in the performance of the job (Kissel, Whitman and Reid 2014). The workers find the factors rewarding intrinsically. The motivators indicated the psychological requirements those were observed as an extra advantage. These factors incorporate:
Sense of achievement - the workers should have an achievement sense. It totally depends on the job. There should be a fruit of some kinds in the job (Kotliarov 2013).
Recognition - the workers of an organization should be recognized and praised for the accomplishments of them by the managers (May 2014).
Promotional and Growth opportunities - there must be advancement and growth opportunities in a company for motivating the employees for performing well (McVay 2012).
Responsibility - the workers must hold themselves responsible towards their work. The managers should provide them the work ownership. The employees should reduce the control but recollect liability (Meredith, 2011).
Meaningfulness of the work - The work should be itself challenging, interesting and meaningful for the workers for performing and for getting motivated (Mochalova 2012).
Students, teachers and the formal employees are the building blocks of the research and educational activities of the universities of Kazakhstan. The success of a school or a college depends on the assimilated efforts given by the students or teachers of that particular school or college (Montuclard et al. 2012). The joining of Kazakhstan to the Bologna Process involves the qualitative changes research as well as educational activities of the Kazakhstan Universities. It also have imposed specifically high requirements towards the competence level of the teaching staff. The students and the teachers of the school or college would contribute collectively to the growth of that specific educational institution while they got enough motivation (Martyushev, Sinogina and Sheremetyeva 2015). The universities in Kazakhstan require the teachers are not capable of transferring professional knowledge and for generating new concepts but also play a certain socio-cultural values and experiences. The teachers of the contemporary universities is a kind of phenomenon that not only the teacher investigates simultaneously and save buckets and can relearn throughout the life. The importance of the staff motivation in this context has been mentioned below,
Evaluation – According to Palardy (2014) is very important to control, encourage and understand an individual’s own behavior as a manager in terms of motivating controlling and encouraging the student as well as the teacher behavior of that educational institution (Martyushev, Sinogina and Sheremetyeva 2015). It can be act as an extrinsic factor of the Herzberg two factor theories. The university staffs in Kazakhstan should work upon the usage of the opportunities and strengths of them to lower and neutralize the negative influence of not being educated or not providing education.
Being familiar with the students and the staff of a school or a college – It is an intrinsic factor that conveys that the management authority of a university should be well behaved with the teachers, professors or other employees who are teaching many students and working for that educational institution (Martyushev, Sinogina and Sheremetyeva 2015). The better and more the management authority know their employees and teachers; the simpler it is for getting them engaged in the job and in the achievements of the goals of the educational institution. It would invite also the loyalty and the commitment of the employees as well as the teachers of that certain school or college (Palardy 2014). A cordial relationship between the subordinate and the superior is a major factor in the job satisfaction.
Providing the teachers and the employees specific advantages- Educational institutions in Kazakhstan should provide their teachers or employees financial as well as some other advantages (Palardy 2014). This factor acts as an intrinsic factor in the two factor theory. A certain school or college in Kazakhstan should provide the employees, teachers or professors bonuses, those institutions should pay them for extra effort and provide them insurance benefits of family and health (Pegler 2012).
Participation of an educational institution in the induction program of new teachers or professors - the induction programs proceed with the advertising of recruitment (Pugh 2012). The powerful entrants, at this point of time begin the creation of their own desires and impressions regarding the educational institution and the job (Sachau 2011). This can act as an extrinsic factor of the two factor theory. It is the way through which the selection procedure is arranged and the consequent process of recruitment either damages or builds the impression regarding the school or the college in Kazakhstan and the job. Therefore, the management authority of the school or college must have something to say in advertisement framing and also in the process of recruitment and selection (Shashkova 2010). The management authority of the educational institution must take personal interest in the joining dates, the cost of removal, and the family relocation issues of the selected candidates after the decision regarding the candidate is made (Smith et al. 2013). Being noticed by the entire school or the college and the new recruit to be completely involved would assure a persuasive entry in the company (Smith et al. 2013).
Providing feedback or the review constantly to the employees, teachers or professors - the employees or the teachers are very eager to know how they are performing individually in the school or the college (Smith et al. 2013). It can act as an Intrinsic factor in Herzberg’s two factor theory. Therefore, the educational institution requires to give a constructive and regular feedback to the staffs. It would be more acceptable for the employees (Srisawat 2014). The educational institution in Kazakhstan does not base the reviews on any kind of assumptions, but on personal observation and facts (Vincent et al. 2015). The school or college in the country should not indulge in the comparing or favoring an employee with someone else. The management authority of that particular educational institution should sit with their employees or the teachers on weekly or daily basis as well as assure that the feedback or the review happens (Vroom and Deci 2014). It would help in boosting the morale of the employees as well as the teachers and would motivate them a lot (Wellens 2011).
Acknowledging the employees or teachers of an educational institution based on the achievements of them - Some words of praise, a pat on the back and giving a credit note to the employee or the teacher at the personal level with some kind of wide publicity can provide motivation the employees and the teachers very much (Carr 2015). The educational institutions should make it a point for mentioning the outstanding achievements of the employees as well as the professors in the journal of the school or college or in the official newsletters (Morgenroth, Ryan and Peters 2015). It can act as an intrinsic factor in the two factor theory. The educational institution not only should acknowledge the employee and the teacher who fulfills and over exceeds the need of education in the country but also the institution should acknowledge the employee or the teacher with highest contribution (Morgenroth, Ryan and Peters 2015).
Assuring the effective management of time - Having control over time of an educational institution assures that the things are implemented in a correct way (Wrosch and Heckhausen 2015). Therefore, the educational institutions in Kazakhstan should motivate the employees as well as the teachers for having closed time that is few hours while no interruptions are there for the teachers in the performance of the job role of them so that they can be concerned about the job (Herrmann and Brandstätter 2015). It is an extrinsic factor in the two factor theory of motivation established by Herzberg. The institution should plan for the one-one-one sessions of communication with the teachers as well as employees where they can ask their questions and can also get the attention of the institutions. Thereby, they would not realize to be neglected (Gitlin, Winter, and Stanley 2015).
Presence of the techniques of managing stress in an educational institution - A particular school or college should make an environment in that institution and its employees and the teachers can work and teach respectively within the levels of optimum pressure (Sivasubramanian, Aktharsha, and Mohamed 2015). The institution must assure an optimistic attitude to the stress in the school or college in Kazakhstan. This is also an extrinsic factor in the motivational theory. The institution should have the training programs regarding the stress management and assure a follow-up with the teacher and employee meetings on the manner stress can be minimized at the work (Rahman et al. 2015). The institution in the country should provide their teachers and employees a proper autonomy to work. They should recognize the symptoms of stress in teachers and employees and try for dealing with them (Minern 2015).
Usage of the counseling technique - the feelings of the employee and teachers to the work and teaching profession, towards their future, their superiors and their peer can effectively be dealt through the counseling of them (Kim et al. 2015). It gives a support, incentive an environment that makes enable an individual employee and teacher for achieving their identities (Alebouyeh et al. 2015).
Providing employees and teachers the opportunities to learn more - The teachers consistently should learn new skills on their jobs regarding teaching their students (Gemeda and Tynjl 2015). It can also acts as an intrinsic factor. The chances or the opportunities should be provided to them for developing their competencies and skills as well as for making best usage of the skills (Lam 2015). Therefore, the institution should link the goals of the educational institution with the goals of the teachers and professors (Alebouyeh et al. 2015).
Development and encouragement of the creativity - the educational institution in Kazakhstan should encourage the teachers for developing the skills of creativity so as for solving the problems regarding educational system occurred in that country (Ko and Jun 2015). The management authority of the institution should provide the employees and the teachers the resources and time to develop creativity (Phillips 2015). The development and encouragement of theb creativity is the intrinsic factor in the two factor theory of motivation. The institution should invite suggestions and ideas from the teachers as well as the employees. These ideas and the suggestions may result into very productive for that that particular institution (Alolayan and Saidi 2015).
Job enrichment adaptation - the term “Job Enrichment” refers to providing space for the betterment in the quality of the working life (Mehrad, Redzuan and Abdullah 2015). Therefore, it is an extrinsic factor and it also means the facilitation of the people for achieving the success, fame and self-development through a more interesting and challenging job that gives more advancement and promotional chances (Westphal, Marnochan and Chapin 2015). The educational institutions in Kazakhstan should provide the teachers more independence in their jobs, it should engage them in the process of decision-making, show them loyalty and celebrate the achievements of the teachers.
Respecting the group of employees and teachers - Not only an educational institution should respect the rights of employees for expressing and sharing their views but also the time of them. It can act as an extrinsic factor in the motivational theories. It would assure that the staffs respect that institution and the institution time. The school or college should make the employees and the teachers realize that they are respected just nots as staffs but as individuals also (Thibodeaux et al. 2015).
These all importunes are related to the Herzberg two factors theory very soulfully. All of those factors are interconnected as the intrinsic or extrinsic factor those are helpful in motivating the staffs of a certain college.
Motivating the staff group is very important for a school or a college as of the following advantages it gives,
Every attention and concern of needs financial, physical and human resources accomplish the goals of any kind of educational institution. The human resources can only be used by making the complete use of it through the motivation. It can also be implemented by constructing the willingness in the staffs of a school or a college to work or to teach the students. It would help the school or college to secure the best possible resource utilization by that particular institution (Marshall, Mottier, and Lewis 2015).
The level of a normal employee or a teacher does not depend only on the individual abilities and qualifications (Marshall, Mottier, and Lewis 2015). The gap between the willingness and the capability has to be filled that would help in the improvement of the performance level of the teachers and the employees of that school or college to get the best of their performance of work. Therefore, it would result into reduction in the cost of operation, improvement in the style of teaching as well as the increase in productivity and improvement in the overall efficiency (Malik et al. 2015).
The objectives or the goals of a school or a college can be obtained only at the moment when the following below mentioned factors would take place (Gerhart and Fang 2015).
The best possible utilization of the resources must be obtained in the schools or colleges.
A co-operative work environment should be there among the teachers and the normal employees of a school or a college ().
The teachers as well as the employees of a school or a college must be goal-directed and they should respectively teach and work in a purposive manner ().
The objectives of the particular educational institution can be obtained if the co-operation and the co-ordination are obtained which simultaneously can effectively be implemented through the motivation in that particular educational institution ().
The term “Motivation” is a very essential factor that brings the satisfaction of employees (Mehrad, Redzuan and Abdullah 2015). It can be implemented by framing and remembering a plan for incentive for the benefit of the employees as well as the employees because they are serving for the welfare for the students. It can initiate the following mentioned factors:
Promotion opportunities for the teachers as well as the employees worked in a school or a college.
Non-monetary and monetary incentives
In terms of constructing a friendly, cordial environment in a concern, the above mentioned paths should be taken by the management authority of a school or a college. It will help in:
Efficient and effective co-operation that brings the stability.
Educational unrest and dispute in workers would minimize,
The workers would be adaptable towards the changes and there would be no resistance to the change.
It would help to provide a sound and a smooth concern in that the interests in individual would coincide with the interests of that educational institution ()
It would result in the maximization of profit in terms of the increased productivity that is the increased reputation of the school or the college as a renowned educational institution.
The workforce stability in the context of school and college is very much essential from the aspect of goodwill and reputation of a concern (Kim et al. 2015). The teachers and the employees in a certain school or college can be remained loyal towards the school or college only while they have a participation feeling in the management of that school and college. The efficiency and the skills regarding the teaching technique as well as the working procedure of the teachers and the employees of the school or college would be always advantageous towards the students of that educational institution (Thibodeaux et al. 2015). It would result in a good public image in their respective regions that would seek the qualified and competent people into a concern. The older as well as the experienced teacher or employees can create more stability of the school or college in terms of teaching and building the career of several students.
It can be said from the above discussion, that motivation is an internal realization that can only be understood by the management authority of the school or college as the management of the educational institution is in close contact with the teachers and the employees as well (Gitlin, Winter, and Stanley 2015). Desires, wants and needs are co-related and they are the driving forces of acting. The requirements can be well understood by the management authority of the institution and they can accordingly frame the plans of motivation. It can also be said that therefore motivation is a constant procedure as the process of motivation is dependent on the requirements those are unlimited. The process is throughout required to be continued. Therefore, a summary can be made by saying that the motivation is essential for both the teachers and the school or the college (Gitlin, Winter, and Stanley 2015).
The importance of motivation to a teacher or an employee of the school or a college as:
It would help the teachers to achieve their goals regarding the fulfillment of their career ambition.
The job satisfaction always comes with motivation. Hence, teachers are not an exception. They get the job satisfaction while they get enough motivation to teach their students in school or college ().
The motivation would also help in the teacher’s self-development.
A teacher or an employee in a school and in a college always would gain by working with a school or a college.
On the other hand, motivation is essential to a school or a college as:
The more empowered the educational institution is, the more motivated the teachers or the employees are.
The more successful is the business, the more is the tea individual employee contribution and the team work ().
There would be more creativity and adaptability during the time of amendments.
Motivation would lead to a challenging and an optimistic attitude in a certain educational institution.
The two factors model of Herzberg can be utilized for identifying the wide issues or consequences that are needed to be mitigated or resolved in general (Thibodeaux et al. 2015). When the teachers, professors or the other employees of a school or a college are facing a problem of regarding their job security then the management of that school or college can try to address those issues by providing several assurances. This kind of scenario arises while the situation is the combination of low hygiene and high motivation according to the Herzberg’s motional theories. The temporary employees or the temporary teachers whose jobs are not confirmed can suffer from the panic of job security (Das, Kumari and Pradhan 2015). On the other hand, their job is very challenging and exciting but at the same time they are suffering from such panics. Therefore, the management of the college or school should keep focus on to secure the jobs of those employees, teachers and professors. After joining in a school or a college in any designation, teachers or any other employees should not be kept in probation period for a long duration. On the other hand, the credit technology transition in the classroom load of the high schools or universities has reflected originally the teachers of the university. The load is enhanced and the teachers consequently have less time on self-development and research. Moreover, an important part of the teaching materials and the lectures need to be translated into the state language for the relevant literature’s absence. Therefore, according to the theory they would be got better training so that they can be evaluated as the permanent employees or teachers. In this case, the management should have to take a quick action so that employees or the teachers or professors do not have to do face the problem of job security (Thibodeaux et al. 2015).
On the other hand, the teachers, professors, lecturers and the employees should get their proper increment at time in a yearly basis in terms of maintaining high hygiene according to the two factor theory. Therefore the management authority of a certain school or college in Kazakhstan should have to maintain a strict principle to provide the facility of increment towards the teachers, professors and the other employees. Therefore, they would be motivated as well as they would not be unsure regarding their salary increment (Westphal, Marnocha, and Chapin 2015).
Every employee, teacher or professor should get the facility of mediclaim so that whenever the employees or the family members of them would suffer from some critical physical illness then they do not have to be worried about their financial support. This fact also falls under the maintenance of the high hygiene in accordance with the two factors theory. Therefore, the management authority of every school or college in Kazakhstan should provide this particular facility towards the employees, the teachers and the professors (Thibodeaux et al. 2015).
There are several limitations or disadvantages of the Herzberg theory of motivation those are also applicable in this scenario. These are as follows,
According to the assumption made by Herzberg, there is a correlation between productivity and satisfaction. However, Herzberg mainly stressed on the satisfaction in the research conducted by him and ignored productivity. But in reality, with the increase in the job satisfaction, the productivity also increases (Das, Kumari and Pradhan 2015). In the context of the staff development in any school or college, it is obvious that if a teacher is satisfied with his or her responsibility and job then the teacher would definitely teach his or her students better than before in terms of keeping the best combined situation of high motivation and high hygiene according to Herzberg’s two factor theory.
In this context of staff development, the reliability of the theory is uncertain. The analysis of this theory is required to be implemented by the raters. These raters may ruin the findings by making an analysis of the similar response in different manner (Das, Kumari and Pradhan 2015). According to Sivasubramanian, Aktharsha, and Mohamed (2015), there are several causes for which the low quality of teaching in the Kazakhstan Universities have been obtained. The aging of personnel, young teacher’s outflow from the sphere of university, the competence inconsistency of the high school teachers, the complexity of the education of intellectual and scientific competencies of teachers and many other are those causes. All of the challenges encountered in higher education of Kazakhstan, reflect that intellectual incentives and promotion mechanisms, the lack of material, competent personnel policy, strict regulation of teachers in Kazakhstan universities has led to the decline of the status of the teacher.
Any comprehensive measure of the satisfaction was not utilized. School staffs may find their jobs acceptable in spite of the matter that they may object or hate a part of their jobs. Therefore, in this scenario, the applicability of the theory became irrelevant to the teachers because the most of the professors are satisfied with their part of the job of teaching students. Hence a contradiction has been taken place with respect to the theory in the context of staff development in a college (Kissel, Whitman and Reid 2014).
The Herzberg’s two factor theory is composed of bias as it has been made based on the employee’s natural reaction while they are enquired the satisfaction sources and the dissatisfaction sources at the workplace (Kissel, Whitman and Reid 2014). Therefore, they would then blame the dissatisfaction of the outer factors like peer relationship, company policies and salary structure. The employees would also give the credit to themselves for the factor of satisfaction at the workplace. However, this factor is not applicable in the context of the staff development in a college because the professors in any educational institution like college do not generally blame the dissatisfaction on the external factors. On the other hand, most often, it has been noticed that the dissatisfaction regarding job is less for the teachers (Sivasubramanian, Aktharsha, and Mohamed 2015). Therefore, the Herzberg two factors theory has to face a disadvantageous situation in order to implement the concept in this context of staff development in a school or a college.
The overall study has presented an evidence of the broader applicability of the Herzberg’s motivational theory in the context of the staff development in the institutional improvements. The study has been made in the context of Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is a country where, the lack of teachers, lack of teachers are the main issues those are resisting the educational system of the country. Therefore, to make an improvement in the staff development in the educational institutions, the management authority of the institutions should properly utilize Herzberg’s motivational Hygiene theory. The two factor theory is very advantageous in this case. The implication of this theory would lead to the improvement in the staff development by providing several facilities to the teachers, professors, employees and the lecturers in the colleges schools and in the universities in that country. The management authority of the several renowned institutions in the country must have to utilize the applications of the theory those are mentioned above in terms of motivating the staffs to work properly so that the educational situation of the country can overcome the current situation of education.
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