The Problem/Solution essay asks you to consider a topic using Cause and Effect. We are familiar with this technique. Finding the Causes (Problem) and the Effects (Possible solutions) of a topic or situation are important components of academic work. The western world operates under this type of understanding. This idea has been used since the time of Greek philosophical dominance and has continued to be used and developed by countless philosophers, academics and non-academics throughout the history of the world. This technique asks us to consider many angles of a topic. Clearly analyzing and articulating the causes and effects of a situation helps a civilization to understand how a situation came to be, how improvements can be established and how to avoid potential negative repetition. Also, underst ding auses and effects ws an individual. to offer solutions. The Assignment:
Your topic is HEALTH. Starting with this general topic, you must narrow it down t explore a specific problem when in comes to Health. We will be reading essays exploring AIDS and eating disorders which are great examples of narrowed down Health topics. After selecting your narrowed topic you must explore the causes of it. This should take a large chunk of tine. Next, you must explore the effects/solution. Again, this should take some time. An important aspect of this assignment is the counterargument. You must have a source to argue with, ideally with both your causes and effects, however, an effective strategy could include focusing on one. In thinking about organizing your paper, a successful essay could look like this:
1. Introduction (with a thesis!)
2. The Problem 3.
5. Conclusion. However you decide to organize your paper, you will need outside sources for both support and argument.
AIDS and HIV Virus
Health is the metabolic and functional efficiency of the living organisms. Health is defined as the capabilities of the individuals or the communities to adapt and manage themselves during the social, physical or mental changes. The living beings often face the health issues due to malfunctioning of the health metabolisms or organs. The study will specifically focus on the causes and effects of AIDS that affect both the physical and mental health. The study will also explore the argumentative discussion based on the solution of these diseases for the betterment of the healthy lives. The thesis statement of this study is to explore the causes and effects of AIDS on living beings and identify the probable solutions to eliminate such health issues. Furthermore, it will discuss the probable arguments and counterarguments related to the causes of AIDS in the human body.
One of the most effective health issues that people face is AIDS, which is the last stage of HIV infection. Human immunodeficiency virus abbreviated as HIV is the type of virus that directly affects the natural defense system and immunity systems of the human beings. It is to be implied that the human body requires a string immunity system that helps in fighting off diseases (Smith et al. 241). It is often noted that the people who are affected with AIDS have a lower number of CD4+ cells that may cause cancers (Morlat 1181). It is not necessary that AIDS affect the person who has the HIV virus. AIDS is generally the progression of HIV virus and waits until it reaches to the final stage. CD4 cells are the specific types of the blood cell that helps in fighting of the diseases. When the individuals lack such cells in their body, they become weaker to protect the illness. The virus is much infectious and affects other individuals as well. HIV virus is transmitted in numerous ways, such as by having sex, from blood transfusions, during pregnancy or delivery, through breast-feeding, and by sharing needles.
HIV infections are generally created by the human immunodeficiency virus. Mostly, it is affecting the human body by making contact with infected blood, vagina fluid or semen. It is explained that many people get the HIV virus by having the unprotected sex with the person who is already affected by the HIV virus (Blair 1323). In fact, it has been noticed that when one person I sharing the same needle of drugs, the person may get the HIV infections. The acceptance of HIV theory is widespread among the people. Hence, the arguments regarding the causes of AIDS are sometimes ignored. However, It was pointed out that HIV alone cannot be the reason for creating AIDS (Van der Helm et al. 791). A mother can be affected during the pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding her baby. It is to be indicated that HIV does not survive well outside the body for which it cannot be spread by casual contacts. When the HIV virus affects the body, it starts destroying the CD4+ cells that helps the body to fight the diseases and infectious elements.
Symptoms of HIV and AIDS
At the earlier stage, HIV may not create the symptoms. Sometimes people confuse the HIV symptoms with flu or mono. However, the HIV symptoms include headache, fever, swollen glands, sore throat, joint pain, and skin rash. Once the person is first infected, the symptoms start appearing from a few days or several weeks (Grinsztejn et al. 281). Even the initial phase of eliminating the disease, it may reappear after few years. At the sever form, the symptoms include extreme tiredness, fever, swollen lymph nodes, night sweats, and weight loss. The virus progresses widely between the individuals and it may be caused due to different factors. In many of the cases, it has been observed that the virus carries on damaging or developing the human organs (Jarvis et al. 731). However, if the HIV infection is left untreated, it may take the vulnerable form of health issues. The first diagnosis is made through the proper blood test that appears the specific virus on the screen. The test result will always stay positive if the HIV virus affects the blood. It is important to diagnose the problem at the initial stage of recognizing the symptoms. It is true that currently, AIDS is a non-curable disease (Deeks et al. 631). However, the treatment can only slow down the course of conditions. It also improves the quality of lives, but there is no specific treatment to cure the disease. There are still some of the arguments presented in identifying the major reasons behind such non-curable disease.
Some of the counter arguments are presented in denying the actual cause of AIDS. It is stated that in the early 1980’s, the science was quite messy. It was noticed that different scientists explored diverse reasons for the formulation of this disease. It is often noted that the people who are affected with AIDS have a lower number of CD4+ cells that may cause cancers (Xu et al. 4351). It is not necessary that AIDS affect the person who has the HIV virus. In the early stage, it was noticed that many scientists did not support the HIV theory as the major cause for AIDS. Many scientists proved that the retrovirus is the major reason for AIDS. The RNA of the retrovirus is utilized for creating DNA with the help of the enzyme called ‘reverse transcriptase’. This enzyme is incorporated into the T-cell DNA, which is the host cell (Curtis, Claire, and Caroline Davis 15). The acceptance of HIV theory is widespread among the people. Hence, the arguments regarding the causes of AIDS are sometimes ignored. However, It was pointed out that HIV alone cannot be the reason for creating AIDS (Liu et al. 430). It is somewhat difficult to find the HIV virus in a patient who has been suffering from AIDS.
Treatment of HIV and AIDS
CD4 cells are the specific types of the blood cell that helps in fighting of the diseases. When the individuals lack such cells in their body, they become weaker to protect the illness. It can be implied that the HIV virus does not really exists and it does not cause AIDS (Say et al. 323). In Africa, diseases are occurred due to the recognizable poverty and poor living condition of the people. Many of the denialists argued that the intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) is the major reason for AIDS whereas HIV is considered as the harmless virus. In fact, Peter Duesberg, the famous denialist supported this statement. Another denialist group suggested that ARV (antiretroviral drugs) is the creator of AIDS. Hence, there are the numerous arguments presented regarding the cause of AIDS (Curtis, Claire, and Caroline Davis 32). However, it is to be stated that the arguments presented by the denialists can be harmful for the individuals since it was proved that HIV is the major reason for AIDS. In fact, it was pointed out that 99% of the people who have been suffering from AIDS are diagnosed with HIV virus. It is noted that AIDS is always as the effects of infectious HIV virus. Some of the scientists have presented their counterarguments by stating that HIV isolation is necessary. The RNA of the retrovirus is utilized for creating DNA with the help of the enzyme called ‘reverse transcriptase’. When the HIV virus affects the body, it starts destroying the CD4+ cells that helps the body to fight the diseases and infectious elements (Deeks et al. 1525). AIDS have a lower number of CD4+ cells that may cause cancers. This enzyme is incorporated into the T-cell DNA, which is the host cell It is stated that the virus is generally an obligatory intracellular that replaces the particle of particular chemical and physical properties (Hatzenbuehler et al. 831). The acceptance of HIV theory is widespread among the people. Hence, the arguments regarding the causes of AIDS are sometimes ignored. However, It was pointed out that HIV alone cannot be the reason for creating AIDS. In fact, it has been noticed that when one person I sharing the same needle of drugs, the person may get the HIV infections. A mother can be affected during the pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding her baby. Therefore, the first stage of argument is proving the existence of a retrovirus. The retrovirus infects the cells and vital organs of the human body, which prevents the body functioning to protect diseases.
Counterarguments Regarding the Cause of AIDS
The study defines the causes and effects of the health related issues. It is noted that the people are sometimes influenced with the perception regarding the causes of health issues. The study therefore focuses on the causes and effects of AIDS that affect both the physical and mental health. The study has even identified the argumentative discussion based on the solution of these diseases for the betterment of the healthy lives. Some of the counter arguments are presented in denying the actual cause of AIDS. CD4 cells are the specific types of the blood cell that helps in fighting of the diseases. When the individuals lack such cells in their body, they become weaker to protect the illness. However, it is still necessary to find the right solution before treating people who are suffering from eating disorders and AIDS.
Blair, Melissa Estes. "Tamar W. Carroll. Mobilizing New York: AIDS, Antipoverty, and Feminist Activism." The American Historical Review 121.4 (2016): 1323-1324.
Deeks, Steven G., Russell Tracy, and Daniel C. Douek. "Systemic effects of inflammation on health during chronic HIV infection." Immunity 39.4 (2013): 633-645.
Deeks, Steven G., Sharon R. Lewin, and Diane V. Havlir. "The end of AIDS: HIV infection as a chronic disease." The Lancet 382.9903 (2013): 1525-1533.
Grinsztejn, Beatriz, et al. "Effects of early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection: results from the phase 3 HPTN 052 randomised controlled trial." The Lancet infectious diseases 14.4 (2014): 281-290.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L., Jo C. Phelan, and Bruce G. Link. "Stigma as a fundamental cause of population health inequalities." American journal of public health 103.5 (2013): 813-821.
Jarvis, Joseph N., et al. "Determinants of mortality in a combined cohort of 501 patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: implications for improving outcomes." Clinical infectious diseases 58.5 (2014): 736-745.
Liu, Li, et al. "Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000–13, with projections to inform post-2015 priorities: an updated systematic analysis." The Lancet 385.9966 (2015): 430-440.
Morlat, Philippe, et al. "Causes of death among HIV-infected patients in France in 2010 (national survey): trends since 2000." Aids 28.8 (2014): 1181-1191.
Say, Lale, et al. "Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis." The Lancet Global Health 2.6 (2014): e323-e333.
Smith, Colette J., et al. "Trends in underlying causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011 (D: A: D): a multicohort collaboration." The Lancet 384.9939 (2014): 241-248.
Van der Helm, Jannie, et al. "Effect of HCV infection on cause-specific mortality after HIV seroconversion, before and after 1997." Gastroenterology 144.4 (2013): 751-760.
Xu, Huanbin, et al. "Persistent simian immunodeficiency virus infection causes ultimate depletion of follicular Th cells in AIDS." The Journal of Immunology 195.9 (2015): 4351-4357.
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