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The process of metabolism

1.  Even though the human body is incredibly complex, it does have an underlying less complicated organisation. Briefly describe the 6 (six) levels of structural organisation of the human body in order from the smallest structural unit to the largest (in 130-150 words).

2.  There are various life processes that tell us that human beings are alive. Describe the following life processes in your own words (in 30-50 words each).
2.1 Organisation:
2.2 Processes of metabolism:

2.3 Nutrition:
2.4 Biological maturation:
2.5 Inheritance:
2.6 Ageing:

3.  Briefly describe the overall structure and functions of the following components of the human body.
3.1 Cell  
3.2 Skeletal muscle tissue 


4.  Briefly describe the structure and functions of the cardio-vascular system (in 60-80 words).

5.  How does the respiratory system work with the cardio-vascular system? (In 60-80 words).

6.  Briefly describe the structure and functions of the muscular system (in 60-80 words).

7.  Briefly describe the structure and functions of the skeletal system (in 60-80 words).

8.  Briefly describe the structure and functions of the endocrine system (in 60-80 words).

9.  Briefly describe the structure and functions of the nervous system (in 60-80 words).

10.  How do the endocrine and nervous systems work together to act as a communication system for the human body? (In 60-80 words).

11.  Briefly describe the structure and functions of the digestive system (in 60-80 words).

12.  Briefly describe the structure and functions of the urinary system (in 60-80 words).

13.  Briefly describe how the urinary system, respiratory system, digestive system and integumentary system contribute to excretion of waste products from the human body.

14.  Briefly describe the structure and functions of the male and female reproductive systems (in 80-100 words).

15.  Briefly describe the interaction of the reproductive and endocrine systems (in 60-80 words).

16.  Briefly describe the structure and functions of the integumentary system (in 60-80 words).

17.  Briefly describe the structure and functions of the lymphatic system (in 60-80 words).

18.  Describe the 3 (three) lines of defence provided by our immune system (in 80-100 words).

19.  Briefly describe the structure of the human eye and how the eyes contribute to our vision (in 80-100 words).

20.  Briefly describe the structure of human ear and how the ears contribute to our hearing (in 80-100 words).

21.  Explain the ear mechanism that controls the balance and equilibrium of the body (in 60-80 words).

22.  Briefly describe organs associated with and processes underpinning the sense of smell in humans (in 60-80 words).

23.  Various health issues of mouth and teeth are listed below. Briefly describe the cause and key features of these diseases. (in 30-50 words each)

23.1 Dental caries:

23.2 Periodontal disease:
23.3 Halitosis:

23.4 Dry mouth:
23.5 Denture stomatitis:

24.  Imagine that you are going to administer a Paracetamol tablet as a pain killer to a resident prior to providing wound care. Identify the cautions and contraindications you would look for in relation to the medication being administered.

25.  List 3 (three) physical, mental and emotional causes of disease.

25.1 Physical causes:
25.2 Mental and emotional causes:

26.  Describe the key features of the following agents/factors causing diseases (hint: what do they actually do to human beings?) (in 30-50 words each):
26.1 Pathogens:
26.2 Inherited genetic conditions:
26.3 Trauma:

26.4 Toxins:
26.5 Environmental hazards:
26.6 Nutritional factors:
26.7 Impacts caused by health interventions (Iatrogenic):
26.8 Degenerative changes in vital organ systems:
26.9 The loss of normal control mechanisms such as the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells:

27.  Briefly describe organs associated with and processes underpinning the sense of taste in humans (in 60-80 words).

28.  The major organ systems and their vital components are given in the template. Please complete the file from the Handouts for the unit and upload in the "Attach Files" section of the question. Identify one (1) common disorder affecting each organ or component and list two (2) signs and symptoms of each disorder, problem or complaint.
Organ System Organs / Components Common disorders, problems and complaints Two (2) signs and symptoms
Cardiovascular system Heart E.g. Congestive cardiac failure Shortness of breath, edema and fatigue.

29.  The human body strives to adjust to conditions that are optimal for survival. Answer the following questions on homeostasis.

29.1 Describe the concept of homeostasis in your own words (in 50-70 words).
29.2 Briefly describe the relationship homeostatic imbalance and disease (in 50-70 words).
29.3 The control of body temperature in humans is a good example of homeostasis in a biological system. Briefly explain the process of body temperature regulation (in 80-100 words).

30.  Who would you refer to for any potentially serious issues in the physical health status of a client under your care ?

31.  You are required to insert a naso gastric tube for a resident. What cautions and contraindications will you look for prior to using Xylocaine jelly as a lubricant during tube insertion ? 

The process of metabolism
  1. There are six important levels of structural organization in the human body. The first one is the chemical level where atoms (hydrogen and oxygen) bond together to compose molecules which have three-dimensional structures. Then is the cellular level where different types of molecules can combine for forming fluid as well as organelles of the body cells. Then is the tissue level where a community of similar cells come together to form the body tissues (Rizzo 2015). This is then followed by the next level that is the organ level. Here, two or more than two different tissues are seen to combine for the formation of organs within the body. This is then followed by the organ system level where two or more organs are seen to work together for performing different functions of the body (Shier et al. 2017). This is followed by the last level called the organismal level. In this level, many organs will be seen to work harmoniously together helping to perform the functions of body.
  2. Organization:Proper organization of substances helps in developing a human body and allowing for proper physiological function. Atoms organize to form molecules that then organize to form cells. Cells then organize to form tissues that are then organized to form organs. Organs then combine to form organ system that then organizes to form organisms.

Process of metabolism: metabolism is the term that helps in describing all chemical reactions involved for maintaining the living condition of cells in organisms. This catabolism involves breakdown of molecules for obtaining energy. Another is anabolism that involves synthesis of compounds that are need by cells (Sekel et al. 2015). 


Nutrition: it can be described as the science that helps for interpreting the interaction of nutrients that are present in food and thereby helps in overall growth and maintenance of physiological functions of the body

Biological maturation: it is the procedure by which organisms gradually progress from childhood to adolescence to adulthood by reaching a mature state. This is based on two components that are timing and tempo.

Inheritance: the process of acquisition of traits that comes from parents to offspring genetically is called inheritance

Aging: aging is the procedure of getting older and can be described as the procedure of sequential as well as progressive change that results in diseases, debility and death of organisms (Poredos 2016).

  1. Cells are round or oval structures that have many organelles within them. These organelles remain suspended in the cytoplasm of the cells that is the basic matrix. Besides the cytoplasm, there is the nucleus that is called the brain of the cells and directs the activities of the cells. Each of the organelles are seen to have their own functions within the cells which ultimately helps the cells to survive and perform different physiological function of the body (Keller 2015).

Skeletal muscle tissue are made p of hundreds as well as thousand muscle fibers that remain bundles together as well as wrapped in connective tissue covering. Each of the muscle is then seen to be surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called epimysium. Muscles are surrounded and separated by fascia, connective tissue that lie outside the epimysisum. They help to maintain skeletal movement like locomotion and maintenance of posture.

  1. The cardiovascular system is mainly seen to comprise of the heart, blood vessels as well as blood. This system is seen to have three important functions that are transporting of nutrients, oxygen as well as hormones to different cells throughout the body. It also helps in removal of different metabolic wastes such as carbon dioxide, nitrogenous wastes and others (Reece and Rowe 2017).
  2. The respiratory system takes in the oxygen from outside and this oxygen reaches to the lungs to the alveolar capillaries. From these alveolar capillaries, the oxygen is absorbed by blood from the alveolar capillaries. The blood then carries this oxygen to different parts of the body. From these organs, the oxygen in the blood is converted to carbon dioxide and this carbon dioxide is again carried by the blood to the lungs of the respiratory system. From here, the carbon dioxide id released to the outside.
  3. The muscular system is comprised of skeletal muscles that are coarse, smooth muscles that are spindle shaped, cardiac muscles with intercalated discs, tendons, ligaments as well as adipose tissues (Denbow 2015). All these result in working in coordination with each other mainly helping in different types of movements and locomotion. It protects organs, cardiac muscles helps in pumping of blood, smooth muscles help in digestion, peristalsis, blood flow and many others.
  4. The skeletal system is divided in two divisions like the axial division that comprises of the vertebral column, rib cage, skulls as well as associated bones. The other is the appendicular region that comprises of the shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle as well as bones of the upper and the lower limns. They are mainly seen to perform three important functions like providing support to many internal organs and the body, facilitation of the movement, production of blood cells, protection of the internal organs and even storing and releasing minerals and fats (Anatomia 2016).
  5. The main components of the human endocrine system are seen to comprise of structures like hypothalamus, thyroid, pituitary gland, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, pineal body as well as reproductive glands. The system is made up of different glands which are responsible for producing and secreting different types of hormones as well as different chemical substances. These mainly help in regulating the activity of organs as well as cells. These hormones are seen to regulate growth, metabolism and sexual development of the body and its function.
  6. The nervous system has toe important parts. The first one is central nervous system that is formed of brain and spinal cord. CSF or cerebrospinal fluid protects them from energy protects them. Another is the peripheral nervous system that mainly connects the cns to different parts of the body (Anathomia 2016). The sensory nerves collect information and carry them to central nervous system. This information is processed and interpreted. The motor nerves then carry this processed information to the muscles and the glands of the body.
  7. The hypothalamus is the part of the nervous system that helps in relaying information from the brain to other organs. Again, this hypothalamus is the part of the endocrine system that on receiving negative feedback from the excessive level of hormone in the blood causes the pituitary to restrict its release of hormone so that the organs do not release their respective hormone anymore (Gorvaschecky et al. 2015).
  8. The digestive system mainly comprises of the digestive tracts along with other associated organs. These are the salivary glands, pharynx, stomach, esophagus, large intestine, small intestine, rectum and accessory digestive organs like liver, pancreas and gallbladder. The system mainly helps in breaking down the ingested food into a number of particles by which they are easily absorbed by the body. Some nutrients that are absorbed helps in growth, development and maintenance of physiological functions (Finney et al. 2018).
  9. The urinary system of the body is mainly comprised of urinary tract, kidneys, ureters, bladders as well as urethra. The main function of the urinary system is the elimination of wastes from the body as well as regulation of blood volume and blood pressure. It also controls electrolytes and metabolite level in blood and regulate blood ph in human body.
  10. The respiratory system helps in release of carbon dioxide from the lungs to outside. Urinary system results in releasing of toxic metabolite wastes of the body through the form of urine. Digestive system helps in releasing the undigested food products as fecal matter through anus. The integumentary system helps in releasing certain toxic substances in form of sweat and sebum during perspiration (Scanlon and Sanders 2014).
  11. The main reproductive structures of the system in males are the penis as well as testicles, epidydimis, vas deferens and accessory glands. These help in the production of semen and sperm. The female reproductive system mainly consists of uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the uterus. The sperms released by the males during intercourse helps in fertilizing the ovum of the females resulting in development of embryo. This embryo is fixed on the uterus where it grows until the time of parturition.
  12. The endocrine system plays an important role in reproduction. Many hormones which when releases from gonads of both males and females, helps in menstrual cycles and during pregnancy. The hormones also help information of sperms and others.
  13. The integumentary system is mainly seen to comprise of the skin, hair, nails, glands as well as nerves. The main function of the integumentary system is to provide a barrier for providing protection to the body from the various aspects of the outside world. The other functions mainly include retaining of the body fluids and protecting the body against any diseases (Khurrana et al. 2017). It also involves elimination of waste products as well as regulation of the body temperature.
  14. The lymphatic system mainly comprises of the lymphatic vessels just like the circulatory system. It also comprises of lymphoid tissue, thymus, lymph nodes and spleen. The lymphatic system mainly helps in the removal of the interstitial fluid from the tissues and helps in carrying white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes on the bones (Serlin et al. 2015). It also helps in absorption of fatty acids and fats as chyle from the digestive systems and transports them accordingly.
  15. The first line of defense mainly includes physical as well as chemical barriers. They are always ready and prepared to defend the body from any sort of infection. This includes skin, tear, cilia, stomach acid and others. The second line of defense is the group of cells, tissues as well as other organs that work together for protecting the body. The third line of defense is the white blood cells producing antibodies. They recognize antigens that are present in foreign bodies and results in destruction of such foreign bodies.
  16. The main structure of the eye comprises of the tear layer, cornea, anterior chamber, lens, iris, vitreous humor, retina, choroid, sclera, optic nerves, extraocular muscles and others. The light enters the eye through cornea. The iris controls how much light would enter the back of the eye (Beachey 2018). The lens is just behind the pupil and helps in mainly focusing on close as well as approaching objects. The light then makes it ways to the retina. It converts the images in electronic signals and sends them to optic nerve. This then sends signals to visual cortext of the brain thereby creating sense of sight.
  17. The ear has three important parts. The first part is called the outer ear that consists of the pinna, eardrum and ear canal. The middle ear comprises of the ossicles like the malleus, stapes and the incus and the eardrum. The inner ear comprise of the cochlea, auditory nerve and connections with brain. The sound waves are seen to enter the ear canal making the eardrum vibrate (Van ptte 2016). This results in movement of the tiny bones of the ossicles in the middle ear. The last bone called the stapes is responsible for the knocking of the membrane window of the cochlea thereby making the fluid in the cochlea move. This fluid movement then helps in triggering the response in the hearing nerve.
  18. Two structures in the brain help in maintaining balance and equilibrium. Three semicircular canals are interconnected and positioned at right angles to each other. The vestibule is the second part that consists of the saccule and utricle that connects the semicircular canals and the cochlea. These structures collect the information and then send the information to the brainstem, cerebellum as well as spinal cord. Therefore, they help in maintaining position of the body (Ramaswamy and Markram 2015).
  19. Vaporized organ molecules that float in the air are seen to reach the nostrils that gradually dissolve on the mucus present on the roof of the nostril. Specialized olfactory receptor neurons present underneath the mucus on the olfactory epithelium detect these odors. These neurons then transmit the information to the olfactory bulbs that are present in the back of the nose. These bulbs have sensory receptors that are parts of the brain and end messages to the brain. The brain centers perceive the odor and thereby access the memories that help us to remember places, persons, events and others.
  20. Dental caries; this is tooth decay or cavities. Specific bacteria cause this by producing acids that destroy the enamel of the tooth and dentin layer is exposed. 


Periodontal diseases; this occurs when the structures which hold the teeth are affected by infections like gums, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. It leads to painful chewing problems, sore, bleeding gums and others.

Halitosis; this occurs when situations of chronic bad breath arise. This is mainly when food particles are left in mouth and not washed properly resulting in bacterial infection. Brushing, flossing, and hydration can help in overcoming the situation of poor oral hygiene.(Chen et al. 2017)

Dry mouth; this occurs when the moth gets dry as the salivary glands do not make enough salivary glands. Thos occurs due to aging or certain medications.

Denture stomatitis; condition when redness and mild inflammation occurs in the oral mucous membrane just beneath the denture

  1. Before administering the paracetamol medications, healthcare professionals should look for presence of allergy of any of the substances present within the paracetamol. Professionals should also be careful that whether the patient has kidney or liver problems or not. Dehydrated and malnourished people should not be given paracetamols. Patients with alcohol dependence should also not take paracetamols.
  2. Physical causes of disease include improper diet intake, improper hygiene and sedentary lifestyles.  Mental and emotional causes include improper financial stability, social exclusion and loss of relationships.
  3. Pathogens; are microorganisms which either release toxins in body like bacteria or damage cells by virus. They are agents that disrupt the normal physiology of the systems.

Inherited genetic conditions are mainly de to altered genes from parents that increase the risks of developing a particular condition in the offspring.

Trauma is the emotional shock resulting from stressful events of physical injuries that may lead to both mental and physical problems and disorders.

Nutrition

Toxins are mainly poison of plant as well as animal origin that mainly is derived from microorganisms acting as antigen in body. They disrupt the physiological process resulting in occurrence of disorders (Levin et al. 2015). 


Environmental hazards can be described as the substance, state as well as event that has the potential to threaten the surrounding environment which in turn affect health of the people like pollution and natural disasters.

Nutritional factors can cause many disorders when diet intake is improper like diabetes mellitus, obesity, weight loss, malnutrition, iron deficiency, overweight and others.

Impacts caused by health interventions

Degenerative changes in vital organs are the result of continuous process based on degenerative cell changes that affect tissues as well as organs. This may be due to normal bodily wear as well as improper lifestyle choices.

The loss of normal control mechanisms such as the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells: metastasis may result in growth of tumour cells in other part when chunks of cells breaks from primary site and goes to other sites of the body resulting in spread of cancer and poor quality life of patient.

  1. There are numerous wart like bumps on the mucous membrane of the tongue called the taste papillae. The substances producing the taste in the food is transformed to nerve signal, this is mainly done when food activates the nerve cells by changing protein in the walls of the sensory cells these changes cases the cells to transmit messenger which activates the nerve cells. These nerve cells then pass information to the brain for perception of flavour.
  2. Could not be done as handout was not given
  3. 1Homeostasis  is the characteristics of human physiological system by which a stable temperature and environment is maintained within the body in order to maintain a stable, relatively constant condition of the organs and helping in the smooth occurrence of

physiological functions.

29.2 An example can be used here to discuss the answer. Aging often results in occurrence of homeostatic imbalance in the body as control mechanisms of the different feedback loops are seen to lose their efficiency. This results in occurrence of heart failure. 


29.3  When the body is too hot, it decreases heat production and thereby increases loss of heat. This is done though peripheral vasodilatation. When vessels dilate, warmed blood runs from core of the body to the skin and loss of heat occurs through radiation, convection, and conduction. When body gets too cold, it causes heat production and decreases loss of heat mainly by vasoconstriction (Farage and Maibach 2016).

  1. I would refer the client to general practitioner for his guidance.
  2. The following knowledge is important for the professional to know. The contraindications or cautions are noted;

Hypersensitive to amide anesthetics, traumatized mucosa, teething pain, caution in hepatitis impairment, shock, heart block, rash, skin temperature, sepsis, elderly or pediatric patients and many others. 

References:

Anathomia, M.D.L., 2016. Anatomy & Physiology.

Beachey, W., 2018. Respiratory care anatomy and physiology: foundations for clinical practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Chen, H.T., Ng, M., Kirubarajan, A., Kuo, K., Ball, A.K., Bayer, I., Helli, P.B. and Wainman, B.C., 2017. A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Use of Animations and Interactivity in Anatomy and Physiology Education. The FASEB Journal, 31(1 Supplement), pp.582-16.

Denbow, D.M., 2015. Gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. In Sturkie's Avian Physiology (Sixth Edition) (pp. 337-366).

Farage, M.A. and Maibach, H.I. eds., 2016. The vulva: anatomy, physiology, and pathology. CRC Press.

Finney, F.T., Cata, E., Holmes, J.R. and Talusan, P.G., 2018. Anatomy and Physiology of the Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joints. Foot and ankle clinics, 23(1), pp.1-7.

Gorbachevsky, S.V., Shmalts, A.A. and Zaets, S.B., 2015. Anatomy & Physiology.

Keller, M., 2015. The science of grapevines: anatomy and physiology. Academic Press.

Khurana, A.K., Khurana, I., Khurana, A.K. and Khurana, B., 2017. Anatomy and physiology of eye. CBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt Limited.

Levin, R.J., 2015. Anatomy and Physiology in the Male. ABC of sexual health. Oxford: Wiley, pp.7-11.

Poredos, P., 2016. Anatomy & Physiology.

Ramaswamy, S. and Markram, H., 2015. Anatomy and physiology of the thick-tufted layer 5 pyramidal neuron. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 9, p.233.

Reece, W.O. and Rowe, E.W., 2017. Functional anatomy and physiology of domestic animals. John Wiley & Sons.

Rizzo, D.C., 2015. Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology. Cengage Learning.

Scanlon, V.C. and Sanders, T., 2014. Essentials of anatomy and physiology. FA Davis.

Seikel, J.A., Drumright, D.G. and King, D.W., 2015. Anatomy & physiology for speech, language, and hearing. Nelson Education.

Serlin, Y., Shelef, I., Knyazer, B. and Friedman, A., 2015, February. Anatomy and physiology of the blood–brain barrier. In Seminars in cell & developmental biology (Vol. 38, pp. 2-6). Academic Press.

Shier, D.N., Butler, J. and Lewis, R., 2017. Hole's essentials of human anatomy & physiology. McGraw-Hill Education.

VanPutte, C., 2016. Seeley's anatomy & physiology. McGraw-Hill Higher Education

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